Publications by authors named "Carmen Jimenez"

53 Publications

Grain-boundary segregation of magnesium in doped cuprous oxide and impact on electrical transport properties.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7788. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Département de Physique, CESAM/Q-MAT, SPIN, Université de Liège, 4000, Liège, Belgium.

In this study, we report the segregation of magnesium in the grain boundaries of magnesium-doped cuprous oxide (CuO:Mg) thin films as revealed by atom probe tomography and the consequences of the dopant presence on the temperature-dependent Hall effect properties. The incorporation of magnesium as a divalent cation was achieved by aerosol-assisted metal organic chemical vapour deposition, followed by thermal treatments under oxidizing conditions. We observe that, in comparison with intrinsic cuprous oxide, the electronic transport is improved in CuO:Mg with a reduction of resistivity to 13.3 ± 0.1 Ω cm, despite the reduction of hole mobility in the doped films, due to higher grain-boundary scattering. The Hall carrier concentration dependence with temperature showed the presence of an acceptor level associated with an ionization energy of 125 ± 9 meV, similar to the energy value of a large size impurity-vacancy complex. Atom probe tomography shows a magnesium incorporation of 5%, which is substantially present at the grain boundaries of the CuO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86969-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032787PMC
April 2021

Planar and Transparent Memristive Devices Based on Titanium Oxide Coated Silver Nanowire Networks with Tunable Switching Voltage.

Small 2021 Apr 7:e2007344. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, Grenoble, F-38000, France.

Threshold switching devices are fundamental active elements in more than Moore approaches, integrating the new generation of non-volatile memory devices. Here, the authors report an in-plane threshold resistive switching device with an on/off ratio above 10 , a low resistance state of 10 to 100 kΩ and a high resistance state of 10 to 100 GΩ. Our devices are based on nanocomposites of silver nanowire networks and titanium oxide, where volatile unipolar threshold switching takes place across the gap left by partially spheroidized nanowires. Device reversibility depends on the titanium oxide thickness, while nanowire network density determines the threshold voltage, which can reach as low as 0.16 V. The switching mechanism is explained through percolation between metal-semiconductor islands, in a combined tunneling conduction mechanism, followed by a Schottky emission generated via Joule heating. The devices are prepared by low-cost, atmospheric pressure, and scalable techniques, enabling their application in printable, flexible, and transparent electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007344DOI Listing
April 2021

Social status and friendship in peer victimization trajectories.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2021 Jan-Apr;21(1):100191. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.

Most studies have evaluated victimization at a single time point, making it difficult to determine the impact of the time during which an individual is victimized. This longitudinal study aims to examine the differences in the levels of social status (social preference and perceived popularity) and friendship in peer victimization trajectories, and to analyse if there were changes over time in the levels of social status and friendship in each trajectory. The final sample was composed of 1,239 students (49% girls) with ages between 9 and 18 ( = 12.23, = 1.73), from 22 schools in southern Spain. Peer nominations were collected. The General Linear Model results associated the highest levels of social preference, perceived popularity and friendship with the sporadic victimization profile and the lowest levels of these dimensions with the stable profile. The results are discussed based on important personal aspects of stable victimization that confirms social rejection, unpopularity, and the low social support that victimization causes. This contribution is discussed in terms of health and social welfare in adolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2020.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753028PMC
July 2020

Early Neurological Change After Ischemic Stroke Is Associated With 90-Day Outcome.

Stroke 2021 01 15;52(1):132-141. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Neurology (L.H., M.M.B., A.L.F., R.D., J.-M.L.), Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.

Background And Purpose: Large-scale observational studies of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) promise to reveal mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia. However, meaningful quantitative phenotypes attainable in large patient populations are needed. We characterize a dynamic metric of AIS instability, defined by change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) from baseline to 24 hours baseline to 24 hours (NIHSS - NIHSS = ΔNIHSS), to examine its relevance to AIS mechanisms and long-term outcomes.

Methods: Patients with NIHSS prospectively recorded within 6 hours after onset and then 24 hours later were enrolled in the GENISIS study (Genetics of Early Neurological Instability After Ischemic Stroke). Stepwise linear regression determined variables that independently influenced ΔNIHSS. In a subcohort of tPA (alteplase)-treated patients with large vessel occlusion, the influence of early sustained recanalization and hemorrhagic transformation on ΔNIHSS was examined. Finally, the association of ΔNIHSS with 90-day favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was assessed. Independent analysis was performed using data from the 2 NINDS-tPA stroke trials (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA).

Results: For 2555 patients with AIS, median baseline NIHSS was 9 (interquartile range, 4-16), and median ΔNIHSS was 2 (interquartile range, 0-5). In a multivariable model, baseline NIHSS, tPA-treatment, age, glucose, site, and systolic blood pressure independently predicted ΔNIHSS (R=0.15). In the large vessel occlusion subcohort, early sustained recanalization and hemorrhagic transformation increased the explained variance (R=0.27), but much of the variance remained unexplained. ΔNIHSS had a significant and independent association with 90-day favorable outcome. For the subjects in the 2 NINDS-tPA trials, ΔNIHSS was similarly associated with 90-day outcomes.

