Publications by authors named "Carmelo Carlo-Stella"

115 Publications

Nonmyeloablative Conditioning Regimen Including Low-Dose Total Marrow/Lymphoid Irradiation Before Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Advanced Lymphoproliferative Diseases.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

BMT Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Humanitas Cancer Center, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) has long been used in nonmyeloablative conditioning (NMAC) regimens before allogeneic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donors (haplo-SCT). More recently, the use of total marrow lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) instead of TBI in conditioning is increasing. This study aimed to evaluate outcomes in a cohort of patients treated with low-dose TMLI in terms of engraftment, full donor chimerism status, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and extrahematologic toxicities, and to compare these outcomes with those in a cohort of patients receiving conventional TBI-containing conditioning. This retrospective single-center study included 100 patients with advanced hematologic malignancies who underwent haplo-SCT. Between 2009 and 2011, the NMAC regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and low-dose TBI (2 Gy), and after 2011, TBI was replaced with TMLI (2 Gy). Patients received post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, calcineurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate mofetil as GVHD prophylaxis. For all patients, the median time to absolute neutrophil count (ANC) recovery to >0.5 × 10/L was 21 days (range, 15 to 49 days), the 30-day incidence of ANC recovery was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89% to 99%), the median time to achieve an unsupported platelet count >20 × 10/L was 26 days (range, 12 to 67 days), and the 60-day rate of platelet engraftment was 99% (95% CI, 89% to 100%). Full donor chimerism was achieved in 95% of evaluable patients (range, 27 to 109). Grade II-IV acute GVHD occurred in 35% of the patients (95% CI, 26% to 45%) at a median of 40 days (range, 23 to 166 days). The incidence of moderate to severe chronic GVHD was 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%). No differences between the TBI and TMLI cohorts were seen in terms of engraftment, full donor chimerism, and GVHD. No organ toxicity was observed in the first months after transplantation in either cohort. The overall 2-year OS and PFS rates were 63%, and 54%, respectively, and were comparable in the 2 groups (P = .548). The strongest finding was that TBI can be safely replaced by TMLI in terms of engraftment, achievement of full donor chimerism status, GVHD incidence, and extrahematologic toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.03.013DOI Listing
March 2021

Multicenter Phase II Study on Haploidentical Bone Marrow Transplantation Using a Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Regimen and Posttransplantation Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Poor-Prognosis Lymphomas.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 17;27(4):328.e1-328.e6. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

BMT Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donors using unmanipulated bone marrow and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide has been largely employed to cure high-risk lymphomas. However, the increased incidence of relapse associated with the use of a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen is still considered a concerning issue. The aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, including thiotepa, cyclophosphamide, and fludarabine, in high-risk lymphoma patients. This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled 49 patients, of whom 47 were evaluable. Graft source (bone marrow) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis were the same for all patients. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients free of disease progression at 1 year. The primary endpoint was met, as 29 out of 47 patients were alive and free of disease at 1 year (1-year progression-free survival, 60%). Forty-five recipients engrafted and achieved full donor chimerism at day 100. The cumulative incidences (CIs) of ANC engraftment at 30 days and platelet engraftment at 60 days were 89% and 83%, respectively. Two patients experienced graft failure. The CIs of day 100 grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD and 2-year moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD were 26% and 16%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 47.5 months (range, 22 to 74), the 4-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 54% and 64%, respectively. The 4-year CI of relapse was 28%, and the 4-year nonrelapse mortality was 15%. Thiotepa-based reduced-intensity conditioning was well tolerated with encouraging survival in a cohort of patients with poor-prognosis lymphoma. Both the incidence of relapse and nonrelapse mortality were acceptable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Glofitamab, a Novel, Bivalent CD20-Targeting T-Cell-Engaging Bispecific Antibody, Induces Durable Complete Remissions in Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Lymphoma: A Phase I Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 19:JCO2003175. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose: Glofitamab is a T-cell-engaging bispecific antibody possessing a novel 2:1 structure with bivalency for CD20 on B cells and monovalency for CD3 on T cells. This phase I study evaluated glofitamab in relapsed or refractory (R/R) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Data for single-agent glofitamab, with obinutuzumab pretreatment () to reduce toxicity, are presented.

Methods: Seven days before the first dose of glofitamab (0.005-30 mg), all patients received 1,000 mg . Dose-escalation steps were determined using a Bayesian continuous reassessment method with overdose control. Primary end points were safety, pharmacokinetics, and the maximum tolerated dose of glofitamab.

Results: Following initial single-patient cohorts, 171 patients were treated within conventional multipatient cohorts and received at least one dose of glofitamab. This trial included heavily pretreated patients with R/R B-NHL; most were refractory to prior therapy (155; 90.6%) and had received a median of three prior therapies. One hundred and twenty-seven patients (74.3%) had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, transformed follicular lymphoma, or other aggressive histology, and the remainder had indolent lymphoma subtypes. Five (2.9%) patients withdrew from treatment because of adverse events. Cytokine release syndrome occurred in 86 of 171 (50.3%) patients (grade 3 or 4: 3.5%); two (1.2%) patients experienced grade 3, transient immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome-like symptoms. The overall response rate was 53.8% (complete response [CR], 36.8%) among all doses and 65.7% (CR, 57.1%) in those dosed at the recommended phase II dose. Of 63 patients with CR, 53 (84.1%) have ongoing CR with a maximum of 27.4 months observation.

