Publications by authors named "Carlos Wong-Baeza"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Interleukin 4 deficiency limits the development of a lupus-like disease in mice triggered by phospholipids in a non-bilayer arrangement.

Scand J Immunol 2021 Mar 25;93(3):e13002. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Bioquímica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, México.

Non-bilayer phospholipids arrangements (NPAs) are transient molecular associations different from lipid bilayers. When they become stable, they can trigger a disease in mice resembling human lupus, which is mainly characterized by the production of anti-NPA IgG antibodies. NPAs are stabilized on liposomes or cell bilayers by the drugs procainamide or chlorpromazine, which produce drug-induced lupus in humans. Here, we evaluated the participation of the T 2 response, through its hallmark cytokine IL-4, on the development of the lupus-like disease in mice. Wild-type or IL-4 knockout BALB/c mice received liposomes bearing drug-induced NPAs, the drugs alone, or an anti-NPA monoclonal antibody (H308) to induce the lupus-like disease (the last two procedures stabilize NPAs on mice cells). IL-4 KO mice showed minor disease manifestations, compared to wild-type mice, with decreased production of anti-NPA IgG antibodies, no anti-cardiolipin, anti-histones and anticoagulant antibodies, and no kidney or skin lesions. In these mice, H308 was the only inducer of anti-NPA IgG antibodies. These findings indicate that IL-4 has a central role in the development of the murine lupus-like disease induced by NPA stabilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sji.13002DOI Listing
March 2021

Muscle function and age are associated with loss of bone mineral density in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Muscle Nerve 2019 04 22;59(4):417-421. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Laboratorio de Biomembranas, Departamento de Bioquímica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Introduction: Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) demonstrate decreased bone mineral density (BD). It is not clear which factors exert the greatest impact on BD loss in these patients.

Methods: In 63 patients with DMD, serum cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-beta [TNF-β]), C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase (CK), muscle function (by Vignos scale), body composition, and total BD (the latter 2 measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or DEXA) were determined.

Results: The main factors associated with BD loss were muscle function (34.0%; β = -0.139; P < 0.023) and age (36.7%; β = -0.151; P = 0.004). Cytokines, CRP, body fat mass, and CK did not contribute to BD loss.

Discussion: Muscle function and age contribute to BD loss in DMD. We propose that a cut-off of at least 6 points for the Vignos scale and at least 10.5 years of age predict a Z-score of less than or equal to -2.0. Muscle Nerve 59:417-421, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26416DOI Listing
April 2019

Lupresan, a new drug that prevents or reverts the formation of nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements that trigger a murine lupus resembling human lupus.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 01 21;509(1):275-280. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México, 11340, Mexico. Electronic address:

Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements (NPA) are lipid associations different from the bilayer, formed by the interactions of conic anionic lipids and divalent cations that produce an inverted micelle which is inserted between the lipid layers, so the polar heads of the outer lipids spread and expose new antigens. Since these structures are transient, they are not immunogenic, but if they are stabilized by drugs, such as chlorpromazine, they become immunogenic and induce anti-NPA antibodies that trigger a lupus-like disease in mice. Chloroquine is a drug used for the treatment of lupus; chloroquine has a quinoline ring and two positive charges that interact with conic anionic lipids and prevent or revert the formation of NPA. However, the polyamine spermidine is more effective, since it has three positive charges and interacts with more lipids, but polyamines cannot be used as drugs, because they are highly toxic. Here we report the design and synthesis of Lupresan, an analogous of chloroquine with its quinoline ring but with three positive charges. Lupresan is more effective in preventing or reverting the formation of NPA than chloroquine or spermidine, and as a consequence, it decreased auto-antibody titers and healed the malar rash in mice with lupus to a greater extent than chloroquine. A drug as Lupresan could be used for the treatment of human lupus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.12.119DOI Listing
January 2019

Extracellular Vesicles Released from -Infected Neutrophils Promote Macrophage Autophagy and Decrease Intracellular Mycobacterial Survival.

