Publications by authors named "Carmen Baur Vieira"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Microbiological assessment of an urban lagoon system in the coastal zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 24;28(1):1170-1180. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Helio e Peggy Pereira Pavilion, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040-360, Brazil.

This study aims to assess microbiological contamination using a molecular tool for detection of multiple enteropathogens in a coastal ecosystem area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten litres of superficial water samples were obtained during the spring ebb tide from sampling sites along the Jacarepaguá watershed. Samples were concentrated using skimmed milk flocculation method for TaqMan array card (TAC), designed to identify 35 enteric pathogens simultaneously, and single TaqMan qPCR analysis for detecting human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC human polyomavirus (JCPyV) as faecal indicator viruses (FIV). TAC results identified 17 enteric pathogens including 4/5 viral species investigated, 8/15 bacteria, 4/6 protozoa and 1/7 helminths. Escherichia coli concentration was also measured as faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) using Colilert Quanti-Tray System with positivity in all samples studied. HAdV and JCPyV qPCR were detected in 8 and 4 samples, respectively, with concentration ranging from 8 × 10 to 2 × 10 genome copies/L. Partial nucleotide sequencing demonstrated the occurrence of species HAdV A, C, D, and F, present in faeces of individuals with enteric and non-enteric infections, and JCPyV type 3 (Af2), prevalent in a high genetically mixed population like the Brazilian. The diversity of enteropathogens detected by TAC emphasizes the utility of this methodology for quick assessment of microbiological contamination of the aquatic ecosystems, speeding up mitigation actions where the risk of the exposed population is detected, as well as pointing out the infrastructure gaps in areas where accelerated urban growth is observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10479-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Detection and quantification of human adenovirus (HAdV), JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in recreational waters of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Aug 25;133:240-245. Epub 2018 May 25.

Laboratory of Environmental Virology, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Biomedical Institute, Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study evaluated the impact of sewage discharge in recreational coastal marine environments of Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, over a six-month period by the detection of waterborne enteric viruses. Ten-liter water samples were collected in four beaches from January to July 2017. Viruses were concentrated by an organic flocculation and human adenoviruses (HAdV), polyomavirus (JCPyV), and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) detected by qPCR. Forty-eight water samples were collected, being 43% positive for HAdV and 23% for JCPyV; only one sample was positive for HAV. Viruses were detected in all sampling sites, including in areas suitable for bathing according to the current bacterial standards. The results herein provide an overview of the viral contamination of beaches used for recreational purposes. The viral presence in the sampled areas indicates the need for more rigid effluent discharge controls in these areas, as sewage represents a possible transmission risk for waterborne viral diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.05.031DOI Listing
August 2018

The Impact of the Extreme Amazonian Flood Season on the Incidence of Viral Gastroenteritis Cases.

Food Environ Virol 2017 06 3;9(2):195-207. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Pavilhão Helio e Peggy Pereira, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040-360, Brazil.

During the Amazonian flood season in 2012, the Negro River reached its highest level in 110 years, submerging residential and commercial areas which appeared associated with an elevation in the observed gastroenteritis cases in the city of Manaus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological water quality of the Negro River basin during this extreme flood to investigate this apparent association between the illness cases and the population exposed to the contaminated waters. Forty water samples were collected and analysed for classic and emerging enteric viruses. Human adenoviruses, group A rotaviruses and genogroup II noroviruses were detected in 100, 77.5 and 27.5% of the samples, respectively, in concentrations of 10-10 GC/L. All samples were compliant with local bacteriological standards. HAdV2 and 41 and RVA G2, P[6], and P[8] were characterised. Astroviruses, sapoviruses, genogroup IV noroviruses, klasseviruses, bocaviruses and aichiviruses were not detected. Statistical analyses showed correlations between river stage level and reported gastroenteritis cases and, also, significant differences between virus concentrations during this extreme event when compared with normal dry seasons and previous flood seasons of the Negro River. These findings suggest an association between the extreme flood experienced and gastrointestinal cases in the affected areas providing circumstantial evidence of causality between the elevations in enteric viruses in surface waters and reported illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-017-9280-xDOI Listing
June 2017

Detection and Molecular Characterization of Gemycircularvirus from Environmental Samples in Brazil.