Conclusion: In patients with predominantly refractory, aggressive B-NHL, glofitamab showed favorable activity with frequent and durable CRs and a predictable and manageable safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03175DOI Listing
March 2021

Allogeneic transplantation after PD-1 blockade for classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

Leukemia 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Rozzano-Milano, Italy.

Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies yield high response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), but most patients will eventually progress. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) after PD-1 blockade may be associated with increased toxicity, raising challenging questions about the role, timing, and optimal method of transplantation in this setting. To address these questions, we assembled a retrospective cohort of 209 cHL patients who underwent alloHCT after PD-1 blockade. With a median follow-up among survivors of 24 months, the 2-year cumulative incidences (CIs) of non-relapse mortality and relapse were 14 and 18%, respectively; the 2-year graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse-free survival (GRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were 47%, 69%, and 82%, respectively. The 180-day CI of grade 3-4 acute GVHD was 15%, while the 2-year CI of chronic GVHD was 34%. In multivariable analyses, a longer interval from PD-1 to alloHCT was associated with less frequent severe acute GVHD, while additional treatment between PD-1 and alloHCT was associated with a higher risk of relapse. Notably, post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based GVHD prophylaxis was associated with significant improvements in PFS and GRFS. While awaiting prospective clinical trials, PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis may be considered the optimal transplantation strategy for this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01193-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Complete remission of follicular lymphoma after SARS-CoV-2 infection: from the "flare phenomenon" to the "abscopal effect".

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, 20090, Pieve Emanuele, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-021-05275-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913037PMC
February 2021

COVID-19-induced endotheliitis: emerging evidence and possible therapeutic strategies.

Br J Haematol 2021 04 4;193(1):43-51. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014053PMC
April 2021

A phase Ib, open-label, dose-escalation trial of the anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody, BI 836826, in combination with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Oncology and Hematology Unit, Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center - IRCCS, Rozzano, Milano, Italy.

Background BI 836826 is a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody directed against human CD37, a transmembrane protein expressed on mature B lymphocytes. This open-label, phase I dose-escalation trial (NCT02624492) was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety/tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of BI 836826 in combination with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods Eligible patients received intravenous infusions of BI 836826 on day 8 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m plus oxaliplatin 100 mg/m on day 1, for up to six 14-day treatment cycles. Dose escalation followed the standard 3 + 3 design. Results Of 21 treated patients, 17 had relapsed/refractory DLBCL and four had follicular lymphoma transformed to DLBCL. BI 836826 dosing started at 25 mg and proceeded through 50 mg and 100 mg. Two dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred during cycle 1, both grade 4 thrombocytopenia lasting > 7 days, affecting 1/6 evaluable patients (17%) in both the 50 mg and 100 mg cohorts. Due to early termination of the study, the MTD was not determined. The most common adverse events related to BI 836826 treatment were neutropenia (52%), thrombocytopenia (48%), and anemia (48%). Eight patients (38%) experienced BI 836826-related infusion-related reactions (two grade 3). Overall objective response rate was 38%, including two patients (10%) with complete remission and six patients (29%) with partial remission. Conclusions BI 836826 in combination with GemOx was generally well tolerated but did not exceed the MTD at doses up to 100 mg given every 14 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-01054-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Haploidentical related donor compared to HLA-identical donor transplantation for chemosensitive Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 24;20(1):1140. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Hematology Department, Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Unit, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Background: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donor using an unmanipulated graft and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is growing. Haploidentical transplantation with PT-Cy showed a major activity in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), reducing the relapse incidence. The most important predictive factor of survival and toxicity was disease status before transplantation, which was better in patients with well controlled disease.

Methods: We included 198 HL in complete (CR) or partial remission (PR) before transplantation. Sixty-five patients were transplanted from haploidentical donor and 133 from a HLA identical donor (both sibling and unrelated donors). Survival analysis was defined according to the EBMT criteria. Survival curves were generated by using Kaplan-Meier method and differences between groups were compared by the log rank test or by the log rank test for trend when appropriated.

Results: The PFS, OS, and RI were significantly better in patients in CR compared to PR (55% vs 29% p = 0.001, 74% vs 55% p = 0.03, 27% vs 55% p <  0.001, respectively). The 2-year PFS was significantly better for HAPLO than HLA-id (63% vs 37%, p = 0.03), without difference in OS. The 1-year NRM was not different. The 2-year relapse incidence (RI) was lower in the HAPLO group (24% vs 44%, p = 0.008). Patients in CR receiving haplo HSCT showed higher 2-year PFS and lower 2-year RI than those allografted with HLA-id donor (75% vs 47%, p <  0.001 and 11% vs 34%, p < 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, donor type and disease status before transplantation were independent predictors of PFS as well as they predict the risk of relapse. Disease status at transplantation and age were independently associated to OS.

Conclusions: Nonetheless this is a retrospective study, limiting the wide applicability of results, data from this analysis suggest that HLA mismatch can induce a strong graft versus lymphoma effect leading to an enhanced PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07602-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685618PMC
November 2020

Final Results of a Phase 1 Study of Loncastuximab Tesirine in Relapsed/Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Blood 2020 Nov 19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Washington University in St. Louis, Staint Louis, Missouri, United States.

