Publications by authors named "Carlota Canalias"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

µJ-level multi-cycle terahertz generation in a periodically poled Rb:KTP crystal.

Opt Lett 2021 Feb;46(4):741-744

We demonstrate multi-cycle terahertz (MC-THz) generation in a 15.5 mm long periodically poled rubidium (Rb)-doped potassium titanyl phosphate (Rb:PPKTP) crystal with a poling period of 300 µm. By cryogenically cooling the crystal to 77 K, up to 0.72 µJ terahertz energy is obtained at a frequency of 0.5 THz with a 3 GHz bandwidth. A maximum internal optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency of 0.16% is achieved, which is comparable with results achieved using periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Neither photorefractive effects nor damage was observed with up to 900/, showing the great potential of Rb:PPKTP for multi-millijoule-level MC-THz generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.413410DOI Listing
February 2021

Ion-exchanged waveguides in periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO for efficient second harmonic generation.

Opt Express 2020 Dec;28(26):38822-38830

An ion-exchange process has been developed for periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO (RKTP) which warrants high efficiency and low loss channel waveguides. The domain stability was investigated, and it was found that domain gratings with uncharged walls could stand the ion-exchange process without deterioration. 3.1 mW of blue second harmonic light was generated from 74 mW of radiation at 940.2 nm coupled into an 8 µm wide and 7 mm long waveguide, corresponding to a normalized conversion efficiency of 115%/Wcm. Waveguides in PPRKTP open the possibility for stable operation at high optical powers, as well as generating entangled photons at low optical powers, and enable the investigation of novel nonlinear processes such as counter-propagating interactions in a waveguide format.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.410773DOI Listing
December 2020

Development and experimental demonstration of negative first-order quasi-phase matching in a periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO crystal.

Opt Lett 2020 Nov;45(21):6026-6029

We worked on a new scheme of quasi-phase matching (QPM) based on the negative first order of the spatial modulation of the sign of the second-order nonlinearity. Applying this scheme in the case of angular-QPM (AQPM) in a biaxial crystal reveals new directions of propagation for efficient parametric frequency conversion as well as "giant" spectral acceptances. The experimental validation is performed in a periodically poled rubidium-doped biaxial crystal. This new approach naturally extends to other periodically poled uniaxial crystals such as periodically poled .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.408839DOI Listing
November 2020

High resolution and sensitivity up-conversion mid-infrared photon-counting LIDAR.

Appl Opt 2020 Mar;59(8):2365-2369

A single-photon-counting mid-infrared LIDAR is presented. 2.4 µm mid-infrared photons were up-converted to 737 nm by intra-cavity mixing in a periodically poled rubidium-doped crystal inside a : laser. The up-converted photons were detected by a Si single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD). A temporal resolution of 42 ps and a dark count rate of 500 Hz were achieved, limited by the SPAD and ambient light leakage. It allowed for detection of two targets separated by only a few millimeters. This technique is easily extendable to longer wavelengths, limited primarily by the nonlinear crystal transparency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.383907DOI Listing
March 2020

Coherent phase transfer and pulse compression at 1.4  μm in a backward-wave OPO.

Opt Lett 2019 Jun;44(12):3066-3069

The frequency modulation transfer property of a backward-wave optical parametric oscillator (BWOPO) is investigated in the context of near-IR pulse compression. The maximum transferrable bandwidth from the pump to the forward wave in a BWOPO is determined by the group dispersion mismatch. In comparison, the third-order phase introduced in a single-grating compressor setup is more detrimental to achieve optimum compression of the BWOPO forward wave. Nevertheless, we demonstrate a 220 GHz bandwidth transfer from 800 nm to 1.4 μm, with a compression factor of 115, leading to near-IR pulses as short as 1.3 ps with μJ energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.44.003066DOI Listing
June 2019

Narrowband, tunable, infrared radiation by parametric amplification of a chirped backward-wave OPO signal.

