Publications by authors named "Carme Viladrich"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Can Multi-Item Measures and Single-Item Measures be Trusted to Assess Self-Determination Theory Constructs in the Elderly?

Psicothema 2020 Nov;32(4):583-589

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Background: Measuring complex constructs, such as those from self-determination theory models, is challenging in the elderly due to the response process, particularly in collective data gathering. In order to examine this construct in physical activity settings we aimed at determining whether single-item measures were as good as pre-existing multi-item measures. For that reason, we developed seven single-item measures targeting perceived interpersonal styles, basic needs satisfaction, and well-being.

Method: We gathered evidence of validity and reliability for multi-item measures and single-item measures based on a sample of 128 elderly adults. Another sample of 62 elderly adults provided test-retest reliability for the single-item measures.

Results: Favourable evidence of the expected internal structure, concurrent validity, and reliability was obtained for competence- and relatedness-supportive styles, and for satisfaction of the basic psychological need of relatedness, fairly good evidence was obtained for subjective vitality, whereas mixed evidence was obtained for autonomy-supportive style and the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs of autonomy and competence.

Conclusions: Single-item measures proved to be psychometrically sound substitutes for their multi-item counterparts, but the autonomy constructs need to be reconsidered. Furthermore the response process and consequences of testing should play a prominent role when devising questionnaires for the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2020.159DOI Listing
November 2020

Tools to assess the measurement properties of quality of life instruments: a meta-review.

BMJ Open 2020 08 11;10(8):e036038. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Psychobiology and Methodology of Health Science. Area of Behavioral Science Methodology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallés, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: This meta-review aims to discuss the methodological, research and practical applications of tools that assess the measurement properties of instruments evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that have been reported in systematic reviews.

Design: Meta-review.

Methods: Electronic search from January 2008 to May 2020 was carried out on PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, WoS, Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) database, Google Scholar and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Results: A total of 246 systematic reviews were assessed. Concerning the quality of the review process, some methodological shortcomings were found, such as poor compliance with reporting or methodological guidelines. Regarding the procedures to assess the quality of measurement properties, 164 (66.6%) of reviewers applied one tool at least. Tool format and structure differed across standards or scientific traditions (ie, psychology, medicine and economics), but most assess both measurement properties and the usability of instruments. As far as the results and conclusions of systematic reviews are concerned, only 68 (27.5%) linked the intended use of the instrument to specific measurement properties (eg, evaluative use to responsiveness).

Conclusions: The reporting and methodological quality of reviews have increased over time, but there is still room for improvement regarding adherence to guidelines. The COSMIN would be the most widespread and comprehensive tool to assess both the risk of bias of primary studies, and the measurement properties of HRQoL instruments for evaluative purposes. Our analysis of other assessment tools and measurement standards can serve as a starting point for future lines of work on the COSMIN tool, such as considering a more comprehensive evaluation of feasibility, including burden and fairness; expanding its scope for measurement instruments with a different use than evaluative; and improving its assessment of the risk of bias of primary studies.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42017065232.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7422655PMC
August 2020

Tools to assess the measurement properties of quality of life instruments: a meta-review protocol.

BMJ Open 2018 07 23;8(7):e022829. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Psychobiology and Methodology of Health Science, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

Introduction: Using specific tools to assess the measurement properties of health status instruments is recommended both to standardise the review process and to improve the methodological quality of systematic reviews. However, depending on the measurement standards on which these tools are developed, the approach to appraise the measurement properties of instruments may vary. For this reason, the present meta-review aims to: (1) identify systematic reviews assessing the measurement properties of instruments evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQoL); (2) identify the tools applied to assess the measurement properties of HRQoL instruments; (3) describe the characteristics of the tools applied to assess the measurement properties of HRQoL instruments; (4) identify the measurement standards on which these tools were developed or conform to and (5) compare the similarities and differences among the identified measurement standards.