The prognosis for patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) remains poor, with a need for alternatives to current salvage therapies. Loncastuximab tesirine (ADCT-402) is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising a humanized anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody conjugated to a pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer toxin. Presented here are final results of a Phase 1 dose-escalation and dose-expansion study in patients with R/R B-NHL. Objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose(s) for expansion and to evaluate safety, clinical activity, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of loncastuximab tesirine. Overall, 183 patients received loncastuximab tesirine, with 3+3 dose escalation at 15-200 µg/kg and dose expansion at 120 and 150 µg/kg. Dose-limiting toxicities (all hematologic) were reported in 4 patients. The MTD was not reached, although cumulative toxicity was higher at 200 µg/kg. Hematologic treatment-emergent adverse events were most common, followed by fatigue, nausea, edema, and liver enzyme abnormalities. Overall response rate (ORR) in evaluable patients was 45.6%, including 26.7% complete responses (CR). ORRs in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mantle cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma were 42.3%, 46.7%, and 78.6%, respectively. Median duration of response in all patients was 5.4 months and not reached in patients with DLBCL (doses ≥120 µg/kg) who achieved CR. Loncastuximab tesirine had good stability in serum, notable anti-tumor activity, and an acceptable safety profile, warranting continued study in B-NHL. The recommended dose for Phase 2 was determined as 150 µg/kg every 3 weeks (Q3W) for 2 doses followed by 75 µg/kg Q3W. Study: NCT02669017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007512DOI Listing
November 2020

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in poor prognosis peripheral T-cell lymphoma: the impact of different donor type on outcome.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 15;56(4):883-889. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Haematology Department, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

We report the outcome of 68 patients with advanced peripheral T-cell lymphoma receiving transplantation from haploidentical or from conventional donors. The 4-year OS, PFS, 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse and 2-year GRFS was 75%, 70%, 21%, and 51%, respectively. Survival was not affected by donor type. The 2-year NRM was 9%, lower after related or haploidentical donor (21% vs 0% vs 7%; p = 0.06). Grade 2-4 aGVHD cumulative incidence was significantly different after transplantation from haploidentical vs matched sibling vs unrelated donor, and (24% vs 35% vs 58%, p = 0.024). The familial donor cohort was compared to the unrelated cohort. Familial donor induced less grade 2-4 aGVHD, with a trend to less grade 3-4 aGVHD or moderate-severe cGVHD. The OS and PFS were not different, while the relapse risk and NRM were reduced. Allo-SCT is highly effective in T-cell lymphoma, with low NRM and low relapse rate. The incidence of aGVHD was lower after haploidentical transplantation. Related donor may challenge unrelated transplant reducing the risk of relapse and NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01133-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666822PMC
April 2021

Salvage Therapy for Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Review of Current Regimens and Outcomes.

J Blood Med 2020 27;11:389-403. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Rozzano, Milan 20089, Italy.

Relapse/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma patients are still a clinical concern. Indeed, despite more effective first-line chemotherapy regimens and better stratification of unresponsive patients by clinical factors and use of early PET, roughly one-third of such patients need salvage chemotherapy and consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy. In this paper, the authors review the different salvage treatments, with special emphasis on newer combinations with brentuximab vedotin or check point inhibitors. The overall response rate is constantly increasing, with a complete remission rate approaching 80%. Functional response evaluation by PET imaging is a strong predictive factor of longer survival, and more sophisticated tools, such as detection of circulating tumour DNA, are emerging to refine the disease-status assessment after treatment. Consolidation by high-dose chemotherapy is still considered the standard of care in chemosensitive patients, leading to a high fraction of patients towards long-term disease control. Maintenance therapy with BV is now approved, reducing disease relapse/progression. An increasing number of Hodgkin lymphoma patients will be cured after first- and second-line therapy, and long-term toxicity needs to be continuously assessed and avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S250581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603406PMC
October 2020

Response to Maccio et al, "Multifactorial pathogenesis of COVID-19-related coagulopathy: Can defibrotide have a role in the early phases of coagulation disorders?"

J Thromb Haemost 2020 11;18(11):3111-3113

Department of Hematology, Stem Cell Transplant and Cell Therapy Unit, IMIB-Arrixaca, Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15088DOI Listing
November 2020

Nonmyeloablative Conditioning Regimen before T Cell Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Advanced Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 19;26(12):2299-2305. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Hematology Department, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a valid option in patients with refractory lymphomas. HLA haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) expanded the accessibility to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The aims of study were to retrospectively assess the toxicity and efficacy of haplo-SCT using nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with advanced lymphoma. In total, 147 patients with advanced lymphoma at 2 partner institutions were included. Patients received a uniform nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), GVHD, nonrelapse mortality, and GVHD, relapse-free survival (GRFS). Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 6 to 114 months). The median age was 46 years (range, 19 to 71 years). Sixty-five percent of patients were in complete remission (CR) at transplantation. Cumulative incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD was 30% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 23% to 38%). Two-year cumulative incidence of all grades of chronic GVHD was 13% (95% CI, 8% to 20%). Two-year cumulative incidence of disease relapse was 19% (95% CI, 14% to 27%), with a higher incidence in patients not being in CR at allo-HCT (CR versus not CR: 12% versus 33%, P = .006). Two-year PFS, OS, and GRFS were 66% (95% CI, 59-75), 73% (95% CI, 66-81), and 56% (95% CI, 48-65), respectively. Haplo-SCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide may be considered a valid option for patients with aggressive lymphoma and deserves further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.014DOI Listing
December 2020

Copanlisib for the treatment of adults with relapsed follicular lymphoma.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2020 Aug 2;13(8):813-823. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center - IRCCS , Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common histotype of lymphoma and is considered an incurable disease. The need for new treatment options has led to the development of innovative targeted agents, including inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway.

