Publications by authors named "Carlos Sindreu"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Septal GABAergic inputs to CA1 govern contextual memory retrieval.

Sci Adv 2020 Oct 30;6(44). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Pharmacology Unit, Department of Clinical Foundations, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain.

The CA1 output region of the hippocampus plays an essential role in the retrieval of episodic memories. γ-Aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) long-range projections from the medial septum (MS) densely innervate the hippocampus, but whether septal inputs regulate memory expression remains elusive. We found that the MS to CA1 connection is recruited during recall of a contextual fear memory. Chemogenetic silencing of CA1-projecting MS neurons or septal GABAergic terminals within CA1 blocked memory retrieval. Photostimulation of septal GABAergic terminals in CA1 selectively inhibited interneurons. Abrogating septal GABAergic cells during retrieval disinhibited parvalbumin-rich (PV+) cells in CA1. Direct activation of CA1 PV+ cells impaired memory and prevented the induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated kinase signaling in postsynaptic pyramidal neurons. Opposing disinhibition of hippocampal PV+ cells reversibly restored memory. Our data indicate that suppression of feed-forward inhibition onto CA1 by septal GABAergic neurons is an important mechanism in gating contextual fear behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba5003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608800PMC
October 2020

Dynamics of a hippocampal neuronal ensemble encoding trace fear memory revealed by in vivo Ca2+ imaging.

PLoS One 2019 3;14(7):e0219152. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Although the biochemical signaling events in area CA1 of the hippocampus underlying memory acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction have been extensively studied, little is known about the activity dynamics of hippocampal neurons in CA1 during Pavlovian fear conditioning. Here, we use fiber-optic confocal microscopy coupled with the calcium indicator GCaMP6m to monitor neuron activity in freely moving mice during trace fear conditioning. We show that the activity of a group of CA1 neurons increases not only after the stimulus presentations, but also during the stimulus-free trace period when the conditioned mice exhibit a high level of freezing behavior. Therefore, we designate these cells "trace cells". Interestingly, the activity of the trace cells increases in response to the conditioned stimuli during memory retrieval but diminishes during memory extinction. Importantly, the dynamics of neuron activity exhibit a high degree of correlation with the freezing behavior of the mice, suggesting that a neuronal ensemble responsible for encoding the trace fear memory is repeatedly reactivated during memory retrieval and later extinguished during memory extinction.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0219152PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6608968PMC
March 2020

L-Serine dietary supplementation is associated with clinical improvement of loss-of-function -related pediatric encephalopathy.

Sci Signal 2019 06 18;12(586). Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL)-Unit of Neuropharmacology and Pain, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08908, Spain.

Autosomal dominant mutations in are associated with severe encephalopathy, but little is known about the pathophysiological outcomes and any potential therapeutic interventions. Genetic studies have described the association between de novo mutations of genes encoding the subunits of the -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and severe neurological conditions. Here, we evaluated a missense mutation in , causing a proline-to-threonine switch (P553T) in the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR, which was found in a 5-year-old patient with Rett-like syndrome with severe encephalopathy. Structural molecular modeling predicted a reduced pore size of the mutant GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Electrophysiological recordings in a HEK-293T cell line expressing the mutated subunit confirmed this prediction and showed an associated reduced glutamate affinity. Moreover, GluN2B(P553T)-expressing primary murine hippocampal neurons showed decreased spine density, concomitant with reduced NMDA-evoked currents and impaired NMDAR-dependent insertion of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 at stimulated synapses. Furthermore, the naturally occurring coagonist d-serine restored function to GluN2B(P553T)-containing NMDARs. l-Serine dietary supplementation of the patient was hence initiated, resulting in the increased abundance of d-serine in the plasma and brain. The patient has shown notable improvements in motor and cognitive performance and communication after 11 and 17 months of l-serine dietary supplementation. Our data suggest that l-serine supplementation might ameliorate -related severe encephalopathy and other neurological conditions caused by glutamatergic signaling deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aaw0936DOI Listing
June 2019

Synaptic proteomics as a means to identify the molecular basis of mental illness: Are we getting there?

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 06 20;84(Pt B):353-361. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Molecular Physiology of the Synapse Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Sant Antoni Mª Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain\. Electronic address:

Synapses are centrally involved in many brain disorders, particularly in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental ones. However, our current understanding of the proteomic alterations affecting synaptic performance in the majority of mental illnesses is limited. As a result, novel pharmacotherapies with improved neurological efficacy have been scarce over the past decades. The main goal of synaptic proteomics in the context of mental illnesses is to identify dysregulated molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions. Here we reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of previous neuroproteomic research to identify proteins that may be consistently dysregulated in one or several mental disorders. Notably, we found very few proteins reproducibly altered among independent experiments for any given condition or between conditions, indicating that we are still far from identifying key pathophysiological mechanisms of mental illness. We suggest that future research in the field will require higher levels of standardization and larger-scale experiments to address the challenge posed by biological and methodological variability. We strongly believe that more resources should be placed in this field as the need to identify the molecular roots of mental illnesses is highly pressing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.09.011DOI Listing
June 2018

Rett-like Severe Encephalopathy Caused by a De Novo GRIN2B Mutation Is Attenuated by D-serine Dietary Supplement.

Biol Psychiatry 2018 Jan 16;83(2):160-172. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute-Unit of Neuropharmacology and Pain Group, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play pivotal roles in synaptic development, plasticity, neural survival, and cognition. Despite recent reports describing the genetic association between de novo mutations of NMDAR subunits and severe psychiatric diseases, little is known about their pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a case study of a 4-year-old Rett-like patient with severe encephalopathy carrying a missense de novo mutation in GRIN2B(p.P553T) coding for the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR.

