Publications by authors named "Carlos Zaragoza"

55 Publications

Ivabradine Induces Cardiac Protection against Myocardial Infarction by Preventing Cyclophilin-A Secretion in Pigs under Coronary Ischemia/Reperfusion.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 12;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), Cardiology Department, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, 28223 Madrid, Spain.

In response to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion, proteolysis mediated by extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and its secreted ligand cyclophilin-A (CyPA) significantly contributes to cardiac injury and necrosis. Here, we aimed to investigate if, in addition to the effect on the funny current (I(f)), Ivabradine may also play a role against cardiac necrosis by reducing EMMPRIN/CyPA-mediated cardiac inflammation. In a porcine model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR), we found that administration of 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine significantly improved cardiac function and reduced cardiac necrosis by day 7 after IR, detecting a significant increase in cardiac CyPA in the necrotic compared to the risk areas, which was inversely correlated with the levels of circulating CyPA detected in plasma samples from the same subjects. In testing whether Ivabradine may regulate the levels of CyPA, no changes in tissue CyPA were found in healthy pigs treated with 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine, but interestingly, when analyzing the complex EMMPRIN/CyPA, rather high glycosylated EMMPRIN, which is required for EMMPRIN-mediated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and increased CyPA bonding to low-glycosylated forms of EMMPRIN were detected by day 7 after IR in pigs treated with Ivabradine. To study the mechanism by which Ivabradine may prevent secretion of CyPA, we first found that Ivabradine was time-dependent in inhibiting co-localization of CyPA with the granule exocytosis marker vesicle-associated membrane protein 1 (VAMP1). However, Ivabradine had no effect on mRNA expression nor in the proteasome and lysosome degradation of CyPA. In conclusion, our results point toward CyPA, its ligand EMMPRIN, and the complex CyPA/EMMPRIN as important targets of Ivabradine in cardiac protection against IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001911PMC
March 2021

miR-16 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Unidad de Fisiología, Departamento de Biología de Sistemas, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2021.03.003DOI Listing
March 2021

Genetic Deletion of NOD1 Prevents Cardiac Ca Mishandling Induced by Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 23;21(22). Epub 2020 Nov 23.

IdiPAZ: Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, 28046 Madrid, Spain.

Risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases considerably as renal function declines in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) has emerged as a novel innate immune receptor involved in both CVD and CKD. Following activation, NOD1 undergoes a conformational change that allows the activation of the receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 2 (RIP2), promoting an inflammatory response. We evaluated whether the genetic deficiency of or in mice could prevent cardiac Ca mishandling induced by sixth nephrectomy (Nx), a model of CKD. We examined intracellular Ca dynamics in cardiomyocytes from (), and sham-operated or nephrectomized mice. Compared with cardiomyocytes, -Nx cells showed an impairment in the properties and kinetics of the intracellular Ca transients, a reduction in both cell shortening and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca load, together with an increase in diastolic Ca leak. Cardiomyocytes from -Nx and -Nx mice showed a significant amelioration in Ca mishandling without modifying the kidney impairment induced by Nx. In conclusion, and deficiency prevents the intracellular Ca mishandling induced by experimental CKD, unveiling new innate immune targets for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiac complications in patients with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700567PMC
November 2020

Ivabradine induces cardiac protection by preventing cardiogenic shock-induced extracellular matrix degradation.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2020 Oct 29. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Unidad de Investigación Cardiovascular, Departamento de Cardiología, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Hospital Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objectives: Ivabradine reduces heart rate by blocking the I(f) current and preserves blood pressure and stroke volume through unknown mechanisms. Caveolin-3 protects the heart by forming protein complexes with several proteins, including extracellular matrix (ECM)-metalloproteinase-inducer (EMMPRIN) and hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HN4), a target of ivabradine. We hypothesized that ivabradine might also exert cardioprotective effects through inhibition of ECM degradation.

Methods: In a porcine model of cardiogenic shock, we studied the effects of ivabradine on heart integrity, the levels of MMP-9 and EMMPRIN, and the stability of caveolin-3/HCN4 protein complexes with EMMPRIN.

Results: Administration of 0.3 mg/kg ivabradine significantly reduced cardiogenic shock-induced ventricular necrosis and expression of MMP-9 without affecting EMMPRIN mRNA, protein, or protein glycosylation (required for MMP activation). However, ivabradine increased the levels of the caveolin-3/LG-EMMPRIN (low-glycosylated EMMPRIN) and caveolin-3/HCN4 protein complexes and decreased that of a new complex between HCN4 and high-glycosylated EMMPRIN formed in response to cardiogenic shock. We next tested whether caveolin-3 can bind to HCN4 and EMMPRIN and found that the HCN4/EMMPRIN complex was preserved when we silenced caveolin-3 expression, indicating a direct interaction between these 2 proteins. Similarly, EMMPRIN-silenced cells showed a significant reduction in the binding of caveolin-3/HCN4, which regulates the I(f) current, suggesting that, rather than a direct interaction, both proteins bind to EMMPRIN.