Areas Covered: Copanlisib, an intravenous pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of relapsed FL in patients who have received at least two prior systemic therapies. In this article, we critically review the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage, administration, and role of copanlisib in the treatment of relapsed FL.

Expert Opinion: Treatment with copanlisib results in clinically relevant and durable responses in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory FL. In addition, copanlisib has a manageable safety profile in this population, with low rates of severe hepatic transaminitis, diarrhea, colitis, and noninfectious pneumonitis. Further investigations of copanlisib within combination regimens will potentially allow to move copanlisib to an earlier line of therapy for FL. However, results of the CHRONOS-4 clinical trial evaluating copanlisib with standard chemoimmunotherapy (rituximab with bendamustine or CHOP) are not yet available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2020.1787829DOI Listing
August 2020

Relapsing/refractory HL after autotransplantation: which treatment?

Acta Biomed 2020 05 25;91(S-5):30-40. Epub 2020 May 25.

Haematology Unit and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, San Camillo Forlanini Hospital, Rome, Italy.

For advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), front-line chemotherapy, alone or in combination with radiotherapy, leads to 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates and freedom-from-treatment failure (FFTF) rates of 70-85%, regardless of the chemotherapy regimen applied. Patients with HL experiencing disease progression during or within 3 months of front-line therapy (primary refractory) and patients whose disease relapses after a complete response have a second chance of treatment. The standard of care for relapsed or refractory HL is second-line chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), which can induce long-term remission in approximately 40-50% of patients. However, HL recurrence occurs in about 50% of patients after ASCT, usually within the first year, and represents a significant therapeutic challenge. Allogeneic transplantation from HLA-matched donors represents the standard of care for patients with HL relapsing after- or refractory to ASCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91iS-5.9912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944654PMC
May 2020

Computed tomography (CT)-derived radiomic features differentiate prevascular mediastinum masses as thymic neoplasms versus lymphomas.

Radiol Med 2020 Oct 18;125(10):951-960. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, via Rita Levi Montalcini, 4, 20090, Pieve Emanuele, Milano, Italy.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the ability of radiomics, applied to not-enhanced computed tomography (CT), to differentiate mediastinal masses as thymic neoplasms vs lymphomas.

Methods: The present study was an observational retrospective trial. Inclusion criteria were pathology-proven thymic neoplasia or lymphoma with mediastinal localization, availability of CT. Exclusion criteria were age < 16 years and mediastinal lymphoma lesion < 4 cm. We selected 108 patients (M:F = 47:61, median age 48 years, range 17-79) and divided them into a training and a validation group. Radiomic features were used as predictors in linear discriminant analysis. We built different radiomic models considering segmentation software and resampling setting. Clinical variables were used as predictors to build a clinical model. Scoring metrics included sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the curve (AUC). Wilcoxon paired test was used to compare the AUCs.

Results: Fifty-five patients were affected by thymic neoplasia and 53 by lymphoma. In the validation analysis, the best radiomics model sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and AUC resulted 76.2 ± 7.0, 77.8 ± 5.5, 76.9 ± 6.0 and 0.84 ± 0.06, respectively. In the validation analysis of the clinical model, the same metrics resulted 95.2 ± 7.0, 88.9 ± 8.9, 92.3 ± 8.5 and 0.98 ± 0.07, respectively. The AUCs of the best radiomic and the clinical model not differed.

Conclusions: We developed and validated a CT-based radiomic model able to differentiate mediastinal masses on non-contrast-enhanced images, as thymic neoplasms or lymphoma. The proposed method was not affected by image postprocessing. Therefore, the present image-derived method has the potential to noninvasively support diagnosis in patients with prevascular mediastinal masses with major impact on management of asymptomatic cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01188-wDOI Listing
October 2020

The Many Facets of CD38 in Lymphoma: From Tumor-Microenvironment Cell Interactions to Acquired Resistance to Immunotherapy.

Cells 2020 03 26;9(4). Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, 20089 Milano, Italy.