Methods And Analysis: A systematic review will be conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols Guidelines. Electronic search will be carried out on bibliographic databases, including PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Psychological Information, SCOPUS, Web of Science, COSMIN database and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global, being limited by time (2008-2018) and language (English). Descriptive analyses of different aspects of tools applied to evaluate the measurement properties of HRQoL instruments will be presented; the different measurement standards will be described and some recommendations about the methodological and research applications will be made.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval is not necessary for systematic review protocols. The results will be disseminated by its publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42017065232.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6059301PMC
July 2018

Heroin-dependent patient satisfaction with methadone as a medication influences satisfaction with basic interventions delivered by staff to implement methadone maintenance treatment.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2018 10;12:1203-1211. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Addictive Behaviors Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain,

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to test a structural equation model of patient satisfaction with different key facets of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). In this model, the three dimensions of patient satisfaction with methadone as a medication (ie, personal functioning and well-being, anti-addictive effect on heroin, and anti-addictive effect on non-opioid substances) were expected to predict satisfaction with the basic interventions delivered by the staff of treatment centers to implement MMT.

Patients And Methods: A sample of 210 heroin-dependent patients, resistant to MMT treatment (mean age =41.66 years, SD =6.50; 75.7% male), participated voluntarily in this study. Preliminary analysis based on exploratory structural equation modeling supported the expected three-factor measurement model of the scale to assess satisfaction with medications for addiction treatment - methadone for heroin addiction. Moreover, the 15 items measuring staff's basic interventions were shown to be compatible with the expected single-factor measurement model. Then, both measurement models were included in a structural model.

Results: Results of this model show that patient satisfaction with the compatibility of methadone with personal functioning and well-being, as well as with the anti-addictive effects of methadone on non-opioid substances, predicts satisfaction with basic interventions conducted at methadone treatment centers (β=0.191 and β=0.152, respectively).

Conclusion: Our results provide further understanding regarding patient satisfaction with MMT, which could help professionals to better understand patient perspective and experience during MMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S164181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6044354PMC
July 2018

The Mediating Role of Coping between Competitive Anxiety and Sport Commitment in Adolescent Athletes.

Span J Psychol 2018 Mar 26;21:E7. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Queensland University of Technology(Australia).

Framed in cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions (Lazarus, 1999), this study aimed to test how coping mediated the relationship between competitive anxiety and sport commitment in a sample of adolescent athletes. Five-hundred adolescents (M = 16.42; SD = 1.54) participated in our study. Participants completed competitive anxiety, coping, and sport commitment measures. We defined the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling; and compared two different models of mediation (i.e., total and partial mediation) using structural equation modeling. Results favored partial mediation model where cognitive anxiety factors predicted sport commitment. Results from this model suggest direct and mediated structural relations between concepts. Somatic anxiety had a weak influence on sport commitment (total effects = 0.090 [-.131, .311]). Worry showed a positive influence on sport commitment (total effects = .375 [.262, .486]) through direct and mediated effects. Concentration disruption showed a negative impact on sport commitment (total effects = -.544 [-.724, -.363]) trough mediated effects only, showing a negative path on task-oriented coping and a positive path on disengagement-oriented coping. As a whole, our findings identify task coping efforts undertaken by adolescent athletes as a key element in the relationship between competitive anxiety and sport commitment. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the design of coping interventions in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2018.8DOI Listing
March 2018

The Effect of Coaches' Controlling Style on the Competitive Anxiety of Young Athletes.

Front Psychol 2017 12;8:572. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Research Group in Sport and Exercise Psychology, Department of Basic, Developmental and Educational Psychology, Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelona, Spain.

Framed on a Self-Determination Theory perspective, the purpose of this study was to explore the predictive capacity of coaches' interpersonal controlling style on the competitive anxiety of young athletes, considering the mediating effect of the athletes' controlled motivation on this relationship. The sample consisted of 1166 athletes, aged between 9 and 18, who ranked their perceptions of coaches' controlling style, as well as the reasons for participating in sport and their competitive anxiety before or during competition. The structural models assessing both the direct effect of the controlling style on the anxiety and the complete mediated effect of the controlled motivation on this relationship revealed good fit indices. However, a significant difference of the chi-square was obtained when comparing these models to the partial mediation model, providing evidence of this last model to be more adequate to describe the relationship between coaches' controlling style and athletes' competitive anxiety. Positive significant effects of coach controlling style on the three forms of competitive anxiety were found (β = 0.21, < 0.001; β = 0.14, < 0.001; β = 0.30, < 0.001) indicating that coach controlling style could be an antecedent for athletes' anxiety in a direct way. Although this style also predicts athletes' motivation to participate, this indirect path seems to predict competitive anxiety in a less clear way. We discuss our results facing them up to Vallerand's hierarchical model postulates, focusing on the relevant influence of coaches on the young athletes' experience in the sport context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388747PMC
April 2017