Food Environ Virol 2016 12 8;8(4):305-309. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Avenida Brasil, 4365, 21040-360, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Gemycircularvirus (GemyCV) is a group of viruses which has been recently proposed as a new viral genus detected in fecal and environmental samples around the world. GemyCVs have been detected in human blood, brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and stool sample. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time, through molecular detection and characterization, the presence of GemyCVs in environmental samples from Brazil. Our results show a percentage of positivity ranging from 69 (25/36) to 97 % (35/36) in river water samples collected in Manaus, Amazon region, and wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant located in Rio de Janeiro, respectively, revealing GemyCVs as an important environmental contaminant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-016-9254-4DOI Listing
December 2016

Viruses Surveillance Under Different Season Scenarios of the Negro River Basin, Amazonia, Brazil.

Food Environ Virol 2016 Mar 18;8(1):57-69. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Pavilhão Helio e Peggy Pereira, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040-360, Brazil.

The Negro River is located in the Amazon basin, the largest hydrological catchment in the world. Its water is used for drinking, domestic activities, recreation and transportation and water quality is significantly affected by anthropogenic impacts. The goals of this study were to determine the presence and concentrations of the main viral etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis, such as group A rotavirus (RVA) and genogroup II norovirus (NoV GII), and to assess the use of human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) as viral indicators of human faecal contamination in the aquatic environment of Manaus under different hydrological scenarios. Water samples were collected along Negro River and in small streams known as igarapés. Viruses were concentrated by an organic flocculation method and detected by quantitative PCR. From 272 samples analysed, HAdV was detected in 91.9%, followed by JCPyV (69.5%), RVA (23.9%) and NoV GII (7.4%). Viral concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) GC L(-1) and viruses were more likely to be detected during the flood season, with the exception of NoV GII, which was detected only during the dry season. Statistically significant differences on virus concentrations between dry and flood seasons were observed only for RVA. The HAdV data provides a useful complement to faecal indicator bacteria in the monitoring of aquatic environments. Overall results demonstrated that the hydrological cycle of the Negro River in the Amazon Basin affects the dynamics of viruses in aquatic environments and, consequently, the exposure of citizens to these waterborne pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-016-9226-8DOI Listing
March 2016

Relationship between viral detection and turbidity in a watershed contaminated with group A rotavirus.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 May 4;22(9):6886-97. Epub 2014 Dec 4.

Laboratory of Virology, Microbiology Department, Institute of Biological Science, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Enteric viruses are present in aquatic environments due to contamination by raw sewage, even in the absence of fecal coliforms, which are considered to be significant indicators when it comes to microbial water quality assessment. This study investigated the presence of group A rotavirus (RVA) in surface water from a river basin in Minas Gerais, Brazil, assessing the influence of the urbanization, the rainfall, and the microbiological and physico-chemical parameters regarding water quality. Forty-eight surface water samples collected in urbanized and non-urbanized areas, both in dry and rainy periods, were obtained throughout the study. The viral particles were concentrated by adsorption-elution in a negatively charged membrane. Fecal coliforms, as well as physico-chemical water parameters were determined at each point in all collections. The RVA was detected in 62.5 % (30/48) of the water samples through a real-time PCR assay. All the sequenced RVA strains belonged to genotype I1. The RVA was detected in 50.0 % (11/22) of the water samples regarded as being acceptable by current microbiological standards. The presence of the RVA and the viral load were influenced by the collection area (p < 0.05). It was also observed a significant association between the RVA and detecting the turbidity of water (p < 0.05). The collected data showed a high level of contamination in this watershed by the discharge of raw sewage, highlighting the need for urgent measures to improve water quality, ensuring the safe use of this matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3874-8DOI Listing
May 2015