Conclusions: The dynamic phenotype, ΔNIHSS, captures both explained and unexplained mechanisms involved in AIS and is significantly and independently associated with long-term outcomes. Thus, ΔNIHSS promises to be an easily obtainable and meaningful quantitative phenotype for large-scale genomic studies of AIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769959PMC
January 2021

Multi-ancestry genetic study in 5,876 patients identifies an association between excitotoxic genes and early outcomes after acute ischemic stroke.

medRxiv 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

During the first hours after stroke onset neurological deficits can be highly unstable: some patients rapidly improve, while others deteriorate. This early neurological instability has a major impact on long-term outcome. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic architecture of early neurological instability measured by the difference between NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) within six hours of stroke onset and NIHSS at 24h (ΔNIHSS). A total of 5,876 individuals from seven countries (Spain, Finland, Poland, United States, Costa Rica, Mexico and Korea) were studied using a multi-ancestry meta-analyses. We found that 8.7% of ΔNIHSS variance was explained by common genetic variations, and also that early neurological instability has a different genetic architecture than that of stroke risk. Seven loci (2p25.1, 2q31.2, 2q33.3, 4q34.3, 5q33.2, 6q26 and 7p21.1) were genome-wide significant and explained 2.1% of the variability suggesting that additional variants influence early change in neurological deficits. We used functional genomics and bioinformatic annotation to identify the genes driving the association from each loci. eQTL mapping and SMR indicate that (log Bayes Factor (LBF)=6.34) was driving the association for 2q33.3. Gene based analyses suggested that (LBF=5.26), which is predominantly expressed in brain, is the gene driving the association for the 5q33.2 locus. These analyses also nominated (LBF=5.30) and (LBF=5.70) for the 6q26 and 7p21.1 loci. Human brain single nuclei RNA-seq indicates that the gene expression of and is enriched in neurons. , a pre-synaptic protein, and , a protein subunit of the AMPA receptor, are part of a synaptic protein complex that modulates neuronal excitability. These data provides the first evidence in humans that excitotoxicity may contribute to early neurological instability after acute ischemic stroke.

Research Into Context: No previous genome-wide association studies have investigated the genetic architecture of early outcomes after ischemic stroke. This is the first study that investigated genetic influences on early outcomes after ischemic stroke using a genome-wide approach, revealing seven genome-wide significant loci. A unique aspect of this genetic study is the inclusion of all of the major ethnicities by recruiting from participants throughout the world. Most genetic studies to date have been limited to populations of European ancestry. The findings provide the first evidence that genes implicating excitotoxicity contribute to human acute ischemic stroke, and demonstrates proof of principle that GWAS of acute ischemic stroke patients can reveal mechanisms involved in ischemic brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.29.20222257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654887PMC
November 2020

Diminished Consciousness in a Woman Following an Unsuspected Scopolamine Overdose.

J Anal Toxicol 2020 Oct 7. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Clinical Toxicology Unit, Clinical Analysis Department. Hospital Universitari Son Espases. Research Institute of Health Sciences (IdISBa). Palma de Mallorca, Spain. E-mail:

Scopolamine is used clinically, but it is also used as a recreational drug and as an incapacitating drug, in sexual crimes and robberies. In this paper, the authors report the case of a woman with a diminished consciousness following an unsuspected overdose with scopolamine and review published articles on scopolamine poisoning that included concentrations in biological samples. Scopolamine was identified in the patient's serum and urine samples collected 1 h post-admission to intensive care unit (ICU) at concentrations of 8.4 ng/mL and 62,560 ng/mL (169,539 ng/mg creatinine), respectively. In non-fatal cases, the median [interquartile range] of serum scopolamine levels was 1.9 [2.1] ng/mL. The serum concentration found in our case would explain the abrupt clinical presentation suffered by the patient. Scopolamine in urine could be detected up to 48 h after admission. This report illustrates that broad toxicology screening, including scopolamine, should be considered when patients diminished consciousness is observed after ruling out infection or cerebrovascular disease. This can play an important role in identifying this potentially life-threatening etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkaa135DOI Listing
October 2020

Pulmonary Embolism in Patients With Covid-19 Pneumonia: The Utility of D-dimer.

Arch Bronconeumol 2020 11 15;56(11):758-759. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Pulmonology Department, Hospital del Mar, Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques (IMIM), Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), CIBERES, (ISCiii), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2020.06.013DOI Listing
November 2020

Morphology Transition of ZnO from Thin Film to Nanowires on Silicon and its Correlated Enhanced Zinc Polarity Uniformity and Piezoelectric Responses.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jul 18;12(26):29583-29593. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

