Publications by authors named "Carlota de Miquel"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Duration of untreated illness and bipolar disorder: time for a new definition? Results from a cross-sectional study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Nov 22;294:513-520. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, 170 Villarroel st, 12-0, 08036, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: We primarily aimed to explore the associations between duration of untreated illness (DUI), treatment response, and functioning in a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder (BD).

Methods: 261 participants with BD were recruited. DUI was defined as months from the first affective episode to the start of a mood-stabilizer. The functioning assessment short test (FAST) scores and treatment response scores for lithium, valproate, or lamotrigine according to the Alda Scale Total Score (TS) were compared between patients with short (<24 months) or long DUI. Differences in FAST scores among good (GR; TS≥7), poor (PR; TS=2-6), or non-responders (NR; TS<2) to each mood-stabilizer were analyzed. Linear regression was computed using the FAST global score as the dependent variable.

Results: DUI and FAST scores showed no statistically significant correlation. Patients with a longer DUI showed poorer response to lithium (Z=-3.196; p<0.001), but not to valproate or lamotrigine. Response to lithium (β=-1.814; p<0.001), number of hospitalizations (β=0.237; p<0.001), and illness duration (β=0.160; p=0.028) were associated with FAST total scores. GR to lithium was associated with better global functioning compared to PR or NR [H=27.631; p<0.001].

Limitations: The retrospective design could expose our data to a recall bias. Also, only few patients were on valproate or lamotrigine treatment.

Conclusions: Poor functioning in BD could be the result of multiple affective relapses, rather than a direct effect of DUI. A timely diagnosis with subsequent effective prophylactic treatment, such as lithium, may prevent poor functional outcomes in real-world patients with BD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2021

The two-way relationship between nicotine and cortical activity: a systematic review of neurobiological and treatment aspects.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Feb 27;271(1):157-180. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Hospital, LMU, Nußbaumstr. 7, 80336, Munich, Germany.

Nicotine intake and cortical activity are closely related, as they can influence each other. Nicotine is implicated in the induction and modification of cortical plasticity and excitability, whereas a change on cortical plasticity and excitability can also lead to a modification of the smoking behaviour of an individual. The aim of this systematic review was, on the one hand, to evaluate the effects of nicotinergic modulation on cortical excitability and plasticity, and, on the other hand, to assess if modifying the brain's excitability and plasticity could influence one's smoking behaviour. Two systematic literature searches in the PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were conducted. Studies focusing either on the impact of nicotinergic modulation on cortical activity or the treatment effect of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques (NIBS) on smoking behaviour were included. A total of 22 studies for the first systematic search and 35 studies for the second one were included after full-text screening. Nicotine's effect on cortical activity appeared to depend on smoking status of the individual. While deprived smokers seem to generally profit from nicotine consumption in terms of cortical excitability and plasticity, the contrary was true for non-smokers. Regarding the questions of how changes in cortical excitability can influence smoking behaviour, a trend points towards NIBS being a potential intervention technique for smoking cessation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
February 2021