Assessment of water quality in a border region between the Atlantic forest and an urbanised area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Food Environ Virol 2014 Jun 13;6(2):110-5. Epub 2014 May 13.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, 21040-360, Avenida Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 4365, Brazil,

The preservation of water resources is one of the goals of the designation of parks that act as natural reservoirs. In order to assess the impact of the presence of humans in an environmental preservation area bordering urban areas, the presence of four pathogenic enteric viruses [group A rotavirus (RV-A), norovirus (NoV), human adenoviruses (HAdV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV)], as well as the physico-chemical parameters, and Escherichia coli levels were assessed in riverine water samples. From June 2008 to May 2009, monthly monitoring was performed along the Engenho Novo River. RV-A, NoV, and HAdV were observed in 29% (31/108) of the water samples, with concentrations of up to 10(3) genome copies/liter. The natural occurrence of infectious HAdV was demonstrated by Integrated Cell Culture-PCR (ICC-PCR). This study confirms the suitability of using the detection of fecal-oral transmitted viruses as a marker of human fecal contamination in water matrices and indicates the spread of pathogenic viruses occurring in an alleged area of environmental protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-014-9146-4DOI Listing
June 2014

Assessment of burden of virus agents in an urban sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

J Water Health 2013 Mar;11(1):110-9

Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Pavilhão Hélio & Peggy Pereira, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365-Manguinhos 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Sewage discharge is considered to be the main source of virus contamination in aquatic environments. There is no correlation between the presence of viruses and the presence of fecal coliforms in water; therefore virological markers are needed when monitoring contamination. This study investigates DNA and RNA virus concentrations in wastewater and evaluates a potential virus marker of human contamination. Influent and effluent samples were collected twice a month throughout a 1-year period. Viruses were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction protocols; nucleotide sequencing was carried out for virus genotyping. Human adenovirus (HAdV) and polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) were the most prevalent viruses found in influent samples (100%) with a virus load that ranged from 10(6) to 10(5) genome copies per liter (gc l(-1)). Norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and human astrovirus (HAstV) were less prevalent, and ranged from 10(4) to 10(3)gc l(-1). Quantitative data on virus profiles in wastewaters stress the high level of rotavirus species A environmental dissemination and address the potential of HAdV as a useful virological marker of virus contamination in aquatic environments. This study corroborates other studies performed in developed countries on DNA viruses as good markers of human fecal contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2012.123DOI Listing
March 2013

Detection of enteric viruses in recreational waters of an urban lagoon in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2012 Sep;107(6):778-84

Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to determine the occurrences of the group A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV) and human adenovirus (HAdV) in the surface waters of an urban lagoon (Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During one year of surveillance, water samples were obtained from the lagoon and other interconnected ecosystems (river and beach). The samples were concentrated using an adsorption-elution method with a negatively charged membrane and tested by qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. RVA was the most prevalent virus detected (24.3%) with a viral load ranging from 3.0 x 10¹-5.6 x 10(4) genome copies/L, followed by NoV (18.8%) and HAdV (16.7%). Considering water samples suitable for bathing, according to Escherichia coli criterion (< 2,000 most probable number/100 mL), viruses were detected in 50% (57/114) of them. Physicochemical parameters were also measured and showed possible correlations between turbidity and RVA presence and between pH and NoV presence. These data demonstrate the importance of considering viral parameters to ensure water quality and the utilisation of these parameters as additional tools for the characterisation of environmental contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762012000600012DOI Listing
September 2012

Genetic diversity of noroviruses in Brazil.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2011 Dec;106(8):942-7

Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Norovirus (NoV) infections are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks around the world. In Brazil, the surveillance system for acute diarrhoea does not include the diagnosis of NoV, precluding the ability to assess its impact on public health. The present study assessed the circulation of NoV genotypes in different Brazilian states by partial nucleotide sequencing analysis of the genomic region coding for the major capsid viral protein. NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) was the prevalent (78%) followed by GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.16 and GII.17, demonstrating the great diversity of NoV genotypes circulating in Brazil. Thus, this paper highlights the importance of a virological surveillance system to detect and characterize emerging strains of NoV and their spreading potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762011000800008DOI Listing
December 2011