Opt Express 2019 Apr;27(8):10602-10610

The strict momentum conservation constraints for backward-wave optical parametric oscillators (BWOPOs) gives an inherently narrowband backward-generated wave, even with broadband pumping. Unfortunately, the limited tuning range of this wave restricts potential applications. Here we demonstrate a method to circumvent this restriction and increase the tuning range by more than one order of magnitude. A linearly chirped pump modulation is transferred to the forward-generated BWOPO wave, which is then mixed with an identically chirped pump in a conventional optical parametric amplifier to obtain narrowband (38 GHz), broadly tunable, infrared radiation around 1.86 µm, with an output energy of 19 µJ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.010602DOI Listing
April 2019

Flexoelectric Fracture-Ratchet Effect in Ferroelectrics.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Apr;122(13):135502

Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Catalonia.

The propagation front of a crack generates large strain gradients and it is therefore a strong source of gradient-induced polarization (flexoelectricity). Herein, we demonstrate that, in piezoelectric materials, a consequence of flexoelectricity is that crack propagation is helped or hindered depending on whether it is parallel or antiparallel to the piezoelectric polar axis. The discovery of crack propagation asymmetry proves that fracture physics cannot be assumed to be symmetric in polar materials, and indicates that flexoelectricity should be incorporated in any realistic model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.135502DOI Listing
April 2019

Quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation in periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO ridge waveguide.

Opt Express 2018 Dec;26(25):33142-33147

A 10.8 µm wide ridge waveguide was fabricated by diamond-blade dicing in an ion-exchanged periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO sample. The waveguide was used to generate blue second harmonic light at 468.8 nm in the TM mode through first order Type I quasi-phase matching, exploiting the large d coefficient of the crystal. It was evaluated using a cw Ti:Sapphire laser, and 6.7 µW of blue light was generated with 5.8 mW of fundamental radiation at 933.8 nm coupled through the waveguide. The results presented here pave the way for efficient nonlinear processes in a waveguide format.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.033142DOI Listing
December 2018

Validation of the angular quasi-phase-matching theory for the biaxial optical class using PPRKTP.

Opt Lett 2018 Sep;43(17):4276-4279

We report the first experimental validation of angular quasi-phase-matching (AQPM) theory in a biaxial crystal by performing second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO (PPRKTP) crystal cut as a sphere. Both AQPM and birefringence phase-matching (BPM) angles were measured thanks to a Kappa circle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.43.004276DOI Listing
September 2018

Elasticity Modulation Due to Polarization Reversal and Ionic Motion in the Ferroelectric Superionic Conductor KTiOPO.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Sep 11;10(38):32298-32303. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Applied Physics , Royal Institute of Technology , Roslagstullsbacken 21 , 10691 Stockholm , Sweden.

The coupling between ionic degrees of freedom and ferroelectricity has received renewed attention in recent years, given that surface electrochemical processes have been shown to be intrinsically linked to ferroelectric phase stability in ultrathin ferroelectric films. However, the coupling between bulk ionic transport and local polarization switching has received less attention, as typically the bulk ionic mobilities are low for common ferroelectrics at room temperature. Here, we use the coupled band-excitation method in conjunction with site-correlated time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, to determine the coupling between ferroelectric switching and ionic motion in single crystal KTiOPO. The local scanning probe measurements indicate a substantial softening, as determined by resonant frequency changes, during reversal of polarization along one direction. These changes are correlated with the mass spectrometry measurements, showing a polarization-dependent accumulation of K ions at the polar surfaces, thus corroborating their role in the screening process. These studies shed light on the interplay between ionic dynamics and bulk ferroelectric switching and have implications for studies on domain wall conductivity, chemical switching, and bulk and surface-screening phenomena.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b07537DOI Listing
September 2018

Counter-propagating parametric interaction with phonon-polaritons in periodically poled KTiOPO4.

Opt Express 2017 Feb;25(3):2677-2686

Strongly enhanced backward stimulated polariton scattering (BSPS) is demonstrated in periodically-poled KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystals with a high power-conversion efficiency up to 70%. We study the physical mechanism of such counter-propagating parametric interaction with phonon-polaritons in χ(2) modulated structures. BSPS is a three-wave mixing that is distinguished from backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), while a strong absorption at large polariton wave-vectors can still make BSPS display certain characteristics of BSRS such as self-compression of the Stokes pulse. We also compare BSPS with counter-propagating parametric oscillation in the near- and mid-infrared range, providing an estimation of the fabrication error margin to expect the outcome of their competition in the same device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.002677DOI Listing
February 2017

Highly efficient mirrorless optical parametric oscillator pumped by nanosecond pulses.

