Publications by authors named "Carme Costa"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Selected Clostridia Strains from The Human Microbiota and their Metabolite, Butyrate, Improve Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya, Pg. Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

Gut microbiome studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are unravelling some consistent but modest patterns of gut dysbiosis. Among these, a significant decrease of Clostridia cluster IV and XIVa has been reported. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of a previously selected mixture of human gut-derived 17 Clostridia strains, which belong to Clostridia clusters IV, XIVa, and XVIII, on the clinical outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The observed clinical improvement was related to lower demyelination and astrocyte reactivity as well as a tendency to lower microglia reactivity/infiltrating macrophages and axonal damage in the central nervous system (CNS), and to an enhanced immunoregulatory response of regulatory T cells in the periphery. Transcriptome studies also highlighted increased antiinflammatory responses related to interferon beta in the periphery and lower immune responses in the CNS. Since Clostridia-treated mice were found to present higher levels of the immunomodulatory short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate in the serum, we studied if this clinical effect could be reproduced by butyrate administration alone. Further EAE experiments proved its preventive but slight therapeutic impact on CNS autoimmunity. Thus, this smaller therapeutic effect highlighted that the Clostridia-induced clinical effect was not exclusively related to the SCFA and could not be reproduced by butyrate administration alone. Although it is still unknown if these Clostridia strains will have the same effect on MS patients, gut dysbiosis in MS patients could be partially rebalanced by these commensal bacteria and their immunoregulatory properties could have a beneficial effect on MS clinical course.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-021-01016-7DOI Listing
April 2021

CSF SERPINA3 Levels Are Elevated in Patients With Progressive MS.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 03 12;8(2). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

From the Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia (N.F., C.M.-B., C.C., R.P., V.B., X.M., M.C.L.), Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Institut de Recerca Vall d'Hebron (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain; Biotech Research and Innovation Centre (BRIC) (M.O., S.I.-N.), University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Statistics and Bioinformatics Unit (B.M., A.S.), Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain; Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics Department (A.S.), Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (I.D.), University of Belgrade School of Medicine, Serbia; Department of Neurology (I.D.), University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill; Department of Neurology (M.V., M.K.), Medical University of Graz, Austria; Proteomics Unit (E.B., E.S.), Centre de Regulació Genòmica (CRG), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Spain; Proteomics Unit (E.B., E.S.), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; and Center for Multiple Sclerosis (X.M.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: To identify biomarkers associated with progressive phases of MS and with neuroprotective potential.

Methods: Combined analysis of the transcriptional and proteomic profiles obtained in CNS tissue during chronic progressive phases of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with the transcriptional profile obtained during the differentiation of murine neural stem cells into neurons. Candidate biomarkers were measured by ELISA in the CSF of 65 patients with MS (29 with relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 20 with secondary progressive MS, and 16 with primary progressive MS [PPMS]) and 30 noninflammatory neurologic controls (NINCs).

Results: Integrative analysis of gene and protein expression data identified 2 biomarkers, the serine protease inhibitor Serpina3n and the calcium-binding protein S100A4, which were upregulated in chronic progressive EAE and whose expression was induced during neuronal differentiation. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a primarily neuronal expression of S100A4 and Serpina3n during EAE. CSF levels of SERPINA3, the human ortholog of murine Serpina3n, and S100A4 were increased in patients with MS compared with NINCs (SERPINA3: 1,320 vs 838.6 ng/mL, = 0.0001; S100A4: 1.6 vs 0.8 ng/mL, = 0.02). Within the MS group, CSF SERPINA3 levels were significantly elevated in patients with progressive forms, mainly patients with PPMS compared with patients with RRMS (1,617 vs 1,129 ng/mL, = 0.02) and NINCs (1,617 vs 838.6 ng/mL, = 0.0001). Of interest, CSF SERPINA3 levels significantly correlated with CSF neurofilament light chain levels only in the PPMS group (r = 0.62, = 0.01).

Conclusion: These results point to a role of SERPINA3 as a biomarker associated with the progressive forms of MS, particularly PPMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000941DOI Listing
March 2021

Inhibition of the BMP Signaling Pathway Ameliorated Established Clinical Symptoms of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Neurotherapeutics 2020 10;17(4):1988-2003