Conclusions: In addition to inhibition of the I(f) current, ivabradine may induce cardiac protection by inhibiting ECM degradation through preservation of the caveolin-3/LG-EMMPRIN complex and control heart rate by stabilizing the caveolin-3/HCN4 complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2020.09.012DOI Listing
October 2020

Cardiac microvasculature and adverse remodeling after acute myocardial infarction. New evidence on the use of VEGF as a therapeutic target.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 02 17;74(2):124-125. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Spain; Unidad de Investigación Cardiovascular, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria/Servicio de Cardiología, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2020.07.019DOI Listing
February 2021

Ivabradine-Stimulated Microvesicle Release Induces Cardiac Protection against Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 8;21(18). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Cardiology Department, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), 28223 Madrid, Spain.

Ivabradine can reduce heart rate through inhibition of the current I() by still unexplored mechanisms. In a porcine model of ischemia reperfusion (IR), we found that treatment with 0.3 mg/kg Ivabradine increased plasma release of microvesicles (MVs) over Placebo, as detected by flow cytometry of plasma isolated from pigs 7 days after IR, in which a tenfold increase of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) containing (both high and low-glycosylated) MVs, was detected in response to Ivabradine. The source of MVs was investigated, finding a 37% decrease of CD31+ endothelial cell derived MVs, while CD41+ platelet MVs remained unchanged. By contrast, Ivabradine induced the release of HCN4+ (mostly cardiac) MVs. While no differences respect to EMMPRIN as a cargo component were found in endothelial and platelet derived MVs, Ivabradine induced a significant release of EMMPRIN+/HCN4+ MVs by day 7 after IR. To test the role of EMMPRIN+ cardiac MVs (EMCMV), H9c2 cell monolayers were incubated for 24 h with 10 EMCMVs, reducing apoptosis, and increasing 2 times cell proliferation and 1.5 times cell migration. The in vivo contribution of Ivabradine-induced plasma MVs was also tested, in which 10 MVs isolated from the plasma of pigs treated with Ivabradine or Placebo 7 days after IR, were injected in pigs under IR, finding a significant cardiac protection by increasing left ventricle ejection fraction and a significant reduction of the necrotic area. In conclusion ivabradine induces cardiac protection by increasing at least the release of EMMPRIN containing cardiac microvesicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555962PMC
September 2020

Enhanced Klotho availability protects against cardiac dysfunction induced by uraemic cardiomyopathy by regulating Ca handling.

Br J Pharmacol 2020 10 15;177(20):4701-4719. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Cardiorenal Translational Laboratory, Institute of Research i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Background And Purpose: Klotho is a membrane-bound or soluble protein, originally identified as an age-suppressing factor and regulator of mineral metabolism. Klotho deficiency is associated with the development of renal disease, but its role in cardiac function in the context of uraemic cardiomyopathy is unknown.

Experimental Approach: We explored the effects of Klotho on cardiac Ca cycling. We analysed Ca handling in adult cardiomyocytes from Klotho-deficient (kl/kl) mice and from a murine model of 5/6 nephrectomy (Nfx). We also studied the effect of exogenous Klotho supplementation, by chronic recombinant Klotho treatment, or endogenous Klotho overexpression, using transgenic mice overexpressing Klotho (Tg-Kl), on uraemic cardiomyopathy. Hearts from Nfx mice were used to study Ca sensitivity of ryanodine receptors and their phosphorylation state.

Key Results: Cardiomyocytes from kl/kl mice showed decreased amplitude of intracellular Ca transients and cellular shortening together with an increase in pro-arrhythmic Ca events compared with cells from wild-type mice. Cardiomyocytes from Nfx mice exhibited the same impairment in Ca cycling as kl/kl mice. Changes in Nfx cardiomyocytes were explained by higher sensitivity of ryanodine receptors to Ca and their increased phosphorylation at the calmodulin kinase type II and protein kinase A sites. Ca mishandling in Nfx-treated mice was fully prevented by chronic recombinant Klotho administration or transgenic Klotho overexpression.

Conclusions And Implications: Klotho emerges as an attractive therapeutic tool to improve cardiac Ca mishandling observed in uraemic cardiomyopathy. Strategies that improve Klotho availability are good candidates to protect the heart from functional cardiac alterations in renal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520447PMC
October 2020

Targeting TLR4 with ApTOLL Improves Heart Function in Response to Coronary Ischemia Reperfusion in Pigs Undergoing Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Biomolecules 2020 08 9;10(8). Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Cardiology Department, Universidad Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), CIBERCV, 28223 Madrid, Spain.