ZnO thin films and nanostructures have received increasing interest in the field of piezoelectricity over the last decade, but their formation mechanisms on silicon when using pulsed-liquid injection metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PLI-MOCVD) are still open to a large extent. Also, the effects of their morphology, dimensions, polarity, and electrical properties on their piezoelectric properties have not been completely decoupled yet. By only tuning the growth temperature from 400 to 750 °C while fixing the other growth conditions, the morphology transition of ZnO deposits on silicon from stacked thin films to nanowires through columnar thin films is shown. A detailed analysis of their formation mechanisms is further provided. The present transition is associated with strong enhancement of their crystallinity and growth texture along the -axis together with a massive relaxation of the strain in nanowires. It is also related to a prevailed zinc polarity, for which its uniformity is strongly improved in nanowires. The nucleation of basal-plane stacking faults of I-type in nanowires is also revealed and related to an emission line at about 3.326 eV in cathodoluminescence spectra, further exhibiting fairly low phonon coupling. Interestingly, the transition is additionally associated with a significant improvement of the piezoelectric amplitude, as determined by piezoresponse force microscopy measurements. The Zn-polar domains exhibit a larger piezoelectric amplitude than the O-polar domains, showing the importance of controlling the polarity in these deposits as a prerequisite to enhance the performances of piezoelectric devices. The present findings demonstrate the high potential in using the PLI-MOCVD system to form ZnO with different morphologies and polarity uniformity on silicon. They further reveal unambiguously the superiority of nanowires over thin films for piezoelectric devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c04112DOI Listing
July 2020

Versatility of bilayer metal oxide coatings on silver nanowire networks for enhanced stability with minimal transparency loss.

Nanoscale 2019 Nov 11;11(42):19969-19979. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks have been lately much investigated thanks to their physical properties and are therefore foreseen to play a key role in many industrial devices as transparent electrodes, but their stability can be an issue. Although it has been shown that thin metal oxide coatings enhance the stability of AgNW networks, such stabilization is achieved at the expense of transparency. We demonstrate that by depositing a second oxide coating, which acts as an antireflective layer, it is possible to obtain highly stable and transparent composite electrodes. AgNW networks were deposited by the airbrush method, and zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum oxide (AlO) coatings were deposited, by Atmospheric Pressure Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition (AP-SALD), using both glass and plastic substrates; therefore, the proposed fabrication method is low-cost and compatible with high-throughput scalable fabrication. The mechanical stability of bare, ZnO and ZnO/AlO-coated AgNWs upon bending is also presented. The obtained nanocomposites exhibit highly homogeneous and conformal oxide coatings with average thicknesses of a few tens of nanometers. Samples with bilayer coatings of 70 nm ZnO/70 nm AlO still exhibit very good stability after annealing in air up to 450 °C for 6 repetitive cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr05658kDOI Listing
November 2019

SnO Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Al Incorporation on the Properties.

Molecules 2019 Jul 31;24(15). Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, 38 000 Grenoble, France.

Aluminum-doped tin oxide (SnO 2:Al) thin films were produced by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The effect of aluminum doping on structural, optical, and electrical properties of tin oxide thin films synthesized at 420 ∘C was investigated. Al doping induced a change in the morphology of tin oxide films and yielded films with smaller grain size. SnO 2 thin films undergo a structural reordering and have a texture transition from (301) to (101), and then to (002) preferred cristallographic orientation upon Al doping. The lattice parameters ( and ) decreases with Al doping, following in a first approximation Vegard's law. The optical transmission does not change in the visible region with an average transmittance value of 72-81%. Conversely, in the near infrared (NIR) region, the plasmon frequency shifts towards the IR region upon increasing Al concentration in the grown films. Nominally undoped SnO 2 have a conductivity of ∼1120 S/cm, which is at least two orders of magnitude larger than what is reported in literature. This higher conductivity is attributed to the Cl- ions in the SnCl 4.5(H 2 O) precursor, which would act as donor dopants. The introduction of Al into the SnO 2 lattice showed a decrease of the electrical conductivity of SnO 2 due to compensating hole generation. These findings will be useful for further studied tackling the tailoring of the properties of highly demanded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24152797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696004PMC
July 2019

Low-cost fabrication of flexible transparent electrodes based on Al doped ZnO and silver nanowire nanocomposites: impact of the network density.

Nanoscale 2019 Jul 11;11(25):12097-12107. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

We report the study of nanocomposite transparent electrodes based on aluminium doped zinc oxide (ZnO : Al) thin films and silver nanowire (AgNW) networks. The electrodes are fully fabricated by low-cost, open-air techniques, namely, atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition and spray coating. We show that the transparency and the electrical conductivity of the ZnO : Al/AgNW nanocomposites can be tuned by controlling the AgNW network density. We also demonstrate that the thermal, electrical and mechanical stabilities of the nanocomposites are drastically enhanced compared to those of AgNW networks or ZnO : Al thin films separately. Interestingly, we report a clear continuous decrease of the electrical resistance of the nanocomposites for network densities even below the percolation threshold. We propose a model to explain the relationship between the conductivity of the nanocomposites and the AgNW network density. Our physical model is based on the non-negligible contribution of percolating clusters of AgNWs for network densities below the percolation threshold. Our results provide a means to predicting the physical properties of such nanocomposites for applications in solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. Finally, the deposition methods used open the way towards stable, low-cost and flexible transparent electrodes for industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr02664aDOI Listing
July 2019

Integration of LaMnO films on platinized silicon substrates for resistive switching applications by PI-MOCVD.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2019 7;10:389-398. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP (Institute of Engineering Univ. Grenoble Alpes), LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