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. BMPs have been implicated in physiological processes, but they are also involved in many pathological conditions. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS); however, its etiology remains elusive. Some evidence points to BMPs as important players in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In the present work, we studied the expression of BMP2, BMP4, BMP5, BMP6, BMP7, BMP type II receptor, and noggin in the immune system during different phases of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Major changes in the expression of BMPs took place in the initial phases of EAE. Indeed, those changes mainly affected BMP6 (whose expression was abrogated), BMP2, and BMP7 (whose expression was increased). In addition, we showed that in vivo inhibition of the BMP signaling pathway with small molecules ameliorated the already established clinical symptoms of EAE, as well as the CNS histopathological features. At the immune level, we observed an expansion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in mice treated with small molecules that inhibit the BMP signaling pathway. pDCs could play an important role in promoting the expansion of antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Altogether, our data suggest a role for BMPs in early immune events that take place in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE. In addition, the clinical outcome of the disease was improved when the BMP signaling pathway was inhibited in mice that presented established EAE symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-020-00885-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851289PMC
October 2020

NLRP3 inflammasome as prognostic factor and therapeutic target in primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

Brain 2020 05;143(5):1414-1430

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Institut de Recerca Vall d'Hebron (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Primary progressive multiple sclerosis is a poorly understood disease entity with no specific prognostic biomarkers and scarce therapeutic options. We aimed to identify disease activity biomarkers in multiple sclerosis by performing an RNA sequencing approach in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a discovery cohort of 44 untreated patients with multiple sclerosis belonging to different clinical forms and activity phases of the disease, and 12 healthy control subjects. A validation cohort of 58 patients with multiple sclerosis and 26 healthy control subjects was included in the study to replicate the RNA sequencing findings. The RNA sequencing revealed an interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) signature in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Subsequent immunophenotyping pointed to blood monocytes as responsible for the IL1B signature observed in this group of patients. Functional experiments at baseline measuring apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation showed that the NOD-leucine rich repeat and pyrin containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was overactive in monocytes from patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis, and canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation with a combination of ATP plus lipopolysaccharide was associated with increased IL1B production in this group of patients. Primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients with high IL1B gene expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells progressed significantly faster compared to patients with low IL1B levels based on the time to reach an EDSS of 6.0 and the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score. In agreement with peripheral blood findings, both NLRP3 and IL1B expression in brain tissue from patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis was mainly restricted to cells of myeloid lineage. Treatment of mice with a specific NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor attenuated established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease severity and improved CNS histopathology. NLRP3 inflammasome-specific inhibition was also effective in reducing axonal damage in a model of lipopolysaccharide-neuroinflammation using organotypic cerebellar cultures. Altogether, these results point to a role of IL1B and the NLRP3 inflammasome as prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target, respectively, in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa084DOI Listing
May 2020

Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.

Am J Pathol 2019 03 13;189(3):665-676. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Neurology-Neuroimmunology Department, Multiple Sclerosis Centre of Catalonia (Cemcat), Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted proteins that belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. In the adult brain, they modulate neurogenesis, favor astrogliogenesis, and inhibit oligodendrogenesis. Because BMPs may be involved in the failure of remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS), we characterized the expression of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, and BMP-7; BMP type II receptor (BMPRII); and phosphorylated SMAD (pSMAD) 1/5/8 in lesions of MS and other demyelinating diseases. A total of 42 MS lesions, 12 acute ischemic lesions, 8 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy lesions, and 10 central nervous system areas from four nonneuropathological patients were included. Lesions were histologically classified according to the inflammatory activity. The expression of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-7, BMPRII, and pSMAD1/5/8 was quantified by immunostaining, and colocalization studies were performed. In MS lesions, astrocytes, microglia/macrophages, and neurons expressed BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, and BMP-7; BMPRII; and pSMAD1/5/8. Oligodendrocytes expressed BMP-2 and BMP-7 and pSMAD1/5/8. The percentage of cells that expressed BMPs, BMPRII, and pSMAD1/5/8 correlated with the inflammatory activity of MS lesions, and changes in the percentage of positive cells were more relevant in MS than in other white matter-damaging diseases. These data indicate that BMPs are increased in active MS lesions, suggesting a possible role in MS pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.11.007DOI Listing
March 2019

Circulating EZH2-positive T cells are decreased in multiple sclerosis patients.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Oct 26;15(1):296. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Institut de Recerca Vall d'Hebron (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Recent studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), suggest an involvement of the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2) in important processes such as cell adhesion and migration.

Methods: Here, we aimed to expand these initial observations by investigating the role of EZH2 in MS. mRNA expression levels for EZH2 were measured by real-time PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 121 MS patients (62 untreated and 59 receiving treatment) and 24 healthy controls.

Results: EZH2 expression levels were decreased in PBMC from untreated patients compared to that from controls, and treatment significantly upregulated EZH2 expression. Expression of miR-124 was increased in MS patients compared to controls. Blood immunophenotyping revealed EZH2 expression mostly restricted to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and circulating EZH2+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were decreased in untreated MS patients compared to controls. CD8+ T cells expressing EZH2 exhibited a predominant central memory phenotype, whereas EZH2+ CD4+ T cells were of effector memory nature, and both T cell subsets produced TNF-α. EZH2+ T cells were enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment compared to blood and were found in chronic active lesions from MS patients. EZH2 inhibition and microarray analysis in PBMC was associated with significant downregulation of key T cell adhesion molecules.