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) contributes to the pathogenesis of coronary ischemia/reperfusion (IR). To test whether the new TLR4 antagonist, ApTOLL, may prevent coronary IR damage, we administered 0.078 mg/kg ApTOLL or Placebo in pigs subjected to IR, analyzing the levels of cardiac troponins, matrix metalloproteinases, pro-, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, heart function, and tissue integrity over a period of 7 days after IR. Our results show that ApTOLL reduced cardiac troponin-1 24 h after administration, improving heart function, as detected by a significant recovery of the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and the shortening fraction (FS) cardiac parameters. The extension of necrotic and fibrotic areas was also reduced, as detected by Evans blue/2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Hematoxylin/Eosine, and Masson Trichrome staining of heart sections, together with a significant reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix-degrading, matrix metalloproteinase 9. Finally, the expression of the following cytokines, CCL1, CCL2, MIP1-A-B, CCL5, CD40L, C5/C5A, CXCL1, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL12, G-CSF, GM-CSF, ICAM-1, INF-g, IL1-a, ILI-b, IL-1Ra, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL13, IL16, IL17-A, IL17- E, IL18, IL21, IL27, IL32, MIF, SERPIN-E1, TNF-a, and TREM-1, were also assayed, detecting a pronounced decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines after 7 days of treatment with ApTOLL. Altogether, our results show that ApTOLL is a promising new tool for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10081167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464507PMC
August 2020

BML-111 treatment prevents cardiac apoptosis and oxidative stress in a mouse model of autoimmune myocarditis.

FASEB J 2020 08 16;34(8):10531-10546. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (Centro Mixto CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium that can progress to a more severe phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Three main harmful factors determine this progression: inflammation, cell death, and oxidative stress. Lipoxins and their derivatives are endogenous proresolving mediators that induce the resolution of the inflammatory process. This study aims to determine whether these mediators play a protective role in a murine model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by treating with the lipoxin A analog BML-111. We observed that EAM mice presented extensive infiltration areas that correlated with higher levels of inflammatory and cardiac damage markers. Both parameters were significantly reduced in BML-treated EAM mice. Consistently, cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and emerging fibrosis detected in EAM mice was prevented by BML-111 treatment. At the molecular level, we demonstrated that treatment with BML-111 hampered apoptosis and oxidative stress induction by EAM. Moreover, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that these beneficial effects were mediated by activation of Nrf2 pathway through CaMKK2-AMPKα kinase pathway. Altogether, our data indicate that treatment with the lipoxin derivative BML-111 effectively alleviates EAM outcome and prevents cardiac dysfunction, thus, underscoring the therapeutic potential of lipoxins and their derivatives to treat myocarditis and other inflammatory cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000611RDOI Listing
August 2020

CIBER-CLAP (CIBERCV Cardioprotection Large Animal Platform): A multicenter preclinical network for testing reproducibility in cardiovascular interventions.

Sci Rep 2019 12 30;9(1):20290. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Madrid, Spain.

Despite many cardioprotective interventions have shown to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury in the experimental setting, only few of them have succeeded in translating their findings into positive proof-of-concept clinical trials. Controversial and inconsistent experimental and clinical evidence supports the urgency of a disruptive paradigm shift for testing cardioprotective therapies. There is a need to evaluate experimental reproducibility before stepping into the clinical arena. The CIBERCV (acronym for Spanish network-center for cardiovascular biomedical research) has set up the "Cardioprotection Large Animal Platform" (CIBER-CLAP) to perform experimental studies testing the efficacy and reproducibility of promising cardioprotective interventions based on a pre-specified design and protocols, randomization, blinding assessment and other robust methodological features. Our first randomized, control-group, open-label blinded endpoint experimental trial assessing local ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in a pig model of acute myocardial infarction (n = 87) will be carried out in three separate sets of experiments performed in parallel by three laboratories. Each set aims to assess: (A) CMR-based outcomes; (B) histopathological-based outcomes; and (C) protein-based outcomes. Three core labs will assess outcomes in a blinded fashion (CMR imaging, histopathology and proteomics) and 2 methodological core labs will conduct the randomization and statistical analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-56613-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937304PMC
December 2019

Differential expression of circulating miRNAs as a novel tool to assess BAG3-associated familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

Biosci Rep 2019 03 15;39(3). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Univ Puerta del Mar, School of Medicine, Cadiz, Spain

A new familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDCM) was found related to mutations in gene. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent new targets of FDCM, although no studies have assessed clinical association between Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3)-related DCM and miRNAs. Here, we studied whether a clinical association between BAG3-related FDCM and circulating miRNAs may have diagnostic and prognostic value in a small cohort of familial related individuals carrying a BAG3 mutation (BAG3+) and/or diagnosed of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (DCM+). The analysis of 1759 circulating miRNAs showed significant differences between BAG3+ and BAG3- individuals for miRNAs mir-3191-3p, 6769b-3p, 1249-ep, 154-5p, 6855-5p, and 182-5p, while comparisons between BAG3+/DCM+ versus BAG3+/DCM- were restricted to miRNAs mir-154-5p, 6885-5p, and 182-5p, showing significant correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, A wave, left atrium length, and left atrium area. Additionally, when stratified by gender and age, miRNAs were statistically correlated with critical parameters, including left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and ventricular diameter, in women and young men. Likewise, 56% of BAG3+/DCM+, significantly co-expressed mir-154-5p and mir-182-5p, and a slight 4% did not express such combination, suggesting that co-expression of mir-154-5p and mir-182-5p may potentially show diagnostic value. Further studies will require long-term follow-up, and validation in larger populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20180934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418398PMC
March 2019

Non-Invasive Detection of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer EMMPRIN, a New Therapeutic Target against Atherosclerosis, Inhibited by Endothelial Nitric Oxide.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Oct 19;19(10). Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Cardiology Department, University Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), CIBERCV, 28223 Madrid, Spain.