Front Immunol 2018 19;9:272. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas (ENCB), Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Mexico City, Mexico.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by (Mtb). In the lungs, macrophages and neutrophils are the first immune cells that have contact with the infecting mycobacteria. Neutrophils are phagocytic cells that kill microorganisms through several mechanisms, which include the lytic enzymes and antimicrobial peptides that are found in their lysosomes, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Neutrophils also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) (100-1,000 nm in diameter) to the extracellular milieu; these EVs consist of a lipid bilayer surrounding a hydrophilic core and participate in intercellular communication. We previously demonstrated that human neutrophils infected with Mtb H37Rv release EVs (EV-TB), but the effect of these EVs on other cells relevant for the control of Mtb infection, such as macrophages, has not been completely analyzed. In this study, we characterized the EVs produced by non-stimulated human neutrophils (EV-NS), and the EVs produced by neutrophils stimulated with an activator (PMA), a peptide derived from bacterial proteins (fMLF) or Mtb, and observed that the four EVs differed in their size. Ligands for toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/6 were detected in EV-TB, and these EVs favored a modest increase in the expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, a higher expression of CD86, and the production of higher amounts of TNF-α and IL-6, and of lower amounts of TGF-β, in autologous human macrophages, compared with the other EVs. EV-TB reduced the amount of intracellular Mtb in macrophages, and increased superoxide anion production in these cells. TLR2/6 ligation and superoxide anion production are known inducers of autophagy; accordingly, we found that EV-TB induced higher expression of the autophagy-related marker LC3-II in macrophages, and the co-localization of LC3-II with Mtb inside infected macrophages. The intracellular mycobacterial load increased when autophagy was inhibited with wortmannin in these cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that neutrophils produce different EVs in response to diverse activators, and that EV-TB activate macrophages and promote the clearance of intracellular Mtb through early superoxide anion production and autophagy induction, which is a novel role for neutrophil-derived EVs in the immune response to Mtb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5827556PMC
April 2019

Dysregulation of miR-155-5p and miR-200-3p and the Anti-Non-Bilayer Phospholipid Arrangement Antibodies Favor the Development of Lupus in Three Novel Murine Lupus Models.

J Immunol Res 2017 4;2017:8751642. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 11340 Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by deregulated activation of T and B cells, autoantibody production, and consequent formation of immune complexes. Liposomes with nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements (NPA), induced by chlorpromazine, procainamide, or manganese, provoke a disease resembling human lupus when administered to mice. These mice produce anti-NPA IgM and IgG antibodies and exhibit an increased number of TLR-expressing spleen cells and a modified gene expression associated with -dependent TLR4 signaling (including and ) and complement activation. Additionally, they showed a diminished gene expression related to apoptosis and NK cell activation. We hypothesized that such gene expression may be affected by miRNAs and so miRNA expression was studied. Twelve deregulated miRNAs were found. Six of them were common to the three lupus-like models. Their validation by qRT-PCR and TaqMan probes, including miR-342-3p, revealed that miR-155-5p and miR-200a-3p expression was statistically significant. Currently described functions for these miRNAs in autoimmune diseases such as SLE reveal their participation in inflammation, interferon production, germinal center responses, and antibody maturation. Taking into account these findings, we propose miR-155-5p and miR-200a-3p, together with the anti-NPA antibodies, as key players in the murine lupus-like models and possible biomarkers of the human SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8751642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5733947PMC
August 2018

Corrigendum: Anti-Lipid IgG Antibodies Are Produced Germinal Centers in a Murine Model Resembling Human Lupus.

Front Immunol 2017 12;8:440. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, CINVESTAV-IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) , Mexico City , Mexico.

[This corrects the article on p. 396 in vol. 7, PMID: 27746783.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388691PMC
April 2017

Anti-Lipid IgG Antibodies Are Produced Germinal Centers in a Murine Model Resembling Human Lupus.

Front Immunol 2016 29;7:396. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, CINVESTAV-IPN, National Polytechnic Institute , Mexico City , Mexico.

Anti-lipid IgG antibodies are produced in some mycobacterial infections and in certain autoimmune diseases [such as anti-phospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)]. However, few studies have addressed the B cell responses underlying the production of these immunoglobulins. Anti-lipid IgG antibodies are consistently found in a murine model resembling human lupus induced by chlorpromazine-stabilized non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements (NPA). NPA are transitory lipid associations found in the membranes of most cells; when NPA are stabilized they can become immunogenic and induce specific IgG antibodies, which appear to be involved in the development of the mouse model of lupus. Of note, anti-NPA antibodies are also detected in patients with SLE and leprosy. We used this model of lupus to investigate the cellular mechanisms that lead to the production of anti-lipid, class-switched IgG antibodies. In this murine lupus model, we found plasma cells (Gr1, CD19, CD138) producing NPA-specific IgGs in the draining lymph nodes, the spleen, and the bone marrow. We also found a significant number of germinal center B cells (IgD, CD19, PNA) specific for NPA in the draining lymph nodes and the spleen, and we identified the presence of NPA in these germinal centers. By contrast, very few NPA-specific, extrafollicular reaction B cells (B220, Blimp1) were found. Moreover, when assessing the anti-NPA IgG antibodies produced during the experimental protocol, we found that the affinity of these antibodies progressively increased over time. Altogether, our data indicate that, in this murine model resembling human lupus, B cells produce anti-NPA IgG antibodies mainly via germinal centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2016.00396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5040728PMC
September 2016

Nonbilayer Phospholipid Arrangements Are Toll-Like Receptor-2/6 and TLR-4 Agonists and Trigger Inflammation in a Mouse Model Resembling Human Lupus.