The CD38 antigen is expressed in several hematological malignancies, and the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies Daratumumab and Isatuximab have an established role in the therapy of multiple myeloma. However, data on the therapeutic utility of CD38 targeting in other lymphoid malignancies are limited. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the prognostic significance of CD38 expression is well accepted, and preclinical studies on the use of Daratumumab in monotherapy or combination therapy have demonstrated considerable efficacy. In other lymphoproliferative disorders, preclinical and clinical data have not been as compelling; however, CD38 overexpression likely contributes to resistance to checkpoint inhibitors, prompting numerous clinical trials in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma to investigate whether blocking CD38 enhances the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors. Furthermore, due to its widespread expression in hematological tumors, CD38 represents an attractive target for cellular therapies such as CAR-T cells. The present review discusses current knowledge of CD38 expression and its implications in various lymphoid malignancies. Furthermore, it addresses current and future therapeutic perspectives, with a particular emphasis on the significance of CD38 interaction with immune cells of the tumor microenvironment. Lastly, results of ongoing studies using anti-CD38 antibodies will be reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9040802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226059PMC
March 2020

FGF Trapping Inhibits Multiple Myeloma Growth through c-Myc Degradation-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

Cancer Res 2020 06 24;80(11):2340-2354. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Multiple myeloma, the second most common hematologic malignancy, frequently relapses because of chemotherapeutic resistance. Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) act as proangiogenic and mitogenic cytokines in multiple myeloma. Here, we demonstrate that the autocrine FGF/FGFR axis is essential for multiple myeloma cell survival and progression by protecting multiple myeloma cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In keeping with the hypothesis that the intracellular redox status can be a target for cancer therapy, FGF/FGFR blockade by FGF trapping or tyrosine kinase inhibitor impaired the growth and dissemination of multiple myeloma cells by inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptotic cell death that were prevented by the antioxidant vitamin E or mitochondrial catalase overexpression. In addition, mitochondrial oxidative stress occurred as a consequence of proteasomal degradation of the c-Myc oncoprotein that led to glutathione depletion. Accordingly, expression of a proteasome-nondegradable c-Myc protein mutant was sufficient to avoid glutathione depletion and rescue the proapoptotic effects due to FGF blockade. These findings were confirmed on bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma cells as well as on bone marrow-derived primary multiple myeloma cells from newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory patients, including plasma cells bearing the t(4;14) translocation obtained from patients with high-risk multiple myeloma. Altogether, these findings dissect the mechanism by which the FGF/FGFR system plays a nonredundant role in multiple myeloma cell survival and disease progression, and indicate that FGF targeting may represent a therapeutic approach for patients with multiple myeloma with poor prognosis and advanced disease stage. SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new insights into the mechanisms by which FGF antagonists promote multiple myeloma cell death. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/11/2340/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-2714DOI Listing
June 2020

Mantle Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue: A European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network Study.

Hemasphere 2020 Feb 16;4(1):e302. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Division of Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

While classical nodal mantle cell lymphoma (cMCL) is often associated with involvement of multiple extranodal sites, isolated extranodal disease (ED) at the time of diagnosis is a rare event; data on the outcome of these forms are lacking. On behalf of the European MCL Network, we conducted a retrospective analysis on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MCL presenting with isolated or predominant ED (MALT MCL). We collected data on 127 patients with MALT MCL diagnosed from 1998 to 2015: 78 patients (61%) were male with a median age of 65 years. The involved sites include: upper airways + Waldeyer ring (40; 32%), gastrointestinal tract (32; 25%), ocular adnexa (17; 13%), oral cavity and salivary glands (17; 13%) and others (13; 1%); 7 patients showed multiple extranodal sites. The median follow-up was 80 months (range: 6-182), 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 45% (95% CI: 35-54) and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 71% (95% CI: 62-79). In an explorative setting, we compared MALT MCL with a group of 128 cMCL patients: MALT MCL patients showed a significantly longer PFS and OS compared with nodal cMCL; with a median PFS of 4.5 years vs 2.8 years (p = 0.001) and median OS of 9.8 years vs 6.9 years (p = 0.018), respectively. Patients with MALT MCL at diagnosis showed a more favorable prognosis and indolent course than classical nodal type. This clinical variant of MCL should be acknowledged to avoid possible over-treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000480PMC
February 2020

Expanded circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells as novel cell source for the treatment of TCIRG1 osteopetrosis.

Haematologica 2021 01 1;106(1):74-86. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (SR-Tiget), IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for autosomal recessive osteopetrosis caused by defects in the TCIRG1 gene. Despite recent progress in conditioning, a relevant number of patients are not eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because of the severity of the disease and significant transplant-related morbidity. We exploited peripheral CD34+ cells, known to circulate at high frequency in the peripheral blood of TCIRG1-deficient patients, as a novel cell source for autologous transplantation of gene corrected cells. Detailed phenotypical analysis showed that circulating CD34+ cells have a cellular composition that resembles bone marrow, supporting their use in gene therapy protocols. Transcriptomic profile revealed enrichment in genes expressed by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To overcome the limit of bone marrow harvest/ HSPC mobilization and serial blood drawings in TCIRG1 patients, we applied UM171-based ex-vivo expansion of HSPCs coupled with lentiviral gene transfer. Circulating CD34+ cells from TCIRG1-defective patients were transduced with a clinically-optimized lentiviral vector (LV) expressing TCIRG1 under the control of phosphoglycerate promoter and expanded ex vivo. Expanded cells maintained long-term engraftment capacity and multi-lineage repopulating potential when transplanted in vivo both in primary and secondary NSG recipients. Moreover, when CD34+ cells were differentiated in vitro, genetically corrected osteoclasts resorbed the bone efficiently. Overall, we provide evidence that expansion of circulating HSPCs coupled to gene therapy can overcome the limit of stem cell harvest in osteopetrotic patients, thus opening the way to future gene-based treatment of skeletal diseases caused by bone marrow fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.238261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7776247PMC
January 2021

Generation of an immunodeficient mouse model of tcirg1-deficient autosomal recessive osteopetrosis.