Lack of endothelial nitric oxide causes endothelial dysfunction and circulating monocyte infiltration, contributing to systemic atheroma plaque formation in arterial territories. Among the different inflammatory products, macrophage-derived foam cells and smooth muscle cells synthesize matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), playing a pivotal role in early plaque formation and enlargement. We found increased levels of MMP-9 and MMP-13 in human endarterectomies with advanced atherosclerosis, together with significant amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) metalloproteinase inducer EMMPRIN. To test whether the absence of NO may aggravate atherosclerosis through EMMPRIN activation, double NOS3/apoE knockout (KO) mice expressed high levels of EMMPRIN in carotid plaques, suggesting that targeting extracellular matrix degradation may represent a new mechanism by which endothelial NO prevents atherosclerosis. Based on our previous experience, by using gadolinium-enriched paramagnetic fluorescence micellar nanoparticles conjugated with AP9 (NAP9), an EMMPRIN-specific binding peptide, magnetic resonance sequences allowed non-invasive visualization of carotid EMMPRIN in NOS3/apoE over apoE control mice, in which atheroma plaques were significantly reduced. Taken together, these results point to EMMPRIN as a new therapeutic target of NO-mediated protection against atherosclerosis, and NAP9 as a non-invasive molecular tool to target atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214015PMC
October 2018

Ivabradine in acute heart failure: Effects on heart rate and hemodynamic parameters in a randomized and controlled swine trial.

Cardiol J 2020 29;27(1):62-71. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Cardiology Department, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (IRYCIS), University of Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Acute heart failure patients could benefit from heart rate reduction, as myocardial consumption and oxidative stress are related to tachycardia. Ivabradine could have a clinical role attenuating catecholamine-induced tachycardia. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic effects of ivabradine in a swine model of acute heart failure.

Methods: Myocardial infarction was induced by 45 min left anterior descending artery balloon occlusion in 18 anesthetized pigs. An infusion of dobutamine and noradrenaline was maintained aiming to preserve adequate hemodynamic support, accompanied by fluid administration to obtain a pulmonary wedged pressure ≥ 18 mmHg. After reperfusion, rhythm and hemodynamic stabilization, the animals were randomized to 0.3 mg/kg ivabradine intravenously (n = 9) or placebo (n = 9). Hemodynamic parameters were observed over a 60 min period.

Results: Ivabradine was associated with a significant reduction in heart rate (88.4 ± 12.0 bpm vs. 122.7 ± 17.3 bpm after 15 min of ivabradine/placebo infusion, p < 0.01) and an increase in stroke volume (68.8 ± 13.7 mL vs. 52.4 ± 11.5 mL after 15 min, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in systemic or pulmonary arterial pressure, or significant changes in pulmonary capillary pressure. However, after 15 min, cardiac output was significantly reduced with ivabradine (-5.2% vs. +15.0% variation in ivabradine/placebo group, p = 0.03), and central venous pressure increased (+4.2% vs. -19.7% variation, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Ivabradine reduces heart rate and increases stroke volume without modifying systemic or left filling pressures in a swine model of acute heart failure. However, an excessive heart rate reduction could lead to a decrease in cardiac output and an increase in right filling pressures. Future studies with specific heart rate targets are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2018.0078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086495PMC
June 2021

Deficiency of NOD1 Improves the β-Adrenergic Modulation of Ca Handling in a Mouse Model of Heart Failure.

Front Physiol 2018 14;9:702. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Innate Immune Response Group, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome characterized by cardiac dysfunction, Ca mishandling, and chronic activation of the innate immune system. Reduced cardiac output in HF leads to compensatory mechanisms via activation of the adrenergic nervous system. In turn, chronic adrenergic overstimulation induces pro-arrhythmic events, increasing the rate of sudden death in failing patients. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) is an innate immune modulator that plays a key role in HF progression. NOD1 deficiency in mice prevents Ca mishandling in HF under basal conditions, but its role during β-adrenergic stimulation remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether NOD1 regulates the β-adrenergic modulation of Ca signaling in HF. Ca dynamics were examined before and after isoproterenol perfusion in cardiomyocytes isolated from healthy and from post-myocardial infarction (PMI) wild-type (WT) and mice. Isoproterenol administration induced similar effects on intracellular [Ca] transients, cell contraction, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-Ca load in healthy WT and cells. However, compared with WT-PMI cells, isoproterenol exposure induced a significant increase in the [Ca] transients and cell contraction parameters in -PMI cells, which mainly due to an increase in SR-Ca load. NOD1 deficiency also prevented the increase in diastolic Ca leak (Ca waves) induced by isoproterenol in PMI cells. mRNA levels of β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors were significantly higher in -PMI hearts vs WT-PMI hearts. Healthy cardiomyocytes pre-treated with the selective agonist of NOD1, iE-DAP, and perfused with isoproterenol showed diminished [Ca] transients amplitude, cell contraction, and SR-Ca load compared with vehicle-treated cells. iE-DAP-treated cells also presented increased diastolic Ca leak under β-adrenergic stimulation. The selectivity of iE-DAP on Ca handling was validated by pre-treatment with the inactive analog of NOD1, iE-Lys. Overall, our data establish that NOD1 deficiency improves the β-adrenergic modulation of Ca handling in failing hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6010671PMC
June 2018

Nanotechnology Applied to Preserve Extracelular Matrix as Teranostic Tool in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2019 Feb 9;72(2):171-174. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Servicio de Cardiología, Unidad de Investigación del Hospital Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS)-Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2017.12.023DOI Listing
February 2019

iNOS-Derived Nitric Oxide Induces Integrin-Linked Kinase Endocytic Lysosome-Mediated Degradation in the Vascular Endothelium.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2017 07 25;37(7):1272-1281. Epub 2017 May 25.