How Coaches' Motivations Mediate Between Basic Psychological Needs and Well-Being/Ill-Being.

Res Q Exerc Sport 2015 31;86(3):292-302. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

a Autonomous University of Barcelona.

Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to test how behavioral regulations are mediated between basic psychological needs and psychological well-being and ill-being in a sample of team-sport coaches. Based on self-determination theory, we hypothesized a model where satisfaction and thwarting of the basic psychological needs predicted coaches' behavioral regulations, which in turn led them to experience well-being (i.e., subjective vitality, positive affect) or ill-being (i.e., perceived stress, negative affect).

Method: Three-hundred and two coaches participated in the study (Mage = 25.97 years; 82% male). For each instrument employed, the measurement model with the best psychometric properties was selected from a sequence of nested models sustained by previous research, including exploratory structural equation models and confirmatory factor analysis. These measurement models were included in 3 structural equation models to test for mediation: partial mediation, complete mediation, and absence of mediation.

Results: The results provided support for the partial mediation model. Coaches' motivation mediated the relationships from both relatedness need satisfaction and basic psychological needs thwarting for coaches' well-being. In contrast, relationships between basic psychological needs satisfaction and thwarting and ill-being were only predicted by direct effects.

Conclusion: Our results highlight that 3 conditions seem necessary for coaches to experience psychological well-being in their teams: basic psychological needs satisfaction, especially relatedness; lack of basic psychological needs thwarting; and self-determined motivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2015.1049691DOI Listing
August 2016

Exploring the factorial structure of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2: invariance across language, gender, age and type of sport.

Psicothema 2015 ;27(2):174-81

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Background: This study evaluates the metric and scalar invariance of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2), which is considered one of the best sport performance anxiety assessment tools for child and adolescent athletes, across four sampling variables: language, gender, age and type of sport.

Method: The participants were 842 athletes (Mage = 11.73, SD = 2.20) from Spain, Belgium and Portugal, each of whom completed the language-adapted version of the SAS-2. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the invariance of the measurement model, and the relative importance of the sampling variables was assessed using a multiple indicator multiple causes model (MIMIC).

Results: The results revealed metric and scalar invariance across all sampling variables and null to modest effects of gender, age and type of sport as covariates for the factors of the SAS-2. However, there was a marked effect (ß = -.56) of language on worry, which reflected lower scores on this factor for the Flemish sample.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide evidence of the invariance of the SAS-2 across samples, thereby endorsing the reliability of its factorial structure for future multi-group research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2014.263DOI Listing
January 2017

[Fair use of tests in health sciences].

Gac Sanit 2014 Sep-Oct;28(5):408-10. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Departament de Psicobiologia i de Metodologia de les Ciències de la Salut, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Barcelona), España.

Standardized measurement instruments (tests) have become an essential tool in health sciences. The concept of equity in the development, adaptation and administration of psychometric tests was first introduced in "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" published in 1999 by the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education. Despite its importance, this concept has been scarcely used in epidemiology and public health. Consequently, this methodological note aims to explain the concept of equity in testing and to provide tools and indications to detect and solve their inequitable use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2014.05.001DOI Listing
June 2016

Less time, better quality. Shortening questionnaires to assess team environment and goal orientation.

Span J Psychol 2013 ;16:E77

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain).