Conclusion: These findings suggest a role of EZH2 in the migration of T cells in MS patients. The observation of TNF-α expression by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing EZH2 warrants additional studies to explore more in depth the pathogenic potential of EZH2+-positive cells in MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1336-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202809PMC
October 2018

Exome sequencing study in patients with multiple sclerosis reveals variants associated with disease course.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Sep 14;15(1):265. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Institut de Recerca Vall d'Hebron (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: It remains unclear whether disease course in multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by genetic polymorphisms. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with benign and aggressive disease courses in MS patients.

Methods: MS patients were classified into benign and aggressive phenotypes according to clinical criteria. We performed exome sequencing in a discovery cohort, which included 20 MS patients, 10 with benign and 10 with aggressive disease course, and genotyping in 2 independent validation cohorts. The first validation cohort encompassed 194 MS patients, 107 with benign and 87 with aggressive phenotypes. The second validation cohort comprised 257 patients, of whom 224 patients had benign phenotypes and 33 aggressive disease courses. Brain immunohistochemistries were performed using disease course associated genes antibodies.

Results: By means of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection and comparison of allele frequencies between patients with benign and aggressive phenotypes, a total of 16 SNPs were selected for validation from the exome sequencing data in the discovery cohort. Meta-analysis of genotyping results in two validation cohorts revealed two polymorphisms, rs28469012 and rs10894768, significantly associated with disease course. SNP rs28469012 is located in CPXM2 (carboxypeptidase X, M14 family, member 2) and was associated with aggressive disease course (uncorrected p value < 0.05). SNP rs10894768, which is positioned in IGSF9B (immunoglobulin superfamily member 9B) was associated with benign phenotype (uncorrected p value < 0.05). In addition, a trend for association with benign phenotype was observed for a third SNP, rs10423927, in NLRP9 (NLR family pyrin domain containing 9). Brain immunohistochemistries in chronic active lesions from MS patients revealed expression of IGSF9B in astrocytes and macrophages/microglial cells, and expression of CPXM2 and NLRP9 restricted to brain macrophages/microglia.

Conclusions: Genetic variants located in CPXM2, IGSF9B, and NLRP9 have the potential to modulate disease course in MS patients and may be used as disease activity biomarkers to identify patients with divergent disease courses. Altogether, the reported results from this study support the influence of genetic factors in MS disease course and may help to better understand the complex molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-018-1307-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6138928PMC
September 2018

Clinical and Histopathological Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by AAV Vectors Expressing a Soluble Interleukin-23 Receptor.

Neurotherapeutics 2017 Oct;14(4):1095-1106

Institut de Neurociències (INc), Departament Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat Autònoma Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

The role of the T helper (Th)17 pathway has been clearly demonstrated in the onset and progression of autoimmune diseases, where interleukin (IL)-23 is a key molecule in maintaining the response mediated by Th17 cells. As a consequence, recent strategies based on blocking the interaction between IL-23 and its receptor (IL-23R), for example the anti-p19 antibody tildrakizumab, have been developed to regulate the Th17 pathway from the initial stages of the disease. Here, a soluble (s)IL-23R cDNA was cloned in expression plasmids and viral vectors. The clinical efficacy of sIL-23R was evaluated in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice intravenously injected with a single dose of adeno-associated virus AAV8-sIL-23R vectors. Cytokine secretion was determined by multiplex assay, while histopathological analysis of the central nervous system was performed to study demyelination, inflammatory infiltration, and microglia and astroglia activation. We observed that administration of adeno-associated vector 8 encoding sIL-23R was associated with a significant disease improvement, including delay in the onset of the clinical signs; slower progress of the disease; interference with IL-23-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription response by inhibiting of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation; reduced demyelination and infiltration in the central nervous system; and lower astrocyte and microglia activation. Our results suggest that the use of vectors carrying sIL-23R to block the IL-23/IL-23R interaction may be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-017-0545-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5722756PMC
October 2017

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells expressing a self-antigen ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Exp Neurol 2016 Dec 28;286:50-60. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Gene and Cell Therapy Laboratory, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, Barcelona 08035, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain. Electronic address:

Previous work by our group showed that transferring bone marrow cells transduced with a self-antigen induced immune tolerance and ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We also found that following retroviral transduction of murine bone marrow (BM) cells, the majority of cells generated and transduced were myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Here, we aimed to determine whether purified antigen-expressing MDSCs have similar therapeutic effects than those of unfractionated BM, and to investigate their potential mechanisms. We performed phenotypic and functional analyses in these cells using the same animal model, and we used purified antigen-expressing MDSCs in preventive and therapeutic approaches. These cells exerted therapeutic effects similar to those of BM cells, which depended upon self-antigen expression. The majority of monocytic (M)-MDSCs expressed the immunosuppressive molecule programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules. Additionally, the animals infused with antigen-expressing cells exhibited lower percentages of activated T cells and higher percentages of B cells with a regulatory phenotype (B220CD1d CD5) in the spleen than their respective controls. MDSCs expressing self-antigens, alloantigens or therapeutic transgenes are tolerogenic and can be exploited therapeutically in autoimmune diseases, transplantation and in gene therapy, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.09.012DOI Listing
December 2016

Semaphorin 7A as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Multiple Sclerosis.

Mol Neurobiol 2017 08 6;54(6):4820-4831. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Ps. Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

Semaphorin 7A (sema7A) is classified as an immune semaphorin with dual functions in the immune system and in the central nervous system (CNS). These molecules are of interest due to their potential role in multiple sclerosis (MS), which is a chronic demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of autoimmune origin. In this study, we elucidated the role of sema7A in neuroinflammation using both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In an in vitro model of neuroinflammation, using cerebellar organotypic slice cultures, we observed that challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin did not affect demyelination or cell death in sema7A-deficient cultures compared to wild-type cultures. Moreover, the in vivo outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in sema7A-deficient mice was altered in an antigen- and adjuvant-dose-dependent manner, while no differences were observed in the wild-type counterparts. Altogether, these results indicate that sema7A is involved in peripheral immunity and CNS inflammation in MS pathogenesis. Indeed, these data suggest that sema7A might be a potential therapeutic target to treat MS and autoimmune conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-016-0154-2DOI Listing
August 2017

Multicentre comparison of a diagnostic assay: aquaporin-4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016 09 25;87(9):1005-15. Epub 2016 Apr 25.

Faculty of Medecine RTH Laennec, Lyon Neurosciences Research Centre, Neuro-inflammation and Neuro-oncology Team, Lyon, France.

Objective: Antibodies to cell surface central nervous system proteins help to diagnose conditions which often respond to immunotherapies. The assessment of antibody assays needs to reflect their clinical utility. We report the results of a multicentre study of aquaporin (AQP) 4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD).

Methods: Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4), immunohistochemistry (n=3) and ELISA (n=1).

Results: Results of tests on 92 controls identified 12assays as highly specific (0-1 false-positive results). 32 samples from 50 (64%) NMO sera and 34 from 51 (67%) NMOSD sera were positive on at least two of the 12 highly specific assays, leaving 35 patients with seronegative NMO/spectrum disorder (SD). On the basis of a combination of clinical phenotype and the highly specific assays, 66 AQP4-Ab seropositive samples were used to establish the sensitivities (51.5-100%) of all 21 assays. The specificities (85.8-100%) were based on 92 control samples and 35 seronegative NMO/SD patient samples.

Conclusions: The cell-based assays were most sensitive and specific overall, but immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry could be equally accurate in specialist centres. Since patients with AQP4-Ab negative NMO/SD require different management, the use of both appropriate control samples and defined seronegative NMOSD samples is essential to evaluate these assays in a clinically meaningful way. The process described here can be applied to the evaluation of other antibody assays in the newly evolving field of autoimmune neurology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2015-312601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5013123PMC
September 2016

Long-Term Restoration of Thymidine Phosphorylase Function and Nucleoside Homeostasis Using Hematopoietic Gene Therapy in a Murine Model of Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy.

Hum Gene Ther 2016 09 4;27(9):656-67. Epub 2016 May 4.

1 Research Group on Neuromuscular and Mitochondrial Diseases, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona , Barcelona, Spain.

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations in TYMP, encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP). In MNGIE patients, TP dysfunction produces systemic thymidine and deoxyuridine accumulation, which ultimately impairs mitochondrial DNA replication and results in mitochondrial dysfunction. To date, only allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has demonstrated long-term clinical efficacy, but high morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure necessitate the search for safer alternatives. In a previous study, we demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy using a lentiviral vector containing the coding sequence of TYMP restored the biochemical homeostasis in an animal model of MNGIE. In the present follow-up study, we show that ectopic expression of TP in the hematopoietic system restores normal nucleoside levels in plasma, as well as in tissues affected in MNGIE such as small intestine, skeletal muscle, brain, and liver. Mitochondrial dNTP pool imbalances observed in liver of the animal model were also corrected by the treatment. The biochemical effects were maintained at least 20 months even with low levels of chimerism. No alterations in the blood cell counts or other toxic effects were observed in association with the lentiviral transduction or TP overexpression. These results further support the notion that gene therapy is a feasible treatment option for MNGIE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2015.160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5079415PMC
September 2016

Differential expression of sema3A and sema7A in a murine model of multiple sclerosis: Implications for a therapeutic design.