From the Biology Systems Department, Physiology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad Alcalá (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain (P.R., M.A., S.M., M.S.); Cardiology Department, University Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain (C.Z.); and Cardiology Department, School of Medicine, Cádiz University, Spain (R.T.).

Objective: ILK (integrin-linked kinase) plays a key role in controlling vasomotor tone and is decreased in atherosclerosis. The objective of this study is to test whether nitric oxide (NO) regulates ILK in vascular remodeling.

Approach And Results: We found a striking correlation between increased levels of inducible nitric oxide and decreased ILK levels in human atherosclerosis and in a mouse model of vascular remodeling (carotid artery ligation) comparing with iNOS (inducible NO synthase) knockout mice. iNOS induction produced the same result in mouse aortic endothelial cells, and these effects were mimicked by an NO donor in a time-dependent manner. We found that NO decreased ILK protein stability by promoting the dissociation of the complex ILK/Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90)/eNOS (endothelial NO synthase), leading to eNOS uncoupling. NO also destabilized ILK signaling platform and lead to decreased levels of paxillin and α-parvin. ILK phosphorylation of its downstream target GSK3-β (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta) was decreased by NO. Mechanistically, NO increased ILK ubiquitination mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (C terminus of HSC70-interacting protein), but ILK ubiquitination was not followed by proteasome degradation. Alternatively, NO drove ILK to degradation through the endocytic-lysosomal pathway. ILK colocalized with the lysosome marker LAMP-1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1) in endothelial cells, and inhibition of lysosome activity with chloroquine reversed the effect of NO. Likewise, ILK colocalized with the early endosome marker EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1). ILK endocytosis proceeded via dynamin because a specific inhibitor of dynamin (Dyngo 4a) was able to reverse ILK endocytosis and its lysosome degradation.

Conclusions: Endocytosis regulates ILK signaling in vascular remodeling where there is an overload of inducible NO, and thus its inhibition may represent a novel target to fight atherosclerotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.309560DOI Listing
July 2017

Effects of Ivabradine on Heart Rate and Hemodynamic Parameters in a Swine Model of Cardiogenic Shock.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2017 Dec 28;70(12):1139-1141. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Servicio de Cardiología, Unidad de Investigación del Hospital Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS)-Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2017.03.009DOI Listing
December 2017

Role of NOD1 in Heart Failure Progression via Regulation of Ca Handling.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2017 Jan;69(4):423-433

Innate Immune Response Group, Instituto de Investigación La Paz, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome associated with a maladaptive innate immune system response that leads to deleterious cardiac remodeling. However, the underlying mechanisms of this syndrome are poorly understood. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) is a newly recognized innate immune sensor involved in cardiovascular diseases.

Objectives: This study evaluated the role of NOD1 in HF progression.

Methods: NOD1 was examined in human failing myocardium and in a post-myocardial infarction (PMI) HF model evaluated in wild-type (wt-PMI) and Nod1 mice (Nod1-PMI).

Results: The NOD1 pathway was up-regulated in human and murine failing myocardia. Compared with wt-PMI, hearts from Nod1-PMI mice had better cardiac function and attenuated structural remodeling. Ameliorated cardiac function in Nod1-PMI mice was associated with prevention of Ca dynamic impairment linked to HF, including smaller and longer intracellular Ca concentration transients and a lesser sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca load due to a down-regulation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-adenosine triphosphatase pump and by augmented levels of the Na/Ca exchanger. Increased diastolic Ca release in wt-PMI cardiomyocytes was related to hyperphosphorylation of ryanodine receptors, which was blunted in Nod1-PMI cardiomyocytes. Pharmacological blockade of NOD1 also prevented Ca mishandling in wt-PMI mice. Nod1-PMI mice showed significantly fewer ventricular arrhythmias and lower mortality after isoproterenol administration. These effects were associated with lower aberrant systolic Ca release and with a prevention of the hyperphosphorylation of ryanodine receptors under isoproterenol administration in Nod1-PMI mice.

Conclusions: NOD1 modulated intracellular Ca mishandling in HF, emerging as a new target for HF therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.073DOI Listing
January 2017

Nitric Oxide Induces Cardiac Protection by Preventing Extracellular Matrix Degradation through the Complex Caveolin-3/EMMPRIN in Cardiac Myocytes.

PLoS One 2016 20;11(9):e0162912. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Cardiology Department, University Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), Ctra. Colmenar Viejo, km. 9100, 28034, Madrid, Spain.