Bone Rep 2020 Jun 7;12:100242. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

CNR-IRGB, Milan Unit, via Fantoli 16/15, 20138 Milan, Italy.

Background: Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is a rare skeletal disorder with increased bone density due to a failure in osteoclast bone resorption. In most cases, the defect is cell-autonomous, and >50% of patients bear mutations in the gene, encoding for a subunit of the vacuolar proton pump essential for osteoclast resorptive activity. The only cure is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which corrects the bone pathology by allowing the formation of donor-derived functional osteoclasts. Therapeutic approaches using patient-derived cells corrected through viral transduction or gene editing can be considered, but to date functional rescue cannot be demonstrated because a relevant animal model for xenotransplant is missing.

Methods: We generated a new mouse model, which we named NSG oc/oc, presenting severe autosomal recessive osteopetrosis owing to the mutation, and profound immunodeficiency caused by the NSG background. We performed neonatal murine bone marrow transplantation and xenotransplantation with human CD34 cells.

Results: We demonstrated that neonatal murine bone marrow transplantation rescued NSG oc/oc mice, in line with previous findings in the oc/oc parental strain and with evidence from clinical practice in humans. Importantly, we also demonstrated human cell chimerism in the bone marrow of NSG oc/oc mice transplanted with human CD34 cells. The severity and rapid progression of the disease in the mouse model prevented amelioration of the bone pathology; nevertheless, we cannot completely exclude that minor early modifications of the bone tissue might have occurred.

Conclusion: Our work paves the way to generating an improved xenograft model for evaluation of functional rescue of patient-derived corrected cells. Further refinement of the newly generated mouse model will allow capitalizing on it for an optimized exploitation in the path to novel cell therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953598PMC
June 2020

Five-year results of the BEGEV salvage regimen in relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 01;4(1):136-140

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

The complete remission (CR) rate achieved with induction chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) represents the strongest prognostic factor in relapsed/refractory (R/R) classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). By inducing a CR rate of 75%, the bendamustine, gemcitabine, vinorelbine (BEGEV) regimen represents an optimal chemotherapy regimen prior to ASCT. Presented here are the 5-year results of BEGEV followed by ASCT in R/R cHL. With a median follow-up of 5 years, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the whole series (n = 59) were 59% and 78%, respectively. ASCT was performed in 43 of 49 responding patients (73% by intention to treat [ITT]; 88% by response to BEGEV) and resulted in 33 with continuous CR (56% by ITT; 77% of transplanted patients), 7 with disease relapse, and 3 with nonrelapse mortality. For patients who received transplants, the 5-year PFS and OS were 77% and 91%, respectively, with no significant difference between relapsed and refractory patients. No patient experienced secondary leukemia or myelodysplasia. In summary, the long-term efficacy data, the benefits for both relapsed and refractory patients, and the excellent safety profile provide a strong rationale for further development of the BEGEV regimen. This trial was registered at EudraCT as #2010-022169-91 and at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01884441.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960479PMC
January 2020

Intensity modulated proton therapy compared to volumetric modulated arc therapy in the irradiation of young female patients with hodgkin's lymphoma. Assessment of risk of toxicity and secondary cancer induction.

Radiat Oncol 2020 Jan 13;15(1):12. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Milan, Rozzano, Italy.

Background: To investigate the role of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for advanced supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in young female patients by assessing dosimetric features and modelling the risk of treatment related complications and radiation-induced secondary malignancies.

Methods: A group of 20 cases (planned according to the involved-site approach) were retrospectively investigated in a comparative planning study. Intensity modulated proton plans (IMPT) were compared to VMAT RapidArc plans (RA). Estimates of toxicity were derived from normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculations with either the Lyman or the Poisson models for a number of endpoints. Estimates of the risk of secondary cancer induction were determined for lungs, breasts, esophagus and thyroid. A simple model-based selection strategy was considered as a feasibility proof for the individualized selection of patients suitable for proton therapy.

Results: IMPT and VMAT plans resulted equivalent in terms of target dose distributions, both were capable to ensure high coverage and homogeneity. In terms of conformality, IMPT resulted ~ 10% better than RA plans. Concerning organs at risk, IMPT data presented a systematic improvement (highly significant) over RA for all organs, particularly in the dose range up to 20Gy. This lead to a composite average reduction of NTCP of 2.90 ± 2.24 and a reduction of 0.26 ± 0.22 in the relative risk of cardiac failures. The excess absolute risk per 10,000 patients-years of secondary cancer induction was reduced, with IMPT, of 9.1 ± 3.2, 7.2 ± 3.7 for breast and lung compared to RA. The gain in EAR for thyroid and esophagus was lower than 1. Depending on the arbitrary thresholds applied, the selection rate for proton treatment would have ranged from 5 to 75%.