When assessing team environments in youth sport, participants often spend substantial time responding to lots of items in questionnaires, causing a lack of efficiency (i.e. time and effort) and a decrease of data quality. The purpose of this work was to create short-forms of the questionnaires PeerMCYSQ, SCQPeer, TEOSQ, and also to analyse the existing short-form of the SCQCoach. In Study 1 we developed the short-forms of the instruments. We shortened the questionnaires by using both theory driven and data-driven criteria. In Study 2, we used also qualitative and quantitative data with the aim of validating the short-forms. Finally, in Study 3 we tested the last version of the short-forms and sought evidences concerning their criterion validity. The results showed evidence that supports the psychometric merit of these short-forms: (a) significantly less missing values were obtained; (b) all the factors obtained alpha values above .70; (c) confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the short-forms fitted the hypothesized models well; (d) correlations between variables were coherent with expectations, and (e) structural equation modeling results showed significant paths consistent with previous literature. On average, our participants only spent a third of the time used to complete the original questionnaires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2013.74DOI Listing
August 2014

[Psychometric quality supporting the Spanish adaptation of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire].

Psicothema 2011 Nov;23(4):786-94

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona, Spain.

The goal of this study is to present the Spanish adaptation of the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire made up of 24 items that measure the 6 behavioral regulation factors expected by the self-determination theory developed by Deci and Ryan. Supporting evidence of conceptual equivalence and quality of the cultural and linguistic adaptation derive from the conciliation of different terms (experts and target population). Cognitive interviews and the fact that 94% of respondents provided complete answers and without aberrant response patterns support the feasibility of the questionnaire. A model of six correlated factors provided the best fit to the data in the confirmatory factor analysis, and 5 out of 6 subscales have acceptable internal consistency coefficients. The scores of the introjected, identified, and integrated regulation show more variability than the other ones. As expected, the 6 subscales show a graduation of direct correlation with the subjective vitality measure and an inverse correlation with competitive anxiety. The accumulation of evidence leads to the conclusion that the Spanish version is valid for use in sport psychology research.
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November 2011

[Perception in chronic illnesses: linguistic validation of the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire for a Spanish population].

Aten Primaria 2012 May 28;44(5):280-7. Epub 2011 Sep 28.

Departament de Medicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, España.

Objective: To obtain adapted versions for the Spanish population of a specific version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R(e)) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), conceptually and linguistically equivalent to the original questionnaires.

Design: Cultural adaptation of questionnaires: linguistic validation.

Setting: Five primary care centres and a tertiary hospital.

Participants: A multidisciplinary team was selected. A pilot study was performed on 30 people with chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stable ischaemic heart disease, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or osteoarthritis)

Method: The project proceeded in 3 phases: I) Double forward-translation, II) Pilot study and III) Double back-translation. Three consensus meetings were held, one in each phase. Another meeting was held with one of the authors of the original questionnaire, where we knew about a short version, the BIPQ. It was also included in the study. Double forward and back-translations were performed and consensus was reached in both stages.

Results: Phase I) The majority of IPQ-R(e) items did not raise problems of translation. Phase II) In the pilot study we detected that patients found some difficulties in connection with the comprehension and self administration of some items. Therefore it was decided to employ trained interviewers, to introduce changes in the IPQ-R(e) format and vocabulary and to adapt a specific version with fewer items that solved most of these difficulties Phase III) Back-translations were very similar to the original version. The BIPQ forward and back-translation process caused no difficulties.

Conclusions: After lingüistic validation, IPQ-R(e) and BIPQ versions conceptually and lingüistically equivalent to original instruments were obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aprim.2010.11.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025183PMC
May 2012

Adolescents' perceptions of parental behavior: psychometric properties of the short Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran-Adolescent version (S-EMBU-A) in a clinical sample.

Compr Psychiatry 2012 Jan 11;53(1):87-94. Epub 2011 Mar 11.

Departament de Psicobiologia i Metodologiade les Ciències de la Salut, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Spain.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the short Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran-Adolescent version (S-EMBU-A) in a clinical context.

Methods: The S-EMBU-A is a 22-item self-report questionnaire, based on the original 64-item EMBU-A, that assesses perceived parental rearing style in adolescents, comprising 3 subscales (Rejection, Emotional Warmth, and Overprotection). The questionnaire was administered to a clinical sample of 281 Spanish psychiatric outpatients aged 13 to 18 years. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed, analyzing the adolescents' reports about their parents' rearing style.