Inhibition of Extracellular Matrix degradation by nitric oxide (NO) induces cardiac protection against coronary ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Glycosylation of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates enzymatic activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the heart, although the mechanisms leading to EMMPRIN glycosylation are poorly understood. We sought to determine if NO may induce cardiac protection by preventing glycosylation of EMMPRIN in a mouse model of IR. Here we found that Caveolin-3 binds to low glycosylated EMMPRIN (LG-EMMPRIN) in cardiac cells and in the hearts of healthy mice, whereas IR disrupted the complex in nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) knockout (KO) mice. By contrast, the binding was partially restored when mice were fed with an NO donor (DEA-NO) in the drinking water, showing a significant reduction on infarct size (NOS2KO: 34.6±5 vs NOS2KO+DEA-NO: 20.7±9), in expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and cardiac performance was improved (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). NOS2KO: 31±4 vs NOS2KO+DEA-NO: 46±6). The role of Caveolin-3/EMMPRIN in NO-mediated cardiac protection was further assayed in Caveolin-3 KO mice, showing no significant improvement on infarct size (Caveolin-3 KO: 34.8±3 vs Caveolin-3 KO+DEA-NO:33.7±5), or in the expression of MMPs, suggesting that stabilization of the complex Caveolin-3/LG-EMMPRIN may play a significant role in the cardioprotective effect of NO against IR.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5029905PMC
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162912PLOS
August 2017

Preclinical models of atherosclerosis. The future of Hybrid PET/MR technology for the early detection of vulnerable plaque.

Expert Rev Mol Med 2016 Apr 8;18:e6. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Cardiology Department,University Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal,Ctra. Colmenar Viejo,km 9,100,28034 Madrid,Spain.

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries. The aetiology is currently multifactorial, thus making them very difficult to prevent. Preclinical models of atherothrombotic diseases, including vulnerable plaque-associated complications, are now providing significant insights into pathologies like atherosclerosis, and in combination with the most recent advances in new non-invasive imaging technologies, they have become essential tools to evaluate new therapeutic strategies, with which can forecast and prevent plaque rupture. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography imaging is currently used for plaque visualisation in clinical and pre-clinical cardiovascular research, albeit with significant limitations. However, the combination of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies is still the best option available today, as combined PET/MRI scans provide simultaneous data acquisition together with high quality anatomical information, sensitivity and lower radiation exposure for the patient. The coming years may represent a new era for the implementation of PET/MRI in clinical practice, but first, clinically efficient attenuation correction algorithms and research towards multimodal reagents and safety issues should be validated at the preclinical level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/erm.2016.5DOI Listing
April 2016

EMMPRIN-Targeted Magnetic Nanoparticles for In Vivo Visualization and Regression of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Theranostics 2016 15;6(4):545-57. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

1. Cardiology Department. University Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal. Ctra. Colmenar Viejo, km. 9100. 28034 Madrid, Spain.

Unlabelled: Inhibition of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation may represent a mechanism for cardiac protection against ischemia. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is highly expressed in response to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and induces activation of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. We targeted EMMPRIN with paramagnetic/fluorescent micellar nanoparticles conjugated with the EMMPRIN binding peptide AP-9 (NAP9), or an AP-9 scrambled peptide as a negative control (NAPSC). We found that NAP9 binds to endogenous EMMPRIN in cultured HL1 myocytes and in mouse hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Injection of NAP9 at the time of or one day after IR, was enough to reduce progression of myocardial cell death when compared to CONTROL and NAPSC injected mice (infarct size in NAP9 injected mice: 32%±6.59 vs

Control: 46%±9.04 or NAPSC injected mice: 48%±7.64). In the same way, cardiac parameters were recovered to almost healthy levels (LVEF NAP9 63% ± 7.24 vs CONTROL 42% ± 4.74 or NAPSC 39% ± 6.44), whereas ECM degradation was also reduced as shown by inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans have shown a signal enhancement in the left ventricle of NAP9 injected mice with respect to non-injected, and to mice injected with NAPSC. A positive correlation between CMR enhancement and Evans-Blue/TTC staining of infarct size was calculated (R:0.65). Taken together, these results point to EMMPRIN targeted nanoparticles as a new approach to the mitigation of ischemic/reperfusion injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.13352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775864PMC
December 2016

Bisphenol A: An environmental factor implicated in renal vascular damage.

Nefrologia 2016 10;36(1):5-9. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Laboratorio de Fisiopatología de la Pared Vascular, Unidad de Fisiología, Departamento de Biología de Sistemas, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, España.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nefro.2015.08.007DOI Listing
September 2017

Fluorescent Molecular Tomography for In Vivo Imaging of Mouse Atherosclerosis.

Methods Mol Biol 2015 ;1339:367-76

Department of Bioengineering and Aerospace Engineering, Universidad Carlos III of Madrid, 28911, Madrid, Spain.