Clin Immunol 2016 Feb 10;163:22-33. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Hospital UniversitariVall d'Hebron, 08035 Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain. Electronic address:

We characterised the expression of semaphorin (sema)3A, sema7A and their receptors in the immune and the central nervous system (CNS) at different stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We also studied their expression in neonatal and adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) and in mature oligodendrocyte cultures. Our results show that sema3A is increased in the CNS and decreased in the immune system upon EAE induction. However, sema7A expression is increased in both the CNS and the immune system during EAE. We also detected sema3A, sema7A and their receptors in neonatal and adult OPCs and in mature oligodendrocytes. These data suggest that sema3A and sema7A are involved in the pathogenesis of EAE, in the modulation of the immune response and in the neurodegeneration that take place in the CNS. Sema7A may represent an intriguing potential therapeutic target for the treatment of both the neurodegenerative and immune-mediated disease processes in MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2015.12.005DOI Listing
February 2016

Breast regression protein-39 is not required for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction.

Clin Immunol 2015 Oct 12;160(2):133-41. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Institut de Recerca Vall d'Hebron (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence points to a role for chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we aimed to explore the potential involvement of CHI3L1 in the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by immunization with MOG 35-55 peptide in wild-type (WT) and knock-out (KO) mice for breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39), the mouse homologue of human CHI3L1. Immunological responses in splenocytes were assessed by means of polyclonal and antigen-specific proliferation assays. Central nervous system pathology and chitinase gene expression were also investigated. BRP-39 expression was increased in WT MOG 35-55-immunized mice compared to saline-immunized controls. No differences were found between WT and BRP-39 KO mice regarding EAE clinical course, day of disease onset, mortality rate, splenocyte proliferative responses or histopathological findings. These results do not support a role of BRP-39 in the pathogenesis of EAE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2015.06.004DOI Listing
October 2015

Chitinase 3-like 1: prognostic biomarker in clinically isolated syndromes.

Brain 2015 Apr 13;138(Pt 4):918-31. Epub 2015 Feb 13.

1 Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Institut de Recerca Vall d'Hebron (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) has been proposed as a biomarker associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndromes, based on the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels in clinically isolated syndrome patients who later converted to multiple sclerosis compared to those who remained as clinically isolated syndrome. Here, we aimed to validate CHI3L1 as a prognostic biomarker in a large cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndrome. This is a longitudinal cohort study of clinically isolated syndrome patients with clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid data prospectively acquired. A total of 813 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinically isolated syndrome were recruited from 15 European multiple sclerosis centres. Cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 levels and time to conversion to multiple sclerosis and time to reach Expanded Disability Status Scale 3.0. CHI3L1 levels were higher in patients who converted to clinically definite multiple sclerosis compared to patients who continued as clinically isolated syndrome (P = 8.1 × 10(-11)). In the Cox regression analysis, CHI3L1 levels were a risk factor for conversion to multiple sclerosis (hazard ratio = 1.7; P = 1.1 × 10(-5) using Poser criteria; hazard ratio = 1.6; P = 3.7 × 10(-6) for McDonald criteria) independent of other covariates such as brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities and presence of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands, and were the only significant independent risk factor associated with the development of disability (hazard ratio = 3.8; P = 2.5 × 10(-8)). High CHI3L1 levels were associated with shorter time to multiple sclerosis (P = 3.2 × 10(-9) using Poser criteria; P = 5.6 × 10(-11) for McDonald criteria) and more rapid development of disability (P = 1.8 × 10(-10)). These findings validate cerebrospinal fluid CHI3L1 as a biomarker associated with the conversion to multiple sclerosis and development of disability and reinforce the prognostic role of CHI3L1 in patients with clinically isolated syndrome. We propose that determining cerebrospinal fluid chitinase 3-like 1 levels at the time of a clinically isolated syndrome event will help identify those patients with worse disease prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awv017DOI Listing
April 2015

Hsp70 regulates immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

PLoS One 2014 25;9(8):e105737. Epub 2014 Aug 25.