One year monitoring of norovirus in a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

J Water Health 2010 Mar;8(1):158-65

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-FIOCRUZ, Pavilhão Hélio and Peggy Pereira, Av. Brasil 4.365, Manguinhos, CEP 21040-360, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Norovirus (NoV) is one of the most important aetiological agents of acute gastroenteritis both in developed and developing countries. NoV is shed in high concentrations by infected persons and contaminates recreational and drinking water through sewage discharge into the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotypes and removal ratio of NoV by PCR, seminested-PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays in a sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, during one year of surveillance. NoV was detected in 7 (15%), 14 (29%) and 28 (58%) samples using PCR, seminested-PCR and qPCR, respectively. The mean removal ratio for the activated sludge process was 0.6 log10 for NoV genogroup I (GI) and 0.32 log10 for NoV genogroup II (GII). The peak NoV concentration was detected in the coldest months, with 53,300 genomic copies/litre. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that five strains clustered with GI strains and six with GII strains. This study demonstrates that NoV spreads into the environment despite the sewage treatment process and remains a source of waterborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2009.012DOI Listing
March 2010

Bayesian coalescent inference reveals high evolutionary rates and expansion of Norovirus populations.

Infect Genet Evol 2009 Sep 24;9(5):927-32. Epub 2009 Jun 24.

Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide and have become an important cause of hospitalization of children in South America. NoV belong to the family Caliciviridae and are non-enveloped single stranded, positive sense, RNA viruses. NoV of genotype GII/4 have emerged worldwide, causing four epidemic seasons of viral gastroenteritis during which four novel variants emerged. Despite the importance of NoV outbreaks, little is known about the evolutionary rates, viral spread and population dynamics of NoV populations. In order to gain insight into these matters, a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach was used to analyze region D or full-length VP1 gene sequences of GII/4 NoV populations isolated in Brazil or Japan, respectively. The results of these studies revealed that the expansion population growth model was the best to fit the data in both datasets. The dates of the most common recent ancestors revealed that these viruses can quickly emerge in a geographical location. A mean evolutionary rate of 1.21 x 10(-2) nucleotide substitution/site/year (s/s/y) was obtained for the VP1 gene using full-length sequences. This rate is higher than the rates reported for other rapidly evolving RNA. Roughly similar rates (1.44 x 10(-2)s/s/y) were found using region D sequences, revealing the suitability of this region for evolutionary studies, in agreement with previous reports. High evolutionary rates and fast population growth may have contributed to the vigorous initial transmission dynamics of the GII/4 NoV populations studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2009.06.014DOI Listing
September 2009

Molecular detection of human astrovirus in an urban sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2008 Dec;103(8):819-23

Laboratório de Virologia Comparada, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Pavilhão Hélio & Peggy Pereira, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and dissemination of human astroviruses (HAstV) in the environment by analyzing urban sewage samples from a wastewater treatment plant in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A one-year study was performed with a total of 48 raw and treated sewage composite samples, which were collected biweekly from an activated sludge plant. Virus particles were concentrated by the adsorption-elution method using negatively charged membranes associated to a Centriprep Concentrator 50 (Nihon Millipore). HAstV were detected in 16.7% of the samples in raw and treated sewage by using both qualitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR and qPCR, respectively). Positive untreated sewage sample exhibited mean values of 1.1 x 10(4) gEq/mL. The qPCR sensitivity was 18 gEq/reaction. Through utilization of qPCR, a HAstV recovery efficiency of 4.2% and 4.3% was demonstrated for raw and treated sewage samples, respectively. The presence of HAstV in both the raw and treated sewage samples demonstrated the dissemination of these viruses in the environment as well as viral permanence after sewage treatment. There was a reduction in the total and faecal coliform levels, indicating efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762008000800013DOI Listing
December 2008
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