Optical imaging technologies such as fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) are gaining great relevance in cardiovascular research. The main reason is the increased number of available fluorescent agents, especially those termed "activatable probes," which remain quenched under baseline conditions and are fluorescent when a specific enzymatic activity is present. A major characteristic of FMT is the possibility of obtaining quantitative data of fluorescence signal distribution in a noninvasive fashion and using nonionizing radiation, making FMT an invaluable tool for longitudinal studies with biomedical applications. Here, we describe a standard procedure to perform FMT experiments in atherosclerosis mouse models, from the handling of the animals to the reconstruction of the 3D images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2929-0_27DOI Listing
April 2016

Monitoring vascular permeability and remodeling after endothelial injury in a murine model using a magnetic resonance albumin-binding contrast agent.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2015 Apr;8(4)

From the Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, King's Health Partners, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom (B.L., A.P., S.L., R.M.B.); The British Heart Foundation Centre of Excellence, Cardiovascular Division (B.L., A.P., R.M.B.) and Wellcome Trust and EPSRC Medical Engineering Center (B.L., R.M.B.), King's College London, London, United Kingdom; Cardiovascular Research Unit, University Francisco de Vitoria/Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Ctra. Colmenar Viejo, km 9,100, Madrid 28034, Spain (C.Z.).

Background: Despite the beneficial effects of vascular interventions, these procedures may damage the endothelium leading to increased vascular permeability and remodeling. Re-endothelialization of the vessel wall, with functionally and structurally intact cells, is controlled by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and is crucial for attenuating adverse effects after injury. We investigated the applicability of the albumin-binding MR contrast agent, gadofosveset, to noninvasively monitor focal changes in vascular permeability and remodeling, after injury, in NOS3-knockout (NOS3(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in vivo.

Methods And Results: WT and NOS3(-/-) mice were imaged at 7, 15, and 30 days after aortic denudation or sham-surgery. T1 mapping (R1=1/T1, s(-1)) and delayed-enhanced MRI were used as measurements of vascular permeability (R1) and remodeling (vessel wall enhancement, mm(2)) after gadofosveset injection, respectively. Denudation resulted in higher vascular permeability and vessel wall enhancement 7 days after injury in both strains compared with sham-operated animals. However, impaired re-endothelialization and increased neovascularization in NOS3(-/-) mice resulted in significantly higher R1 at 15 and 30 days post injury compared with WT mice that showed re-endothelialization and lack of neovascularization (R1 [s(-1)]=15 days: NOS3 (-/-)4.02 [interquartile range, IQR, 3.77-4.41] versus WT2.39 [IQR, 2.35-2.92]; 30 days: NOS3 (-/-)4.23 [IQR, 3.94-4.68] versus WT2.64 [IQR, 2.33-2.80]). Similarly, vessel wall enhancement was higher in NOS3(-/-) but recovered in WT mice (area [mm(2)]=15 days: NOS3 (-/-)5.20 [IQR, 4.68-6.80] versus WT2.13 [IQR, 0.97-3.31]; 30 days: NOS3 (-/-)7.35 [IQR, 5.66-8.61] versus WT1.60 [IQR, 1.40-3.18]). Ex vivo histological studies corroborated the MRI findings.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that increased vascular permeability and remodeling, after injury, can be assessed noninvasively using an albumin-binding MR contrast agent and may be used as surrogate markers for evaluating the healing response of the vessel wall after injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.114.002417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405074PMC
April 2015

NOD1, a new player in cardiac function and calcium handling.

Cardiovasc Res 2015 Jun 30;106(3):375-86. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La PAZ, IDIPAZ, Madrid, Spain

Aims: Inflammation is a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease and its complications; however, whether the myocardial inflammatory response is harmonized after cardiac injury remains to be determined. Some receptors of the innate immune system, including the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), play key roles in the host response after cardiac damage. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1), a member of the NLR family, is expressed in the heart, but its functional role has not been elucidated. We determine whether selective NOD1 activation modulates cardiac function and Ca(2+) signalling.

Methods And Results: Mice were treated for 3 days with the selective NOD1 agonist C12-iE-DAP (iE-DAP), and cardiac function and Ca(2+) cycling were assessed. We found that iE-DAP treatment resulted in cardiac dysfunction, measured as a decrease in ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Cardiomyocytes isolated from iE-DAP-treated mice displayed a decrease in the L-type Ca(2+) current, [Ca(2+)]i transients and Ca(2+) load, and decreased expression of phospho-phospholamban, sarcoplasmic reticulum-ATPase, and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger. Furthermore, iE-DAP prompted 'diastolic Ca(2+) leak' in cardiomyocytes, resulting from increased Ca(2+) spark frequency and RyR2 over-phosphorylation. Importantly, these iE-DAP-induced changes in Ca(2+) cycling were lost in NOD1(-/-) mice, indicating that iE-DAP exerts its actions through NOD1. Co-treatment of mice with iE-DAP and a selective inhibitor of NF-κB (BAY11-7082) prevented cardiac dysfunction and Ca(2+) handling impairment induced by iE-DAP.

Conclusion: Our data provide the first evidence that NOD1 activation induces cardiac dysfunction associated with excitation-contraction coupling impairment through NF-κB activation and uncover a new pro-inflammatory player in the regulation of cardiovascular function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvv118DOI Listing
June 2015

Oral administration of bisphenol A induces high blood pressure through angiotensin II/CaMKII-dependent uncoupling of eNOS.