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

Heat shock protein (Hsp)70 is one of the most important stress-inducible proteins. Intracellular Hsp70 not only mediates chaperone-cytoprotective functions but can also block multiple steps in the apoptosis pathway. In addition, Hsp70 is actively released into the extracellular milieu, thereby promoting innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, Hsp70 may be a critical molecule in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis and a potential target in this disease due to its immunological and cytoprotective functions. To investigate the role of Hsp70 in MS pathogenesis, we examined its immune and cytoprotective roles using both in vitro and in vivo experimental procedures. We found that Hsp70.1-deficient mice were more resistant to developing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates, suggesting that Hsp70.1 plays a critical role in promoting an effective myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific T cell response. Conversely, Hsp70.1-deficient mice that developed EAE showed an increased level of autoreactive T cells to achieve the same production of cytokines compared with the WT mice. Although a neuroprotective role of HSP70 has been suggested, Hsp70.1-deficient mice that developed EAE did not exhibit increased demyelination compared with the control mice. Accordingly, Hsp70 deficiency did not influence the vulnerability to apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in culture. Thus, the immunological role of Hsp70 may be relevant in EAE, and specific therapies down-regulating Hsp70 expression may be a promising approach to reduce the early autoimmune response in MS patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0105737PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4143280PMC
November 2015

[Reply].

Med Clin (Barc) 2013 Jun 4;140(12):571. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2013.02.007DOI Listing
June 2013

Inhibition of delta-like ligand 4 decreases Th1/Th17 response in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

Neurosci Lett 2013 Apr 1;541:161-6. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

Servei de Neurologia-Neuroimmunologia, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (CEM-Cat), Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Ps. Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Notch is a family of receptors involved in the differentiation of several tissues, including the central nervous system and the immune system. One of the Notch ligands, delta-like 4 (Dll4), has been implicated in the differentiation of Th1 cells and the development of Th17 responses, which are involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and multiple sclerosis. Our results show that a single administration of an anti-Dll4 antibody is not enough to avoid the development of EAE or to ameliorate the already established clinical signs, despite the treatment reduces the proliferative T cell responses and decreases Th1/Th17 immune responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.02.038DOI Listing
April 2013

Treatment with MOG-DNA vaccines induces CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and up-regulates genes with neuroprotective functions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

J Neuroinflammation 2012 Jun 22;9:139. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya, CEM-Cat, Unitat de Neuroimmunologia Clínica, Hospital Universitari Vall d´Hebron (HUVH), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: DNA vaccines represent promising therapeutic strategies in autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the precise mechanisms by which DNA vaccines induce immune regulation remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to expand previous knowledge existing on the mechanisms of action of DNA vaccines in the animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by treating EAE mice with a DNA vaccine encoding the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and exploring the therapeutic effects on the disease-induced inflammatory and neurodegenerative changes.

Methods: EAE was induced in C57BL6/J mice by immunization with MOG₃₅₋₅₅ peptide. Mice were intramuscularly treated with a MOG-DNA vaccine or vehicle in prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Histological studies were performed in central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Cytokine production and regulatory T cell (Treg) quantification were achieved by flow cytometry. Gene expression patterns were determined using microarrays, and the main findings were validated by real-time PCR.

Results: MOG-DNA treatment reduced the clinical and histopathological signs of EAE when administered in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Suppression of clinical EAE was associated with dampening of antigen (Ag)-specific proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 immune responses and, interestingly, expansion of Treg in the periphery and upregulation in the CNS of genes encoding neurotrophic factors and proteins involved in remyelination.

Conclusions: These results suggest for the first time that the beneficial effects of DNA vaccines in EAE are not limited to anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and DNA vaccines may also exert positive effects through hitherto unknown neuroprotective mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-9-139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464883PMC
June 2012

[Stem cell-based treatment of neurologic diseases].

Med Clin (Barc) 2012 Jul 22;139(5):208-14. Epub 2012 Feb 22.

Unitat de Neuroimmunologia Clinica, Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya (CEM-Cat), Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Therapeutic strategies based on stem cells are being increasingly used to treat a wide range of neurological diseases. Although these strategies were initially designed to replace dead cells in injured tissue, the potential of stem cells to migrate, secrete trophic factors, and immunomodulate allows their therapeutic use as a vehicle for gene therapy, as in Parkinson's disease, or as immunomodulators and neuroprotectors in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. This review will focus on current clinical and experimental evidence on the treatment of neurological disorders with strategies based on stem cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2011.12.009DOI Listing
July 2012

Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

Vet Res 2011 Oct 28;42:109. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-42-109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3225326PMC
October 2011

Implication of the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway in the response to interferon-β in multiple sclerosis.

Ann Neurol 2011 Oct;70(4):634-45

Centre d'Esclerosi Múltiple de Catalunya, CEM-Cat, Unitat de Neuroimmunologia Clínica, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron (HUVH)-Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Interferon-beta (IFNβ) has demonstrated beneficial effects reducing disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but a relatively large proportion of patients do not respond to treatment. Here we aimed to investigate the roles of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the type I IFN pathways in the response to IFNβ in MS patients.