The next generation of electronic devices requires faster operation velocity, higher storage capacity and reduction of the power consumption. In this context, resistive switching memory chips emerge as promising candidates for developing new non-volatile memory modules. Manganites have received increasing interest as memristive material as they exhibit a remarkable switching response. Nevertheless, their integration in CMOS-compatible substrates, such as silicon wafers, requires further effort. Here the integration of LaMnO as memristive material in a metal-insulator-metal structure is presented using a silicon-based substrate and the pulsed injection metal organic chemical vapour deposition technique. We have developed three different growth strategies with which we are able to tune the oxygen content and Mn oxidation state moving from an orthorhombic to a rhombohedral structure for the active LaMnO material. Furthermore, a good resistive switching response has been obtained for LaMnO-based devices fabricated using optimized growth strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.10.38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369995PMC
February 2019

PATJ Low Frequency Variants Are Associated With Worse Ischemic Stroke Functional Outcome.

Circ Res 2019 01;124(1):114-120

From the Department of Neurology, Neurovascular Research Group, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona/DCEXS-Universitat Pompeu Fabra (M.M.-C., C.S.-T., E.G.-S., A.R.-C., A.O., E.C.-G., R.M.V.-H., J.R., J.J.-C.).

Rationale: Ischemic stroke is among the leading causes of adult disability. Part of the variability in functional outcome after stroke has been attributed to genetic factors but no locus has been consistently associated with stroke outcome.

Objective: Our aim was to identify genetic loci influencing the recovery process using accurate phenotyping to produce the largest GWAS (genome-wide association study) in ischemic stroke recovery to date.

Methods And Results: A 12-cohort, 2-phase (discovery-replication and joint) meta-analysis of GWAS included anterior-territory and previously independent ischemic stroke cases. Functional outcome was recorded using 3-month modified Rankin Scale. Analyses were adjusted for confounders such as discharge National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. A gene-based burden test was performed. The discovery phase (n=1225) was followed by open (n=2482) and stringent joint-analyses (n=1791). Those cohorts with modified Rankin Scale recorded at time points other than 3-month or incomplete data on previous functional status were excluded in the stringent analyses. Novel variants in PATJ (Pals1-associated tight junction) gene were associated with worse functional outcome at 3-month after stroke. The top variant was rs76221407 (G allele, β=0.40, P=1.70×10).

Conclusions: Our results identify a set of common variants in PATJ gene associated with 3-month functional outcome at genome-wide significance level. Future studies should examine the role of PATJ in stroke recovery and consider stringent phenotyping to enrich the information captured to unveil additional stroke outcome loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6501820PMC
January 2019

Hazy Al₂O₃-FTO Nanocomposites: A Comparative Study with FTO-Based Nanocomposites Integrating ZnO and S:TiO₂ Nanostructures.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2018 Jun 16;8(6). Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

In this study, we report the use of Al₂O₃ nanoparticles in combination with fluorine doped tin oxide (F:SnO₂, aka FTO) thin films to form hazy Al₂O₃-FTO nanocomposites. In comparison to previously reported FTO-based nanocomposites integrating ZnO and sulfur doped TiO₂ (S:TiO₂) nanoparticles (i.e., ZnO-FTO and S:TiO₂-FTO nanocomposites), the newly developed Al₂O₃-FTO nanocomposites show medium haze factor H of about 30%, while they exhibit the least loss in total transmittance T In addition, Al₂O₃-FTO nanocomposites present a low fraction of large-sized nanoparticle agglomerates with equivalent radius r > 1 μm; effectively 90% of the nanoparticle agglomerates show r < 750 nm. The smaller feature size in Al₂O₃-FTO nanocomposites, as compared to ZnO-FTO and S:TiO₂-FTO nanocomposites, makes them more suitable for applications that are sensitive to roughness and large-sized features. With the help of a simple optical model developed in this work, we have simulated the optical scattering by a single nanoparticle agglomerate characterized by bottom radius r₀, top radius r₁, and height h. It is found that r₀ is the main factor affecting the H(λ), which indicates that the haze factor of Al₂O₃-FTO and related FTO nanocomposites is mainly determined by the total surface coverage of all the nanoparticle agglomerates present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano8060440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027414PMC
June 2018

Stability Enhancement of Silver Nanowire Networks with Conformal ZnO Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Pressure Spatial Atomic Layer Deposition.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Jun 25;10(22):19208-19217. Epub 2018 May 25.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes , CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP , 38000 Grenoble , France.

Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks offer excellent electrical and optical properties and have emerged as one of the most attractive alternatives to transparent conductive oxides to be used in flexible optoelectronic applications. However, AgNW networks still suffer from chemical, thermal, and electrical instabilities, which in some cases can hinder their efficient integration as transparent electrodes in devices such as solar cells, transparent heaters, touch screens, and organic light emitting diodes. We have used atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) to fabricate hybrid transparent electrode materials in which the AgNW network is protected by a conformal thin layer of zinc oxide. The choice of AP-SALD allows us to maintain the low-cost and scalable processing of AgNW-based transparent electrodes. The effects of the ZnO coating thickness on the physical properties of AgNW networks are presented. The composite electrodes show a drastic enhancement of both thermal and electrical stabilities. We found that bare AgNWs were stable only up to 300 °C when subjected to thermal ramps, whereas the ZnO coating improved the stability up to 500 °C. Similarly, ZnO-coated AgNWs exhibited an increase of 100% in electrical stability with respect to bare networks, withstanding up to 18 V. A simple physical model shows that the origin of the stability improvement is the result of hindered silver atomic diffusion thanks to the presence of the thin oxide layer and the quality of the interfaces of hybrid electrodes. The effects of ZnO coating on both the network adhesion and optical transparency are also discussed. Finally, we show that the AP-SALD ZnO-coated AgNW networks can be effectively used as very stable transparent heaters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b03079DOI Listing
June 2018

Electrical Mapping of Silver Nanowire Networks: A Versatile Tool for Imaging Network Homogeneity and Degradation Dynamics during Failure.

ACS Nano 2018 05 11;12(5):4648-4659. Epub 2018 May 11.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP , 38000 Grenoble , France.

Electrical stability and homogeneity of silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are critical assets for increasing their robustness and reliability when integrated as transparent electrodes in devices. Our ability to distinguish defects, inhomogeneities, or inactive areas at the scale of the entire network is therefore a critical issue. We propose one-probe electrical mapping (1P-mapping) as a specific simple tool to study the electrical distribution in these discrete structures. 1P-mapping has allowed us to show that the tortuosity of the voltage equipotential lines of AgNW networks under bias decreases with increasing network density, leading to a better electrical homogeneity. The impact of the network fabrication technique on the electrical homogeneity of the resulting electrode has also been investigated. Then, by combining 1P-mapping with electrical resistance measurements and IR thermography, we propose a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the electrical distribution in AgNW networks when subjected to increasing voltage stresses. We show that AgNW networks experience three distinctive stages: optimization, degradation, and breakdown. We also demonstrate that the failure dynamics of AgNW networks at high voltages occurs through a highly correlated and spatially localized mechanism. In particular the in situ formation of cracks could be clearly visualized. It consists of two steps: creation of a crack followed by propagation nearly parallel to the equipotential lines. Finally, we show that current can dynamically redistribute during failure, by following partially damaged secondary pathways through the crack.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.8b01242DOI Listing
May 2018

Tromboc@t Working Group recommendations for management in patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants.

Med Clin (Barc) 2018 09 27;151(5):210.e1-210.e13. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Unidad de Trombosis y Hemostasia, Departamento de Hematología, Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: In recent years, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) as well as for prevention and treatment of deep venous thrombosis. Pivotal trials have demonstrated non-inferiority and potential superiority compared to warfarin, which increases the options of anticoagulant treatment. In our setting, the Anticoagulant Treatment Units (ATUs) and Primary Care Centres (PCCs) play an important role in the education, follow-up, adherence control and management in special situations of anticoagulated patients. These considerations have motivated us to elaborate the present consensus document that aims to establish clear recommendations that incorporate the findings of scientific research into clinical practice to improve the quality of care in the field of anticoagulation.

Material And Methods: A group of experts from the Catalan Thrombosis Group (TROMBOC@T) reviewed all published literature from 2009 to 2016, in order to provide recommendations based on clinical evidence.

Results: As a result of the project, a set of practical recommendations have been established that will facilitate treatment, education, follow-up and management in special situations of anticoagulated patients with ACODs.

Conclusions: Progressive increase in the use of DOACs calls for measures to establish and homogenise clinical management guidelines for patients anticoagulated with DOACs in ATUs and PCCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2018.01.022DOI Listing
September 2018

Role of a clinical prediction score in a chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension rule-out strategy.

Eur Respir J 2018 04 19;51(4). Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Dept of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Universidad Católica de Murcia, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02576-2017DOI Listing
April 2018

Exploring the optical properties of Vernier phase yttrium oxyfluoride thin films grown by pulsed liquid injection MOCVD.

Dalton Trans 2018 Feb;47(8):2655-2661

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

In this work, we report on the first successful deposition of Vernier phase yttrium oxyfluoride (V-YOF) thin films on Si (100) wafers using pulsed liquid injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PLI-MOCVD). The formation of V-YOF has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements and electron probe microanalysis. The infrared phonon modes of V-YOF thin films and their corresponding optical constants as inferred from spectroscopic ellipsometry are reported here for the first time. The V-YOF thin films are featured by a broad absorption band centering around 370-373 cm; their refractive index is located between those of YF and YO, and which shows an intimate relationship with the oxygen content in the film. The luminescence properties of Er doped V-YOF thin films are finally examined and compared with that of YF. Our results highlight that the as-deposited V-YOF thin films by PLI-MOCVD serve as promising candidates as efficient host material for spectral conversion for photovoltaic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7dt04359gDOI Listing
February 2018

2013 ACR/EULAR systemic sclerosis classification criteria in patients with associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2018 06 13;47(6):870-876. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital Universitario12 de Octubre, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda de Córdoba s/n, Madrid 28041, Spain. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze the performance of the 1980 ACR and new 2013 ACR/EULAR criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) in cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) patients, especially those affected by lcSSc and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

Methods: All patients with a clinical lcSSc diagnosis from a prospective observational SSc cohort were included. Sociodemographic and disease-related variables were collected, and PAH confirmed by right heart catheterization (RHC). Performance of the 2013 and 1980 SSc criteria was analyzed in terms of clinical diagnosis. Descriptive and between-group analyses were performed as to the fulfillment of criterion sets, including comparison of survival.