FASEB J 2014 Nov 7;28(11):4719-28. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Physiology Unit, Department of Systems Biology, Laboratory of Renal Physiology and Experimental Nephrology.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is found in human urine and fat tissue. Higher urinary BPA concentrations are associated with arterial hypertension. To shed light on the underlying mechanism, we orally administered BPA (4 nM to 400 μM in drinking water) to 8-wk-old CD11 mice over 30 d. Mice developed dosage-dependent high blood pressure (systolic 130 ± 12 vs. 170 ± 12 mmHg; EC50 0.4 μM), impairment of acetylcholine (AcH)-induced carotid relaxation (0.66 ± 0.08 vs. 0.44 ± 0.1 mm), a 1.7-fold increase in arterial angiotensin II (AngII), an 8.7-fold increase in eNOS mRNA and protein, and significant eNOS-dependent superoxide and peroxynitrite accumulation. AngII inhibition with 0.5 mg/ml losartan reduced oxidative stress and normalized blood pressure and endothelium-dependent relaxation, which suggests that AngII uncouples eNOS and contributes to the BPA-induced endothelial dysfunction by promoting oxidative and nitrosative stress. Microarray analysis of mouse aortic endothelial cells revealed a 2.5-fold increase in expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-α (CaMKII-α) in response to 10 nM BPA, with increased expression of phosphorylated-CaMKII-α in carotid rings of BPA-exposed mice, whereas CaMKII-α inhibition with 100 nM autocamptide-2-related inhibitor peptide (AIP) reduced BPA-mediated increase of superoxide. Administration of CaMKII-α inhibitor KN 93 reduced BPA-induced blood pressure and carotid blood velocity in mice, and reverted BPA-mediated carotid constriction in response to treatment with AcH. Given that CaMKII-α inhibition prevents BPA-mediated high blood pressure, our data suggest that BPA regulates blood pressure by inducing AngII/CaMKII-α uncoupling of eNOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.14-252460DOI Listing
November 2014

Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis or Fn14 deficiency reduce elastase perfusion-induced aortic abdominal aneurysm in mice.

J Am Heart Assoc 2014 Aug 4;3(4). Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Vascular Research Lab, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain (C.T., V.F.L., C.S., J.M.M., J.E., J.L.M.V., L.M.B.C.).

Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves leukocyte recruitment, inflammatory cytokine production, vascular cell apoptosis, neovascularization, and vascular remodeling, all of which contribute to aortic dilatation. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a cytokine implicated in proinflammatory responses, angiogenesis, and matrix degradation but its role in AAA formation is currently unknown.

Methods And Results: Experimental AAA with aortic elastase perfusion in mice was induced in wild-type (WT), TWEAK deficient (TWEAK KO), or Fn14-deficient (Fn14 KO) mice. TWEAK or Fn14 KO deficiency reduced aortic expansion, lesion macrophages, CD3(+) T cells, neutrophils, CD31(+) microvessels, CCL2 and CCL5 chemokines expression, and MMP activity after 14 days postperfusion. TWEAK and Fn14 KO mice also showed a reduced loss of medial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that was related to a reduced number of apoptotic cells in these animals compared with WT mice. Aortas from WT animals present a higher disruption of the elastic layer and MMP activity than those from TWEAK or Fn14 KO mice, indicating a diminished vascular remodeling in KO animals. In vitro experiments unveiled that TWEAK induces CCL5 secretion and MMP-9 activation in both VSMC and bone marrow-derived macrophages, and decrease VSMC viability, effects dependent on Fn14.

Conclusions: TWEAK/Fn14 axis participates in AAA formation by promoting lesion inflammatory cell accumulation, angiogenesis, matrix-degrading protease expression, and vascular remodeling. Blocking TWEAK/Fn14 interaction could be a new target for the treatment of AAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.113.000723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310358PMC
August 2014

Protein kinase D activity controls endothelial nitric oxide synthesis.

J Cell Sci 2014 08 13;127(Pt 15):3360-72. Epub 2014 Jun 13.

Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates key functions of the endothelium, such as angiogenesis or vessel repair in processes involving endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. One of the effector kinases that become activated in endothelial cells upon VEGF treatment is protein kinase D (PKD). Here, we show that PKD phosphorylates eNOS, leading to its activation and a concomitant increase in NO synthesis. Using mass spectrometry, we show that the purified active kinase specifically phosphorylates recombinant eNOS on Ser1179. Treatment of endothelial cells with VEGF or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) activates PKD and increases eNOS Ser1179 phosphorylation. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of PKD and gene silencing of both PKD1 and PKD2 abrogate VEGF signaling, resulting in a clear diminished migration of endothelial cells in a wound healing assay. Finally, inhibition of PKD in mice results in an almost complete disappearance of the VEGF-induced vasodilatation, as monitored through determination of the diameter of the carotid artery. Hence, our data indicate that PKD is a new regulatory kinase of eNOS in endothelial cells whose activity orchestrates mammalian vascular tone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.148601DOI Listing
August 2014