Methods: The expression levels of several components of the TLR4 and the type I IFN pathways were determined by flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a cohort of 85 MS patients treated for at least 2 years with IFNβ and classified into responders, intermediate responders, and nonresponders based on their clinical response to treatment. Thirty-two healthy controls were also included in the study for comparison purposes.

Results: Compared to responders and controls, PBMCs from nonresponders and intermediate responders were characterized by increased baseline expression levels of endogenous IFNβ and elevated IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) expression in monocytes. Furthermore, the capacity of IFNβ to induce its own expression was deficient in cells from nonresponders compared with responders. Baseline expression of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 (IRAK3), a negative regulator of TLR4 signaling primarily expressed in monocytes, was found to be significantly decreased in IFNβ responders compared with nonresponders.

Interpretation: These findings provide evidence of the involvement of the TLR4 and type I IFN signaling pathways in the response to IFNβ.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.22511DOI Listing
October 2011

Adult onset leukodystrophy with neuroaxonal spheroids and demyelinating plaque-like lesions.

Neuropathology 2012 Jun 18;32(3):285-92. Epub 2011 Oct 18.

Department of Clinical Neuropathology, King's College Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Adult onset leukodystrophy with neuroaxonal spheroids is an uncommon cause of dementia. Both hereditary (autosomal dominant) and sporadic cases have been described. A 41-year-old African woman presented with inappropriate behavior and personality change consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. MRI demonstrated diffuse frontoparietal white matter signal abnormality and volume loss, as well as focal enhancing white matter lesions, while CT scan showed white matter calcifications. She had been gradually deteriorating over the last 5 years, diagnosed as having progressive demyelinating illness. She died of recurrent chest infections. There was no familial history. The brain showed prominent symmetrical white matter changes with greyish discolorization mainly affecting the frontal and parietal lobes, with less involvement of the temporal lobe and only mildly affecting the occipital white matter. Histology revealed deep white matter atrophy with many neuroaxonal spheroids labelled by neurofilament and β-amyloid precursor protein. In addition, scattered inactive demyelinating plaque-like lesions were found in the periventricular areas, brainstem and the cervical spinal cord. This case had typical features of an adult onset leukodystrophy with neuroaxonal spheroids. However, we also demonstrated demyelinating plaque-like lesions, which has not been previously described. The possibility of a demyelinating origin contributing to the changes may be considered in the pathogenesis of this condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1789.2011.01257.xDOI Listing
June 2012

Central nervous system extracellular matrix changes in a transgenic mouse model of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

Vet J 2009 Nov 12;182(2):306-14. Epub 2008 Sep 12.

Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Barcelona, Spain.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy characterised by accumulation of resistant prion protein (PrP(BSE)), neuronal loss, spongiosus and glial cell proliferation. In this study, properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were investigated in boTg110 transgenic mice over-expressing the bovine cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) and infected with BSE. Using immunohistochemistry with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin as a specific marker for perineuronal nets (PNNs) and antibodies against aggrecan and hyaluronic acid binding protein, loss of ECM was correlated with PrP(BSE) accumulation and activation of astrocytes and microglia. PrP(BSE) accumulation and glial cell activation were detected from the earliest stages of the disease and increased in the terminal stages. Decreases in PNNs, aggrecan and hyaluronic acid were observed only in the terminal stages and correlated with the distribution of PrP(BSE) and activated glial cells. This study suggests that the loss of PNNs, aggrecan and hyaluronic acid is a consequence of PrP(BSE) accumulation. Degradation of ECM in BSE may be due to secretion of degradative enzymes by activated glial cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.07.019DOI Listing
November 2009

Aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 4 overexpression in bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a transgenic murine model and in cattle field cases.

Brain Res 2007 Oct 27;1175:96-106. Epub 2007 Jul 27.

Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Barcelona, Spain.

Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of transmembrane proteins that act as water selective channels. AQP1 and AQP4 are widely expressed in the central nervous system where they play several roles. Overexpression of AQP has been reported in some human and animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, but information is scanty about their distribution in the central nervous system in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Double immunohistochemistry for AQP1, AQP4 and GFAP was developed in a transgenic mouse line overexpressing the bovine cellular prion protein (BoTg110), intracerebrally infected with cattle BSE. Western blot for AQP1 and AQP4, and immunohistochemistry for both AQP and GFAP were carried out in cases of BSE-diagnosed cattle as part of surveillance plan in Catalonia (Spain). A marked increase in AQP1 and AQP4 was observed in mice at the terminal stage of the disease, when they had a wide range of clinical signs, whereas no increase could be observed in the early stage before the onset of the clinical signs. In cattle which did not show evidence of clinical signs, both AQP already showed a great increase. The AQP overexpression correlated with GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes and PrPres deposition in both cases. The results of this study suggest that AQP overexpression in glial cells could lead to an imbalance in water and ion homeostasis which could contribute to triggering the typical histopathological changes of BSE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.06.088DOI Listing
October 2007

Stress response in the central nervous system of a transgenic mouse model of bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

Vet J 2008 Oct 9;178(1):126-9. Epub 2007 Aug 9.