Results: Confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable fit to data of the 3-factor model (comparative fit index = 0.90; root mean squared error of approximation = 0.054) and parameters were equivalent for the ratings assigned to fathers and mothers. Satisfactory internal consistency reliability was obtained for the 3 scales (Cronbach α ≥ .74). The influence of gender (of adolescents and parents) and age on scale scores was inappreciable. High scores for Rejection and low scores for Emotional Warmth were related to bad relationships with parents, absence of family support, presence of rejection, harsh discipline, and lack of parental supervision.

Conclusions: The Spanish version of S-EMBU-A can be used with psychometric guarantees to identify rearing style in psychiatric outpatients, because evidence of quality in clinical setting matches that obtained in community samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.01.009DOI Listing
January 2012

[Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the Sport Anxiety Scale SAS-2 for young athletes].

Psicothema 2010 Nov;22(4):1004-9

Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Facultad de Psicología, Barcelona, Spain.

The aim of this study is to design a Spanish version of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS-2). The questionnaire, originally developed by the Washington University research group in sport psychology to evaluate anxiety in young athletes, was translated and adapted following the APA protocol and its psychometric properties were assessed through internal consistency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and validity evidence. The Spanish version of the Sport Anxiety Scale has revealed good internal consistency indexes in each subscale and its factor structure has faithfully replicated the one obtained in the original measure. Results indicate that the adapted version of the questionnaire is an adequate and valid measure for the assessment of anxiety in young athletes.
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November 2010

Perceived parental rearing style in childhood: internal structure and concurrent validity on the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran--Child Version in clinical settings.

Compr Psychiatry 2010 Jul-Aug;51(4):434-42

Laboratori d'Estadística Aplicada, Departament de Psicobiologia i Metodologia de les Ciències de la Salut, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.

Background: We provide the first validation data of the Spanish version of the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran--Child Version (EMBU-C) in a clinical context. The EMBU-C is a 41-item self-report questionnaire that assesses perceived parental rearing style in children, comprising 4 subscales (rejection, emotional warmth, control attempts/overprotection, and favoring subjects).

Methods: The test was administered to a clinical sample of 174 Spanish psychiatric outpatients aged 8 to 12. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed, analyzing the children's reports about their parents' rearing style.

Results: The results were almost equivalent for father's and mother's ratings. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable fit to data of the 3-factor model when removing the items of the favoring subjects scale (root mean squared error of approximation <0.07). Satisfactory internal consistency reliability was obtained for 2 of the 3 scales, rejection and emotional warmth (Cronbach alpha >.73), whereas control attempts scale showed lower values, as in previous studies. The influence of sex (of children and parents) on scale scores was inappreciable and children tended to perceive their parents as progressively less warm as they grew older. As predicted, the scores for rejection and emotional warmth were related to bad relationships with parents, absence of family support, harsh discipline, and lack of parental supervision.

Conclusions: The Spanish version of EMBU-C can be used with psychometric guarantees to identify rearing style in psychiatric outpatients because evidences of quality in this setting match those obtained in community samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.08.003DOI Listing
October 2010

Perceived control and psychological distress in women with breast cancer: a longitudinal study.

J Behav Med 2009 Apr 25;32(2):187-96. Epub 2008 Sep 25.

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.

The relationship between perceived control and psychological distress in cancer patients has been widely studied, but longitudinal designs are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived control could predict changes in the evolution of psychological distress in breast cancer patients at stages I or II. One hundred and one women were assessed on five occasions: one week after surgery, and again 1, 3, 6 and 12 months later, using the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) Scale, a Self-Efficacy Scale, the Personal Competence Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS), and the EORTC questionnaire of quality of life. Latent growth curve (LGC) model analysis was used to test the relationship between perceived control and psychological distress in a longitudinal, 1-year study. The results showed that perceived control increases linearly and that distress also decreases linearly. Moreover, the evolution of distress can be predicted from the initial value and the rate of change of perceived control. This close relationship between perceived control and psychological distress was found to be independent of the evolution of the physical state. These findings suggest that perceived control could be used as an early predictor of psychological adjustment to illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-008-9180-5DOI Listing
April 2009

[Motivational climate and coaches' communication style predict young soccer players' commitment].