Results: Overall, 321 patients were included, 63% of whom fulfilled the 1980 ACR and 93% the 2013 ACR/EULAR criteria. Agreement between both criteria sets proved poor (κ = 0.23). LcSSC patients fulfilling both criterion sets were significantly younger at diagnosis, whilst presenting organ involvement, calcinosis, fingertip digital ulcers, and pitting scars more frequently than those who met the 2013 criteria only. Patients who fulfilled the 2013 but not the 1980 criteria presented a higher degree of ACA positivity and PAH. Nearly 12% of patients developed PAH. Patients who did not meet the 1980 criteria were affected by a milder disease from but demonstrated higher pulmonary vascular resistance and lower cardiac index than those fulfilling both criterion sets. Whereas patients with PAH met the 2013 criteria, only 47% fulfilled the 1980 criteria. Regardless of criterion set fulfillment, high mortality was observed in PAH patients, with no significant between-patient difference based on criterion set.

Conclusion: The new 2013 ARC/EULAR criteria prove more accurate than the former 1980 ACR criteria in identifying and differentiating patients with lcSSc, especially those with associated PAH. Since PAH exhibits a better prognosis if treated early, all SSc patients should undergo PAH screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2017.10.006DOI Listing
June 2018

Transparent Electrodes Based on Silver Nanowire Networks: From Physical Considerations towards Device Integration.

Materials (Basel) 2017 May 24;10(6). Epub 2017 May 24.

Département de Physique, Université de Liège, CESAM/Q-MAT, SPIN, B-4000 Liège, Belgium.

The past few years have seen a considerable amount of research devoted to nanostructured transparent conducting materials (TCM), which play a pivotal role in many modern devices such as solar cells, flexible light-emitting devices, touch screens, electromagnetic devices, and flexible transparent thin film heaters. Currently, the most commonly used TCM for such applications (ITO: Indium Tin oxide) suffers from two major drawbacks: brittleness and indium scarcity. Among emerging transparent electrodes, silver nanowire (AgNW) networks appear to be a promising substitute to ITO since such electrically percolating networks exhibit excellent properties with sheet resistance lower than 10 Ω/sq and optical transparency of 90%, fulfilling the requirements of most applications. In addition, AgNW networks also exhibit very good mechanical flexibility. The fabrication of these electrodes involves low-temperature processing steps and scalable methods, thus making them appropriate for future use as low-cost transparent electrodes in flexible electronic devices. This contribution aims to briefly present the main properties of AgNW based transparent electrodes as well as some considerations relating to their efficient integration in devices. The influence of network density, nanowire sizes, and post treatments on the properties of AgNW networks will also be evaluated. In addition to a general overview of AgNW networks, we focus on two important aspects: (i) network instabilities as well as an efficient Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coating which clearly enhances AgNW network stability and (ii) modelling to better understand the physical properties of these networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma10060570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5552077PMC
May 2017

Sleep apnea syndrome and patent foramen ovale: a dangerous association in ischemic stroke?

Sleep Med 2016 09 26;25:29-33. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario de la Princesa (IISP), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: The coexistence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) might be related to the pathogenesis of cryptogenic stroke (CS). We aimed to determine the prevalence of SAS in patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO.

Methods: This is a prospective case-control study in which we included ischemic stroke patients consecutively admitted to our hospital's Acute Stroke Unit. Contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) and sleep polygraphy within the first 72 h after stroke onset were performed to detect PFO and SAS. Demographic and clinical characteristics, time of stroke onset, score in the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and stroke subtype were registered.

Results: A total of 97 patients were studied. Overall, 76% were men, with a mean ± SD age of 61 ± 13 years, and an NIHSS of 5 ± 5. Subtype of stroke was cryptogenic (CS) in 28 (29%) and non-CS in 69 (71%) of patients. PFO was more frequent among patients with CS (64% vs 29%, p = 0.002) and without SAS (60% vs 32%, p = 0.013). SAS was diagnosed in 74% of the whole group, with a higher prevalence in patients with known stroke etiology (83% vs 53%, p = 0.003). Finally, the prevalence of SAS and PFO coexistence was similar in patients with or without cryptogenic stroke (25% vs 22%, p = 1), and when comparing the group of patients with cryptogenic wake-up stroke to the other stroke patients (43% vs 21%, p = 0.35).

Conclusions: According to our results, there is no evidence of an association of PFO and SAS in the pathogenesis of cryptogenic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.07.014DOI Listing
September 2016

Combination of Thrombolysis and Statins in Acute Stroke Is Safe: Results of the STARS Randomized Trial (Stroke Treatment With Acute Reperfusion and Simvastatin).