Animal Medicine and Surgery Department, Veterinary Faculty, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Barcelona, Spain.

An immunohistochemical study was performed to evaluate the stress-related proteins heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) and metallothionein 1+2 (MT1+2) in the brains of a murine model of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Transgenic mice (BoTg110) expressing the bovine cellular prion protein were intracerebrally inoculated with brainstem homogenate from BSE infected cattle. PrP(BSE) deposits were found in the brain as early as 150 days post-inoculation (dpi) and in mice sacrificed terminally at 290-320dpi. Glial proliferation and spongiform change were associated with an increase in glial immunostaining of MT1+2 and HSP25, respectively. These proteins are associated with oxidative stress and heavy metal metabolism, which may have a role in the pathogenesis of BSE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.06.002DOI Listing
October 2008

Mapping of aggrecan, hyaluronic acid, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and aquaporin 4 in the central nervous system of the mouse.

J Chem Neuroanat 2007 May 2;33(3):111-23. Epub 2007 Feb 2.

Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, Veterinary Faculty, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Barcelona, Spain.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the central nervous system (CNS) is found dispersed in the neuropil or forming aggregates around the neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The ECM mainly contains chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPG), hyaluronic acid (HA) and tenascin-R. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPG) can also be secreted in the ECM or be part of the cell membrane. The ECM has a heterogeneous distribution which has been linked to several functions, such as specific regional maintenance of hydrodynamic properties in the CNS, in which aquaporins (AQP) play an important role. AQP are a family of membrane proteins which acts as a water channel and AQP4 is the most abundant isoform in the brain. Nevertheless the importance of these proteins, their distribution and correlation in the whole CNS of mice is only partially known. In the present study, the histochemical and immunohistochemical distribution of PNNs, using Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), aggrecan, HA, HSPGs and AQP4 is described, and their perineuronal and neuropil staining has been semi-quantitatively evaluated in the whole CNS of mice. The results showed that the aggrecan, HA and HSPGs perineuronal distribution coincided partially and this could be related to ECM functional properties. AQP4 showed a heterogeneous distribution throughout the CNS. In some areas, an inverse correlation between AQP4 and ECM components has been observed, suggesting a complementary role for both in the maintenance of water homeostasis. A common location for AQP4 and HSPGs has also been observed in CNS neuropil.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2007.01.006DOI Listing
May 2007

Assessment of calcium-binding proteins (Parvalbumin and Calbindin D-28K) and perineuronal nets in normal and scrapie-affected adult sheep brains.

J Virol Methods 2006 Sep 7;136(1-2):137-46. Epub 2006 Jul 7.

PRIOCAT Laboratory, CReSA, Veterinary Faculty, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Barcelona, Spain.

Scrapie is a prion disease in small ruminants that manifests itself with neurological clinical signs amongst which are ataxia and tremors. These signs can be explained partially by an imbalance in central inhibitory innervation. The study of the brain's inhibitory neuronal GABAergic populations and of their extracellular matrix has been used to define, in part, the pathogenesis of human prion diseases and scrapie models in rodents. The brain's distribution of neuronal GABAergic subpopulations has been monitored carefully using, as markers, antibodies against the calcium binding proteins parvalbumin and calbindin D-28K. The distribution of this perineuronal net marker was evaluated by means of affinity histochemistry with W. floribunda agglutinin. These techniques were performed on the brains of nine scrapie-positive sheep and on four infection-free sheep. These animals had undergone previously a clinical follow-up as well as a lesion profile and an immunohistochemical profile of the scrapie-associated prion protein deposition in the brain. The study of calcium-binding proteins revealed an alteration of the parvalbumin positive GABAergic neuronal subpopulation. In scrapie-positive cases, a reduction in stained neuronal perykaria was observed, along with a marked reduction of neurite labelling. This finding was noticeable in regions such as the neocortex, particularly the motor frontal cortex, and was concomitant with a moderate PrPsc deposition and a mild degree of lesion. No changes were observed in the extracellular matrix study. The results of the present study provide a partial explanation for the mechanisms of scrapie clinical signs due to a disturbance of the parvalbumin-positive inhibitory neuronal population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2006.05.008DOI Listing
September 2006