Psicothema 2008 May;20(2):254-9

Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

The purpose of this research was to study the role of coaches' communication style and coach-created motivational climate in young soccer players' enjoyment and commitment. Four hundred and fifteen young soccer players of high competitive level in the age range from 14 to 16 completed the following questionnaires: a) coach-induced perceived motivational climate (PMCSQ-2), b) coaches' behaviour perception (CBAS-PBS), and c) sport commitment (SCQ). Results showed that coach-created motivational climate correlated highly with the perception of coaches' communication style. Moreover, coach-created motivational climate and communication style significantly determines players' sport commitment and enjoyment. Discussion focuses on the importance of seeking and training credible coaches that favours athletes' commitment.
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May 2008

Assessing self-reported adherence to HIV therapy by questionnaire: the SERAD (Self-Reported Adherence) Study.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2007 Oct;23(10):1166-75

Lluita contra la SIDA Foundation, Badalona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

The relationship between adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and RNA-HIV viral load outcomes has been extensively shown. Although there are different procedures for assessing treatment adherence, there is no ideal method. We present the SERAD (Self-Reported Adherence) questionnaire, a qualitative and quantitative self-reported instrument designed to provide an easier adherence measurement. We also compared the questionnaire to three other methods to evaluate adherence to HAART regimens in HIV-infected patients. Two prospective, observational, longitudinal studies were developed: a single-center pilot study followed by a multicenter study. A total of 530 HIV-infected outpatients was prospectively included, 66 in the pilot study and 464 in the multicenter study. Four methods were used to study adherence to HAART regimens: the SERAD questionnaire, pill count, electronic monitoring, and plasma drug monitoring. Pearson's correlations and Bland and Altman's method were developed. The SERAD questionnaire showed good feasibility and significant validity. Adequate levels of agreement between methods were observed, particularly when adherence was high. Differences increased as adherence fell. Moreover, the questionnaire was completed correctly, the interviewers did not report uncovered aspects, and the information was collected easily. Our results suggest that the SERAD questionnaire is a feasible and useful instrument for assessing adherence to HAART regimens in HIV-infected patients, and makes it possible to obtain reliable qualitative and quantitative information related to treatment adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2006.0120DOI Listing
October 2007

Clinical and sociodemographic variables associated with the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder in road traffic accidents.

Depress Anxiety 2008 ;25(5):E16-23

Corporació Hospitalària Parc Taulí, Sabadell 08205, Barcelona, Spain.

Our objective was to identify variables related to the onset of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a road traffic accident. We evaluated 60 victims of a motor vehicle accident (MVA) in 2004 at 2 months postaccident. Thirty of them had developed PTSD; the other 30 had not developed PTSD. Clinical data, physical injuries, and sociodemographic characteristics were determined in 60 victims. The Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) and a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) were used to evaluate PTSD occurrence. PTSD scores assessed by DTS and SCID at 2 months were significantly and positively associated with female sex, severe physical injuries, perceived social deprivation, and loss of job activity due to the accident. Female sex, severe physical injury, perceived social deprivation, and sick leave were related to the diagnosis of PTSD 2 months after the accident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.20324DOI Listing
August 2008

The commitment of young soccer players.

Psicothema 2007 May;19(2):256-62

Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

The main purpose of this study was to test the Sport Commitment Model in young soccer players. Participants' ( N = 437) age ranged from 14 to 16 years. Based on the sport commitment model proposed by Scanlan and colleagues, 6 scales and 28-items constitute the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ). Results of this study provide some support for the reliability and validity of the SCQ, using a sample of young soccer players. Reliability analysis provided acceptable internal consistency for four scales: Sport Commitment, Sport Enjoyment, Involvement Alternatives and Social Constraints. Sport Enjoyment (Beta= .56, p <.001) and Involvement Alternatives (Beta= -.40, p <.001) were the strongest sport commitment predictors. Further studies with a broader age range, different genders, and other sports or competitive levels are required to continue analyzing the sport commitment model.
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May 2007