J Immunol Res 2015 19;2015:369462. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Biochemistry Department, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), 11340 Mexico City, DF, Mexico.

Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by dysregulated activation of T and B cells and autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and, in some cases, lipid antigens. Liposomes with nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements induce a disease resembling human lupus in mice, including IgM and IgG antibodies against nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements. As the effect of these liposomes on the innate immune response is unknown and innate immune system activation is necessary for efficient antibody formation, we evaluated the effect of these liposomes on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, cytokine production, proinflammatory gene expression, and T, NKT, dendritic, and B cells. Liposomes induce TLR-4- and, to a lesser extent, TLR-2/TLR-6-dependent signaling in TLR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Mice with the lupus-like disease had increased serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, C3a and C5a; they also had more TLR-4-expressing splenocytes, a higher expression of genes associated with TRIF-dependent TLR-4-signaling and complement activation, and a lower expression of apoptosis-related genes, compared to healthy mice. The percentage of NKT and the percentage and activation of dendritic and B2 cells were also increased. Thus, TLR-4 and TLR-2/TLR-6 activation by nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements triggers an inflammatory response that could contribute to autoantibody production and the generation of a lupus-like disease in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/369462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4629040PMC
September 2016

Hypocholesterolemic and choleretic effects of three dimethoxycinnamic acids in relation to 2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid in rats fed with a high-cholesterol/cholate diet.

Pharmacol Rep 2015 Jun 29;67(3):553-9. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Biochemistry Department, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Background: 2,4,5-Trimethoxycinnamic acid (2,4,5-TMC) is the major and non-toxic metabolite of α-asarone, which retains hypocholesterolemic and choleretic activities. We compared the activities of 2,4,5-TMC with those of 2,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (2,4-DMC), 3,4-DMC and 3,5-DMC, to understand the role of the methoxyls on carbons 2, 4 and 5 on the pharmacologic properties of these compounds.

Methods: The methoxycinnamic acids were administered to high-cholesterol/cholate-fed rats. We measured bile flow, and quantified bile acids, phospholipids and cholesterol in bile, and cholesterol and cholesterol-lipoproteins in serum. The inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by the methoxycinnamic acids was evaluated in vitro.

Results: The four methoxycinnamic acids decreased serum cholesterol, without affecting the concentration of HDL-cholesterol. 2,4,5-TMC produced the highest decrease in LDL-cholesterol, 73.5%, which exceeds the range of statins (20-40%), and produced the highest inhibition of the activity of HMG-CoA reductase. 3,4-DMC produced the highest increase in bile flow, bile acids and phospholipids concentrations, and reduction in bile cholesterol, which led to a decrease in the biliary cholesterol saturation index.

Conclusions: 2,4,5-TMC (which has three methoxyls) had the highest hypocholesterolemic activity, while 3,4-DMC, which lacks the methoxyl in carbon 2 but conserves the two other methoxyls in an adjacent position, had the highest choleretic activity and a probable cholelitholytic activity. In methoxycinnamic acids with two methoxyls in non-adjacent positions (2,4-DMC and 3,5-DMC), the hypocholesterolemic and choleretic activities were not as evident. 2,4,5-TMC and 3,4-DMC, which did not cause liver damage during the treatment period, should be further explored as a hypocholesterolemic and choleretic compounds in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2014.12.009DOI Listing
June 2015

Trypanocidal effect of the benzyl ester of N-propyl oxamate: a bi-potential prodrug for the treatment of experimental Chagas disease.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2015 Apr 22;16:10. Epub 2015 Apr 22.

Biochemistry Department, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, 11340, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major health problem in Latin America, and there are currently no drugs for the effective treatment of this disease. The energy metabolism of T. cruzi is an attractive target for drug design, and we previously reported that inhibitors of α-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase (HADH)-isozyme II exhibit trypanocidal activity. N-Propyl oxamate (NPOx) is an inhibitor of HADH-isozyme II, and its non-polar ethyl ester (Et-NPOx) is cytotoxic to T. cruzi. A new derivative of NPOx has been developed in this study with higher trypanocidal activity, which could be used for the treatment of Chagas disease.

Methods: The benzyl ester of NPOx (B-NPOx) was synthesized and its activity evaluated towards epimastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes (in vitro), as well as mice infected with T. cruzi (in vivo). The activity of B-NPOx was also compared with those of Et-NPOx, benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox (Nx). NINOA, Miguz, Compostela, Nayarit and INC-5 T. cruzi strains were used in this study.

Results: Polar NPOx did not penetrate the parasites and exhibited no trypanocidal activity. In contrast, the hydrophobic ester B-NPOx exhibited trypanocidal activity in vitro and in vivo. B-NPOx exhibited higher trypanocidal activity than Et-NPOx, Bz and Nx towards all five of the T. cruzi strains. The increased activity of B-NPOx was attributed to its hydrolysis inside the parasites to give NPOx and benzyl alcohol, which is an antimicrobial compound with trypanocidal effects. B-NPOx was also effective against two strains of T. cruzi that are resistant to Bz and Nx.