Opt Lett 2017 Jul;42(13):2435-2438

A highly efficient mirrorless optical parametric oscillator (MOPO), pumped by narrowband nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm, is demonstrated. The MOPO is based on quasi-phase-matched parametric interaction of counter-propagating photons in 1-mm-thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO crystal with a period of 755 nm. It generates a co-propagating signal at 1740 nm and a counter-propagating idler at 2741 nm, achieving mJ-level output with a total signal-and-idler conversion efficiency of 47%. Both generated waves present narrow spectral bandwidths, thanks to the unique properties of the counter-propagating nonlinear interaction. The high conversion efficiency, inherently narrow spectral width, and simplicity of the optical setup make the MOPO an attractive alternative to conventional co-propagating optical parametric oscillators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.42.002435DOI Listing
July 2017

Cascaded counter-propagating nonlinear interactions in highly-efficient sub-µm periodically poled crystals.

Sci Rep 2017 Aug 14;7(1):8037. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden.

Mirrorless optical parametric oscillators (MOPOs) are very attractive parametric devices that rely on the nonlinear interaction of counter-propagating photons to inherently establish distributed feedback, without the use of external mirrors or surface coatings. These devices offer unique spectral and coherence properties that will benefit a large variety of applications ranging from spectroscopy to quantum communications. The major obstacle in exploiting their full potential is ascribed to the difficulty in engineering a nonlinear material in which the generation of counter-propagating waves can be phase matched. Here we present a reliable and consistent technique for fabrication of highly-efficient sub-micrometer periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO. We experimentally demonstrate the first cascaded counter-propagating interactions in which the generated forward signal serves as a pump for a secondary MOPO process, reaching pump depletion larger than 60%. The cascaded process exemplifies the high efficiency of our nonlinear photonic structures. Our domain-engineering technique paves the way to realize counter-propagating schemes and devices that have been deemed unfeasible until now.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-07016-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556100PMC
August 2017

Fully-resonant, tunable, monolithic frequency conversion as a coherent UVA source.

Opt Express 2017 Jan;25(2):1142-1150

We demonstrate a monolithic frequency converter incorporating up to four tuning degrees of freedom, three temperature and one strain, allowing resonance of pump and generated wavelengths simultaneous with optimal phase-matching. With a Rb-doped periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) implementation, we demonstrate efficient continuous-wave second harmonic generation from 795 to 397, with low-power efficiency of 72% and high-power slope efficiency of 4.5%. The measured performance shows good agreement with theoretical modeling of the device. We measure optical bistability effects, and show how they can be used to improve the stability of the output against pump frequency and amplitude variations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.001142DOI Listing
January 2017

Periodic poling of Rb-doped KTiOPO4 by coercive field engineering.

Opt Express 2016 Jun;24(13):14682-9

We demonstrate fine-pitch periodic poling of bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO4 using a coercive field grating induced by ion-exchange. These samples were used for quasi phase matched (QPM) second harmonic generation at 795 nm with a normalized conversion efficiency of 1.7% W-1cm-1. Additionally, the ion-exchange introduced a refractive index change over the sample thickness resulting in a phasematching wavelength shift of 0.21 nm, adding extra tunability to the QPM device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.014682DOI Listing
June 2016

Parametric down-conversion with nonideal and random quasi-phase-matching.

Sci Rep 2016 05 13;6:26079. Epub 2016 May 13.

Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.