Stroke 2016 11 6;47(11):2870-2873. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

From the Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology (J.M., M.R.), Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca-Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona (J.M., A.B., N.C., D.G., P.D.), and Vall d' Hebron Institut d'Oncologia (S.G.-M.), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Donostia, Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain (M.M.-Z., A.A.); Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (C.J., B.V.-P.); Stroke Program, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville, Spain (J.T., F.M.); Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain (F.R.R.); Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Albacete, Spain (T.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, IRYCIS, University Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain (J.M.); Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari Parc Tauli, Sabadell, Spain (D.C.); Department of Neurology, Hospital de Basurto, Bilbao, Spain (M.F.); Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain (R.D.-M.); Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario de León, Spain (J.T.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari la Fe, Valencia, Spain (A.L.); and Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari General Yagüe, Burgos, Spain (Y.B.).

Background And Purpose: The STARS trial (Stroke Treatment With Acute Reperfusion and Simvastatin) was conducted to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of simvastatin treatment in acute stroke.

Methods: STARS07 was a multicentre, phase IV, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with Acute ischemic stroke recruited within 12 hours from symptom onset were randomized to oral simvastatin 40 mg or placebo, once daily for 90 days. Primary outcome was proportion of independent patients (modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2) at 90 days. Safety end points were hemorrhagic transformation, hemorrhagic events, death, infections, and serious adverse events.

Results: From April 2009 to March 2014, 104 patients were included. Fifty-five patients received intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator. No differences were found between treatment arms regarding the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99 [0.35-2.78]; P=0.98). Concerning safety, no significant differences were found in the rate of hemorrhagic transformation of any type, nor symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. There were no differences in other predefined safety outcomes. In post hoc analyses, for patients receiving tissue-type plasminogen activator, a favorable effect for simvastatin treatment was noted with higher proportion of patients experiencing major neurological recovery (adjusted odds ratio, 4.14 [1.18-14.4]; P=0.02).

Conclusions: Simvastatin plus tissue-type plasminogen activator combination seems safe in acute stroke, with low rates of bleeding complications. Because of the low recruitment, the STARS trial was underpowered to detect differences in simvastatin efficacy.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01073007.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.014600DOI Listing
November 2016

The quest towards epitaxial BaMgF thin films: exploring MOCVD as a chemical scalable approach for the deposition of complex metal fluoride films.

Dalton Trans 2016 Nov 24;45(44):17833-17842. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Catania, INSTM UdR-Catania, Catania, 95125, Italy.

Conventional and Pulsed Liquid Injection MOCVD processes (C-MOCVD and PLI-MOCVD) have been explored as synthetic routes for the growth of BaMgF on Si (100) and single crystalline SrTiO (100) substrates. For the two applied approaches, the volatile, thermally stable β-diketonate complexes Ba(hfa)tetraglyme and Mg(hfa)(diglyme)(HO) have been used as single precursors (C-MOCVD) or as a solution multimetal source (PLI-MOCVD). Structural characterization through X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirmed the formation of epitaxial BaMgF films on SrTiO substrates. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses have been used to confirm composition and purity of deposited films. The impact of process parameters on film properties has been addressed, highlighting the strong influence of precursor ratio, deposition temperature and oxygen partial pressure on composition, microstructure and morphology of the films. Both methods appear well suited for the growth of the BaMgF phase, but while PLI-MOCVD yields a more straightforward control of the precursor composition that reflects on film stoichiometry, C-MOCVD provides easier control of the degree of texturing as a function of temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6dt03055fDOI Listing
November 2016

Rapid Legionella pneumophila determination based on a disposable core-shell Fe₃O₄@poly(dopamine) magnetic nanoparticles immunoplatform.

Anal Chim Acta 2015 Aug 8;887:51-58. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Neurochemistry and Neuroimaging Group, Laboratory of Sensors, Biosensors and Materials, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of La Laguna, Campus de Ofra s/n, 38071, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.

A novel amperometric magnetoimmunoassay, based on the use of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles and screen-printed carbon electrodes, was developed for the selective determination of Legionella pneumophila SG1. A specific capture antibody (Ab) was linked to the poly(dopamine)-modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@pDA-Ab) and incubated with bacteria. The captured bacteria were sandwiched using the antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab-HRP), and the resulting MNPs@pDA-Ab-Legionella neumophila-Ab-HRP were captured by a magnetic field on the electrode surface. The amperometric response measured at -0.15 V vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode of the SPCE after the addition of H2O2 in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) was used as transduction signal. The achieved limit of detection, without pre-concentration or pre-enrichment steps, was 10(4) Colony Forming Units (CFUs) mL(-1). The method showed a good selectivity and the MNPs@pDA-Ab exhibited a good stability during 30 days. The possibility of detecting L. pneumophila at 10 CFU mL(-1) level in less than 3 h, after performing a membrane-based preconcentration step, was also demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2015.05.048DOI Listing
August 2015

Exploring the size adaptability of the B ring binding zone of the colchicine site of tubulin with para-nitrogen substituted isocombretastatins.