Conclusion: B-NPOx exhibited higher in vitro (2- to 14.8-fold) and in vivo (2.2- to 4.5-fold) trypanocidal activity towards T. cruzi than Et-NPOx. B-NPOx also exhibited higher in vitro (2- to 24-fold) and in vivo (1.9- to 15-fold) trypanocidal activity than Bz and Nx. B-NPOx is more lipophilic than Et-NPOx, allowing for better penetration into T. cruzi parasites, where the enzymatic cleavage of B-NPOx would give NPOx and benzyl alcohol, which are potent trypanocidal agents. Taken together with its low toxicity, these results suggest that B-NPOx could be used as a potent prodrug for the treatment of Chagas disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-015-0010-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4409700PMC
April 2015

Lepromatous leprosy patients produce antibodies that recognise non-bilayer lipid arrangements containing mycolic acids.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2012 Dec;107 Suppl 1:95-103

Biochemistry Department , National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute, DF, Mexico.

Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate structure of the tubular hexagonal phase II are present in a bilayer of lipids. Antibodies that recognise these arrangements have been described in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and/or systemic lupus erythematosus and in those with preeclampsia; these antibodies have also been documented in an experimental murine model of lupus, in which they are associated with immunopathology. Here, we demonstrate the presence of antibodies against non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements containing mycolic acids in the sera of lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients, but not those of healthy volunteers. The presence of antibodies that recognise these non-bilayer lipid arrangements may contribute to the hypergammaglobulinaemia observed in LL patients. We also found IgM and IgG anti-cardiolipin antibodies in 77% of the patients. This positive correlation between the anti-mycolic-non-bilayer arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies suggests that both types of antibodies are produced by a common mechanism, as was demonstrated in the experimental murine model of lupus, in which there was a correlation between the anti-non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements and anti-cardiolipin antibodies. Antibodies to non-bilayer lipid arrangements may represent a previously unrecognised pathogenic mechanism in LL and the detection of these antibodies may be a tool for the early diagnosis of LL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762012000900016DOI Listing
December 2012

Molecular organization of the non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements that induce an autoimmune disease resembling human lupus in mice.

Mol Membr Biol 2012 Mar;29(2):52-67

Biochemistry Department, National School of Biological Sciences, National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), Mexico City, Mexico.

Non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements are three-dimensional structures that can form when anionic phospholipids with an intermediate form of the tubular hexagonal phase II (H(II)), such as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine or cardiolipin, are present in a bilayer of lipids. The drugs chlorpromazine and procainamide, which trigger a lupus-like disease in humans, can induce the formation of non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements, and we have previously shown that liposomes with non-bilayer arrangements induced by these drugs cause an autoimmune disease resembling human lupus in mice. Here we show that liposomes with non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements induced by Mn²⁺ cause a similar disease in mice. We extensively characterize the physical properties and immunological reactivity of liposomes made of the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine and a H(II)-preferring lipid, in the absence or presence of Mn²⁺, chlorpromazine or procainamide. We use an hapten inhibition assay to define the epitope recognized by sera of mice with the disease, and by a monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to non-bilayer phospholipid arrangements, and we report that phosphorylcholine and glycerolphosphorylcholine, which form part of the polar region of phosphatidylcholine, are the only haptens that block the binding of the tested antibodies to non-bilayer arrangements. We propose a model in which the negatively charged H(II)-preferring lipids form an inverted micelle by electrostatic interactions with the positive charge of Mn²⁺, chlorpromazine or procainamide; the inverted micelle is inserted into the bilayer of phosphatidylcholine, whose polar regions are exposed and become targets for antibody production. This model may be relevant in the pathogenesis of human lupus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09687688.2012.667577DOI Listing
March 2012

Membrane fusion inducers, chloroquine and spermidine increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010 May 8;396(2):549-54. Epub 2010 May 8.

Biochemistry Department, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City 11340, Mexico.

Gene transfection into mammalian cells can be achieved with viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors, such as cationic lipids that form lipoplexes with DNA, are safer and more stable than viral vectors, but their transfection efficiencies are lower. Here we describe that the simultaneous treatment with a membrane fusion inducer (chlorpromazine or procainamide) plus the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection in human (HEK293 and C-33 A) and rat (PC12) cell lines (up to 9.2-fold), as well as in situ in BALB/c mice spleens and livers (up to 6-fold); and that the polyamine spermidine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection and expression in cell cultures. The use of these four drugs provides a novel, safe and relatively inexpensive way to considerably increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.04.143DOI Listing
May 2010