Quasi-phase-matching (QPM) has enriched the capacity of parametric down-conversion (PDC) in generating biphotons for many fundamental tests and advanced applications. However, it is not clear how the nonidealities and randomness in the QPM grating of a parametric down-converter may affect the quantum properties of the biphotons. This paper intends to provide insights into the interplay between PDC and nonideal or random QPM structures. Using a periodically poled nonlinear crystal with short periodicity, we conduct experimental and theoretical studies of PDC subject to nonideal duty cycle and random errors in domain lengths. We report the observation of biphotons emerging through noncritical birefringent-phasematching, which is impossible to occur in PDC with an ideal QPM grating, and a biphoton spectrum determined by the details of nonidealities and randomness. We also observed QPM biphotons with a diminished strength. These features are both confirmed by our theory. Our work provides new perspectives for biphoton engineering with QPM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep26079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4865886PMC
May 2016

Studies of sub-millisecond domain dynamics in periodically poled Rb-doped KTiOPO(4), using online in situ second harmonic generation.

Opt Express 2015 Aug;23(16):20332-9

The temporal evolution of in situ second-harmonic generation was employed to study domain dynamics during periodic poling in Rb-doped KTP. With this method we investigated the influence of various poling parameters, including electric-field pulse shape, pulse magnitude, and number of pulses, on the quality of the QPM structure. It was found that the grating formation can be a sub-millisecond process and the benefits of using symmetric triangular electric-field pulse shape over square pulse shape in the single-pulse poling regime were demonstrated. Multiple-pulse poling with triangular pulses was shown to have a detrimental effect on the QPM structure quality, while multiple square pulses can provide additional flexibility to the structuring process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.020332DOI Listing
August 2015

Contact poling of Rb:KTiOPO(4) using a micro-structured silicon electrode.

Opt Express 2015 Jan;23(2):636-41

A contact poling technique for domain engineering of ferroelectrics using a micro-structured silicon electrode is demonstrated on Rb:KTiOPO4. High quality QPM gratings were reproducibly fabricated. The silicon electrode is reusable and the technique potentially suitable when complex structures with sub-μm features are to be domain engineered, which otherwise is incompatible with conventional photolithography. A non-negligible domain broadening was seen and attributed to a low nucleation rate using this type of electrode. However, under the appropriate poling conditions, this could be exploited to obtain a QPM grating with a short pitch (2 μm), equal to half of the electrode period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.000636DOI Listing
January 2015

Highly efficient continuous wave blue second-harmonic generation in fs-laser written periodically poled Rb:KTiOPO₄ waveguides.

Opt Lett 2014 Mar;39(5):1274-7

Waveguides were inscribed into a 9.5 mm long periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal with a Ti:sapphire femtosecond-laser. Waveguiding was achieved between two parallel written tracks with spacings of 17-19 μm. The fundamental power of 1.6 W for frequency doubling in the waveguide was delivered by a continuous wave Ti:sapphire laser at a wavelength of 943.18 nm. A maximum output power of 76 mW in the blue spectral region was achieved. This corresponds to a single pass normalized conversion efficiency of 4.6%  W(-1) cm(-2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.39.001274DOI Listing
March 2014

High-power continuous-wave frequency-doubling in KTiOAsO4.

Opt Express 2013 Dec;21(25):30453-9

High-power continuous-wave generation at 533 nm is demonstrated in bulk periodically poled KTiOAsO(4) (KTA) by single-pass frequency doubling of a VBG-locked Yb-doped fiber laser. Absorption characteristic and second harmonic generation (SHG) performance of different KTA samples are studied and compared. The best performing sample catered for 25%-efficient SHG of 13.6 W green light with high spatial beam quality M(2) <1.2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.030453DOI Listing
December 2013

Control of forward stimulated polariton scattering in periodically-poled KTP crystals.

Opt Express 2013 Nov;21(22):27277-83

We report suppression of forward stimulated polariton scattering (SPS) in χ((2)) structured media. Periodic poling in KTiOPO(4) (KTP) leads to the destructive interference of phonon-polariton waves, which is responsible for the dependence of the SPS threshold on the poling period. This was confirmed by comparing the SPS thresholds in periodically-poled KTP (PPKTP) crystals with different poling periods. Further confirming the physical picture, we studied the changes in the Stokes power distribution as a function of the rotation angle of the PPKTP crystal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.027277DOI Listing
November 2013

Ferroelectric domain wall injection.

Adv Mater 2014 Jan 18;26(2):293-8. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Centre for Nanostructured Media School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN, United Kingdom.