Eur J Med Chem 2015 Jul 4;100:210-22. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Laboratorio de Química Orgánica y Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, CIETUS (Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales) and IBSAL (Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca), Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, E-37007 Salamanca, Spain. Electronic address:

We have synthesized and assayed dimethylaminophenyl, pyrrolidin-1-ylphenyl and carbazole containing phenstatins and isocombretastatins as analogues of the highly potent indoleisocombretastatins with extended or reduced ring sizes. This is an attempt to explore beyond the structural constraints of the X-ray crystal structures the zone of the colchicine site where the tropolone ring of colchicine binds to tubulin (zone 1). The isocombretastatins display up to 30 fold increased water solubility when compared with combretastatin A-4, potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, and nanomolar cytotoxicities against several human cancer cell lines irrespective of the size of the B ring. On the other hand, substitutions ortho to the nitrogen cause an important reduction in potency. We have also shown that representative compounds inhibit autophagy. These results show that zone 1 can adapt to systems of different size as far as they stay in a common plane, but does not tolerate substituents protruding above or below it. These results can help in the understanding of the binding modes of structures with similar systems and in the design of new colchicine site ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.05.047DOI Listing
July 2015

A Label-Free Impedimetric DNA Sensor Based on a Nanoporous SnO₂ Film: Fabrication and Detection Performance.

Sensors (Basel) 2015 May 6;15(5):10686-704. Epub 2015 May 6.

Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS, Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique (LMGP), MINATEC, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1, France.

Nanoporous SnO2 thin films were elaborated to serve as sensing electrodes for label-free DNA detection using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Films were deposited by an electrodeposition process (EDP). Then the non-Faradic EIS behaviour was thoroughly investigated during some different steps of functionalization up to DNA hybridization. The results have shown a systematic decrease of the impedance upon DNA hybridization. The impedance decrease is attributed to an enhanced penetration of ionic species within the film volume. Besides, the comparison of impedance variations upon DNA hybridization between the liquid and vapour phase processes for organosilane (APTES) grafting on the nanoporous SnO2 films showed that vapour-phase method is more efficient. This is due to the fact that the vapour is more effective than the solution in penetrating the nanopores of the films. As a result, the DNA sensors built from vapour-treated silane layer exhibit a higher sensitivity than those produced from liquid-treated silane, in the range of tested target DNA concentration going to 10 nM. Finally, the impedance and fluorescence response signals strongly depend on the types of target DNA molecules, demonstrating a high selectivity of the process on nanoporous SnO2 films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s150510686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4481975PMC
May 2015

Are there height-dependent differences in subclinical vascular disease in hypertensive patients?

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2014 Jan 5;16(1):70-6. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

PCC Anglès, IAS, Girona, Spain.

The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in subclinical vascular disease (SVD) in hypertensive patients in relation to height. A total of 922 hypertensive, newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients were included. Physical examination was conducted, with renal function, electrocardiography, and retinography. Patients were distributed according to quartiles of height and sex. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index showed an association between height above the mean and fasting glucose (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.06), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 0.96; CI, 0.92-0.99), triglycerides (OR, 1.07; CI, 1.01-1.15), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (OR, 1.57; CI, 1.10-2.24). The authors found an inverse association between arteriole-to-venule ratio and height above the mean (OR, 0.97; CI, 0.94-0.99). There are differences in the SVD of hypertensive patients in relation to height. Tall stature is associated with LVH while short stature is associated with increased microvascular involvement. Detection of SVD in hypertensive patients should consider the height.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.12222DOI Listing
January 2014

Recurrent transient ischaemic attack and early risk of stroke: data from the PROMAPA study.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013 Jun 23;84(6):596-603. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat de Lleida, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova de, Lleida, IRBLleida, Avda Rovira Roure, 80, Lleida 25198, Spain.

Background: Many guidelines recommend urgent intervention for patients with two or more transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) within 7 days (multiple TIAs) to reduce the early risk of stroke.

Objective: To determine whether all patients with multiple TIAs have the same high early risk of stroke.

Methods: Between April 2008 and December 2009, we included 1255 consecutive patients with a TIA from 30 Spanish stroke centres (PROMAPA study). We prospectively recorded clinical characteristics. We also determined the short-term risk of stroke (at 7 and 90 days). Aetiology was categorised using the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification.

Results: Clinical variables and extracranial vascular imaging were available and assessed in 1137/1255 (90.6%) patients. 7-Day and 90-day stroke risk were 2.6% and 3.8%, respectively. Large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was confirmed in 190 (16.7%) patients. Multiple TIAs were seen in 274 (24.1%) patients. Duration <1 h (OR=2.97, 95% CI 2.20 to 4.01, p<0.001), LAA (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.72, p<0.001) and motor weakness (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.81, p=0.031) were independent predictors of multiple TIAs. The subsequent risk of stroke in these patients at 7 and 90 days was significantly higher than the risk after a single TIA (5.9% vs 1.5%, p<0.001 and 6.8% vs 3.0%, respectively). In the logistic regression model, among patients with multiple TIAs, no variables remained as independent predictors of stroke recurrence.

Conclusions: According to our results, multiple TIAs within 7 days are associated with a greater subsequent risk of stroke than after a single TIA. Nevertheless, we found no independent predictor of stroke recurrence among these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2012-304005DOI Listing
June 2013