Conclusion: In relation to young female patients with advanced supradiaphragmatic HL, IMPT can in general offer improved dose-volume sparing of organs at risk leading to an anticipated lower risk of early or late treatment related toxicities. This would reflect also in significantly lower risk of secondary malignancies induction compared to advanced photon based techniques. Depending on the selection thresholds and with all the limits of a non-validated and very basic model, it can be anticipated that a significant fraction of patients might be suitable for proton treatments if all the risk factors would be accounted for.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-020-1462-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6958567PMC
January 2020

A First-in-human Study of Tenalisib (RP6530), a Dual PI3K δ/γ Inhibitor, in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Hematologic Malignancies: Results From the European Study.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 02 23;20(2):78-86. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Lymphoma Unit, Department of Onco-Hematology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy.

Background: Tenalisib (RP6530) is a novel, highly specific, dual phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) δ/γ inhibitor with nano-molar potency.

Material And Methods: This was a phase I, open-label, 3 + 3 dose escalation, maximum tolerated dose determination study to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of tenalisib in patients with relapsed/refractory hematologic malignancies. Tenalisib was administered orally twice/thrice daily in 28-day cycles with starting dose of 25 mg twice daily.

Results: Thirty-five patients were enrolled across 11 dose levels. No dose limiting toxicity was reported at any of the dose levels. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events irrespective of causality were asthenia and cough in 15 (43%) patients and pyrexia in 13 (37%) patients. The most frequently reported related treatment-emergent adverse events were diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Related grade 3/4 adverse events were limited to events of hypertriglyceridemia, neutropenia, and diarrhea. Pharmacokinetics showed rapid absorption. Based on maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma-concentration time curve, dose proportionality was observed up to 400 mg dose. Of 31 patients included in the efficacy analysis, complete response was seen in 2 (7%) patients and partial response in 4 (13%) patients, with an overall response rate of 19% and a disease-control rate of 61%. The median duration of response was 5.7 months. Responders demonstrated a marked downregulation of phospho-AKT on C1D8.

Conclusion: Tenalisib demonstrated acceptable safety up to 1200 mg twice a day with no dose-limiting toxicities. Consistent clinical response was seen at doses 200 mg BID and above. Pharmacodynamics correlated well with clinical outcome. Further phase I/II studies are being undertaken to evaluate efficacy across different histologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.10.013DOI Listing
February 2020

Pretransplant active disease status and HLA class II mismatching are associated with increased incidence and severity of cytokine release syndrome after haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide.

Cancer Med 2020 01 8;9(1):52-61. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS-via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, Italy.

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) represents a life-threatening side effect after haploidentical stem cell transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). Factors predictive of CRS development is still a matter of debate. We retrospectively analyzed 102 consecutive patients receiving a bone marrow (BM) (n = 42) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) (n = 60) Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy. The two cohorts were similar in main patients' characteristics besides disease type (P = .02). Cumulative incidence of grades 1, 2, and ≥3 CRS was 80%, 52%, and 15% at a median of 2, 4, and 7 days, respectively. Moderate/High-grade fever (39°-41°), grade 1 and grade ≥3 CRS occurred more frequently after PBSC relative to BM grafts (68% vs 33%, P = .0005; 87% vs 71%, P = .009; 20% vs 7%, P = .07). Only patients experiencing grade ≥3 CRS had a worse outcome in terms of 1-year overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): 39% vs 80% (P = .002) and 40% vs 8% (P = .005), respectively. By univariate analysis the only factors associated with the increased risk of ≥3 CRS were pretransplant disease status (8% for complete remission, 11% for partial remission, and 38% for active disease, P = .002), HLA-DRB1 mismatching (57% vs 14%, P = .007), and PBSC graft (P = .07). By multivariable analysis, only pretransplant disease status (hazard ratio, HR: 6.84, P = .005) and HLA-DRB1 mismatching (HR: 17.19, P = .003) remained independent predictors of grade ≥3 CRS. Only grade ≥3 CRS is clinically relevant for the final outcome of patients receiving Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy, is more frequent after a PBSC graft and is associated with pretransplant active disease and HLA-DRB1 mismatching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943086PMC
January 2020

Immune and Inflammatory Cells of the Tumor Microenvironment Represent Novel Therapeutic Targets in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Nov 5;20(21). Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, 20089 Milano, Italy.

Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) is a B-cell malignancy that, typically, responds well to standard therapies. However, patients who relapse after standard regimens or are refractory to induction therapy have a dismal outcome. The implementation of novel therapies such as the anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody Brentuximab Vedotin and immune checkpoint inhibitors has provided curative options for many of these patients. Nonetheless, responses are rarely durable, emphasizing the need for new agents. cHL is characterized by a unique microenvironment in which cellular and humoral components interact to promote tumor survival and dissemination. Knowledge of the complex composition of cHL microenvironment is constantly evolving; in particular, there is growing interest in certain cell subsets such as tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and neutrophils, all of which have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The unique biology of the cHL microenvironment has provided opportunities to develop new drugs, many of which are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical settings. In this review, we will summarize novel insights in the crosstalk between tumor cells and non-malignant inflammatory cells. In addition, we will discuss the relevance of tumor-microenvironment interactions as potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6862619PMC
November 2019