Ferroelectric domain wall injection has been demonstrated by engineering of the local electric field, using focused ion beam milled defects in thin single crystal lamellae of KTiOPO4 (KTP). The electric field distribution (top) displays localized field hot-spots, which correlate with nucleation events (bottom). Designed local field variations can also dictate subsequent domain wall mobility, demonstrating a new paradigm in ferroelectric domain wall control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201303567DOI Listing
January 2014

Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO₄ below 400 nm at high peak-intensities.

Opt Express 2013 Jan;21(2):1395-403

Department of Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

We demonstrate that bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO₄ (RKTP) shows improved susceptibility to gray-tracking compared to flux-grown KTiOPO₄ . We show high-fidelity periodic poling of 1 mm thick RKTP with a period of 3.18 µm for second harmonic generation at 398 nm with a normalized conversion efficiency of 1.79%/Wcm. The crystal is used to frequency-double 138 fs-long pulses with an efficiency of 20% and a peak intensity of 560 MW/cm² without visible gray-tracking signs. We demonstrate that two-photon absorption is the predominant mechanism limiting the SHG efficiency in this spectral range at high peak powers and high repetition rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.001395DOI Listing
January 2013

Laser-written waveguides in KTP for broadband Type II second harmonic generation.

Opt Express 2012 Sep;20(20):22308-13

Department of Applied Physics, KTH, Albanova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Femto-second laser writing was used to fabricate waveguides in a z-cut KTP sample with losses below 0.8 dB/cm. They were used for efficient, broad bandwidth, Type II birefringent second harmonic generation to the green. The temperature and wavelength bandwidth were, 28 C ∙ cm and 0.85 nm ∙ cm, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.022308DOI Listing
September 2012

Narrowband and tunable ring optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating.

Opt Lett 2007 Nov;32(22):3278-80

Laser Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

We demonstrate a tunable nanosecond optical parametric oscillator with a narrowed signal spectrum. This was done by use of a volume Bragg grating based retroreflector, which makes the tuning simple and yields a compact design. Using periodically poled KTiOPO4 as the nonlinear medium, we generated 0.42 mJ of signal energy at 760 nm with a tuning range of 5 nm(2.6 THz) and a bandwidth of 0.25 nm(130 GHz) when the oscillator was pumped at 532 nm with 1.3 mJ of energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.32.003278DOI Listing
November 2007

Nonlinear cavity dumping of a high finesse frequency mixing module.

Opt Express 2007 Jul;15(15):9799-803

We present a novel generic approach for pulsed light generation in the visible spectrum. We demonstrate how the circulating field of a high finesse laser can be efficiently cavity dumped through sum-frequency mixing with externally injected high peak power single pass pulses. Periodically poled KTP is used as the nonlinear medium to minimize the peak power requirement of the injected beam. The experimental setup consists of a high finesse 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser cavity and a passively Qswitched Nd:YAG laser. Yellow pulses at 593 nm are generated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.15.009799DOI Listing
July 2007

An all solid-state UV source based on a frequency quadrupled, passively Q-switched 946 nm laser.

Opt Express 2007 Jan;15(2):449-58

We report a 236 nm light source with 20 mW of average power based on critically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a beta-barium borate crystal at room temperature. The fundamental light source was a passively Q-switched 946 nm Nd:YAG laser tunable from 10 - 38 kHz and with a pulse length of 16 ns. In the generation of 473 nm light, periodically poled KTP and BiBO was compared in terms of conversion efficiency and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.15.000449DOI Listing
January 2007

Bright, single-spatial-mode source of frequency non-degenerate, polarization-entangled photon pairs using periodically poled KTP.

Opt Express 2004 Jul;12(15):3573-80

We use two perpendicular crystals of periodically-poled KTP to directly generate polarization-entangled photon pairs, the majority of which are emitted into a single Gaussian spatial mode. The signal and idler photons have wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm, respectively, and the photon-pair generation rate is 1.2x107 sec-1 for a pump power of 62 mW. The apparatus is compact, flexible, and easily to use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/opex.12.003573DOI Listing
July 2004
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