A Phase I Study of ADCT-402 (Loncastuximab Tesirine), a Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine-Based Antibody-Drug Conjugate, in Relapsed/Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 12 4;25(23):6986-6994. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Center for Lymphoid Malignancies, Columbia University Medical Center, The New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

Purpose: ADCT-402 (loncastuximab tesirine) is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising a CD19-targeting antibody and pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimers. A first-in-human study evaluated the safety and preliminary clinical activity of loncastuximab tesirine in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Patients And Methods: A multicenter, phase I, dose-escalation and dose-expansion study enrolled patients ages ≥18 years with relapsed/refractory (R/R) B-cell NHL. Patients received loncastuximab tesirine every 3 weeks at doses assigned by a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Dose escalation was used to assess the safety and tolerability of loncastuximab tesirine to determine the dose for expansion. Secondary objectives evaluated clinical activity, characterized the pharmacokinetic profile, and evaluated antidrug antibodies.

Results: During dose escalation, 88 patients with R/R B-cell NHL were treated with loncastuximab tesirine at doses 15 to 200 μg/kg. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were experienced by 87/88 (98.9%) patients. Most common TEAEs (≥20% of patients) were hematologic abnormalities, fatigue, edema, liver test abnormalities, nausea, rash, and dyspnea. Grade ≥3 TEAEs (≥5% of patients) included hematologic abnormalities, liver test abnormalities, fatigue, and dyspnea. Overall response rate at doses ≥120 μg/kg was 59.4% (41 of 69 patients; 40.6% complete response; 18.8% partial response). Median duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival (all doses) were 4.8, 5.5, and 11.6 months, respectively. Drug exposure increased with increasing dose, showing moderate accumulation with multiple doses ≥150 μg/kg. There was no evidence of immunogenicity.

Conclusions: Loncastuximab tesirine had promising activity with acceptable safety in this dose-escalation study. A phase II study with initial dosing at 150 μg/kg has been initiated based on these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-0711DOI Listing
December 2019

Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Bone Marrow for T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 22;25(9):1810-1817. Epub 2019 May 22.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy.

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) represents a potential curative strategy for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) when a matched related or unrelated donor is not available. The role of graft source, either bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), in this setting has not been fully elucidated. We performed a retrospective study on 91 patients with HL to compare the outcome after BM (n = 53) or PBSC (n = 38) transplant. Eighty-nine patients engrafted with no difference between BM and PBSCs in terms of median time for neutrophil (20 versus 20 days, P = .405) and platelet (26 versus 26.5 days, P = .994) engraftment. With a median follow-up of 40.2 months, 100-day cumulative incidences of grades II to IV acute graft-versus host disease (GVHD) and grades II to IV acute GVHD were 24% and 4%, respectively. Graft source was not associated with a different risk of acute GVHD both by univariate and multivariate analyses. Consistently, 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 7% with no differences between the 2 graft types (P = .761). Two-year rates of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality, and GVHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 67%, 58%, 20%, and 52%, respectively. By univariate analysis, pretransplant disease status was the main variable affecting all outcomes. By multivariate analysis, PBSCs resulted in a protective factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], .29; P = .006), PFS (HR, .38; P = .001), and GRFS (HR, .44; P = .020). The other independent variables affecting the final outcome were pretransplant disease status and hematopoietic cell transplant-specific comorbidity index. In conclusion, when planning a haplo-SCT with PT-Cy for patients with poor-risk HL, graft type is an important variable to take into account when selecting the best available donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.017DOI Listing
September 2019

Consensus report: clinical recommendations for the prevention and management of the nocebo effect in biosimilar-treated IBD patients.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 05 1;49(9):1181-1187. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Nancy University Hospital, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Background: The nocebo effect is a negative effect of a pharmacological or nonpharmacological medical treatment that is induced by patients' expectations, and that is unrelated to the physiological action of the treatment. The nocebo effect can negatively affect treatment outcomes.

Aim: To develop evidence-based consensus recommendations for the prevention and management of the nocebo effect in biosimilar-treated patients with IBD.

Methods: The "NOCE-BIO Consensus Group" was composed of 19 members from five European countries, and with different fields of expertise. A literature review on the nocebo effect, with specific focus on information about its prevention and management in biosimilar-treated IBD patients, was performed. Preliminary statements were formulated and voted on during a consensus group meeting held in Milan, Italy, in July 2018. A statement was accepted if >75% of participants voted 4 ("agree") or 5 ("strongly agree") on a scale of 1-5.

Results: Consensus was reached on 11 recommendation statements. Seven statements reached consensus after one voting round and four statements reached consensus after two voting rounds. All statements were supported by very low-quality level of evidence. The panel agreed that patient-health-care provider relationship is a key driver of acceptance of biosimilars, which limits the risk of negative bias and the nocebo effect. Lack of knowledge among patients and health-care providers about the effectiveness and safety of biosimilars should be minimized. Education about biosimilars needs to be tailored to the individual patient, and positive framing is recommended.

Conclusions: The nocebo effect is under-recognised in the era of biosimilars, although it may negatively impact on the cost-savings of biosimilars. Future research should focus on the magnitude, the risk factors, the impact, and the management of the nocebo effect in biosimilars-treated IBD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15223DOI Listing
May 2019