Methods: We generated a dynamic molecular model of mutant GluN2B-containing NMDARs. We expressed the mutation in cell lines and primary cultures, and we evaluated the putative morphological, electrophysiological, and synaptic plasticity alterations. Finally, we evaluated D-serine administration as a therapeutic strategy and translated it to the clinical practice.

Results: Structural molecular modeling predicted a reduced pore size of mutant NMDARs. Electrophysiological recordings confirmed this prediction and also showed gating alterations, a reduced glutamate affinity associated with a strong decrease of NMDA-evoked currents. Moreover, GluN2B(P553T)-expressing neurons showed decreased spine density, concomitant with reduced NMDA-evoked currents and impaired NMDAR-dependent insertion of GluA1 at stimulated synapses. Notably, the naturally occurring coagonist D-serine was able to attenuate hypofunction of GluN2B(p.P553T)-containing NMDARs. Hence, D-serine dietary supplementation was initiated. Importantly, the patient has shown remarkable motor, cognitive, and communication improvements after 17 months of D-serine dietary supplementation.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that hypofunctional NMDARs containing GluN2B(p.P553T) can contribute to Rett-like encephalopathy and that their potentiation by D-serine treatment may underlie the associated clinical improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.05.028DOI Listing
January 2018

Memory Retrieval Re-Activates Erk1/2 Signaling in the Same Set of CA1 Neurons Recruited During Conditioning.

Neuroscience 2018 02 31;370:101-111. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Foundations, University of Barcelona, 08036, Spain; Institute of Neurosciences UB, Barcelona 08035, Spain; Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA. Electronic address:

The hippocampus enables a range of behaviors through its intrinsic circuits and concerted actions with other brain regions. One such important function is the retrieval of episodic memories. How hippocampal cells support retrieval of contextual fear memory remains largely unclear. Here we monitored phospho-activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) across neuronal populations of the hippocampus to find that CA1 pyramidal neurons, but not cells in CA3 or dentate gyrus, specifically respond to retrieval of an aversive context. In contrast, retrieval of a neutral context that fails to elicit a threat response did not activate Erk1/2. Moreover, retrieval preferentially re-activated Erk1/2 in the same set of CA1 neurons previously activated during conditioning in a context-specific manner. By confining drug inhibition within dorsal CA1, we established the crucial role for Erk1/2 activity in retrieval of long-term memory, as well as in amygdala activation associated with fear expression. These data provide functional evidence that Erk1/2 signaling in CA1 encodes a specific neural representation of contextual memory with emotional value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.03.034DOI Listing
February 2018

DYRK1A-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2A at Ser(1048) regulates the surface expression and channel activity of GluN1/GluN2A receptors.

Front Cell Neurosci 2014 17;8:331. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Institute of Neuropathology, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat Barcelona, Spain.

N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) play a pivotal role in neural development and synaptic plasticity, as well as in neurological disease. Since NMDARs exert their function at the cell surface, their density in the plasma membrane is finely tuned by a plethora of molecules that regulate their production, trafficking, docking and internalization in response to external stimuli. In addition to transcriptional regulation, the density of NMDARs is also influenced by post-translational mechanisms like phosphorylation, a modification that also affects their biophysical properties. We previously described the increased surface expression of GluN1/GluN2A receptors in transgenic mice overexpressing the Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), suggesting that DYRK1A regulates NMDARs. Here we have further investigated whether the density and activity of NMDARs were modulated by DYRK1A phosphorylation. Accordingly, we show that endogenous DYRK1A is recruited to GluN2A-containing NMDARs in the adult mouse brain, and we identify a DYRK1A phosphorylation site at Ser(1048) of GluN2A, within its intracellular C-terminal domain. Mechanistically, the DYRK1A-dependent phosphorylation of GluN2A at Ser(1048) hinders the internalization of GluN1/GluN2A, causing an increase of surface GluN1/GluN2A in heterologous systems, as well as in primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, GluN2A phosphorylation at Ser(1048) increases the current density and potentiates the gating of GluN1/GluN2A receptors. We conclude that DYRK1A is a direct regulator of NMDA receptors and we propose a novel mechanism for the control of NMDAR activity in neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2014.00331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201086PMC
November 2014

Glutamate receptor mutations in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Commun Integr Biol 2014 Jan 6;7(1):e27887. Epub 2014 Feb 6.

Molecular Physiology of the Synapse Laboratory; Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau); Barcelona, Spain ; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Spain.

Alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission have long been associated with psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders (PNDD), but only recent advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing have allowed interrogation of the prevalence of mutations in glutamate receptors (GluR) among afflicted individuals. In this review we discuss recent work describing GluR mutations in the context of PNDDs. Although there are no strict relationships between receptor subunit or type and disease, some interesting preliminary conclusions have arisen. Mutations in genes coding for ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits, which are central to synaptic transmission and plasticity, are mostly associated with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. In contrast, mutations of metabotropic GluRs, having a role on modulating neural transmission, are preferentially associated with psychiatric disorders. Also, the prevalence of mutations among GluRs is highly heterogeneous, suggesting a critical role of certain subunits in PNDD pathophysiology. The emerging bias between GluR subtypes and specific PNDDs may have clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cib.27887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3937208PMC
January 2014

Zinc transporter-1 concentrates at the postsynaptic density of hippocampal synapses.

Mol Brain 2014 Mar 7;7:16. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain.

Background: Zinc concentrates at excitatory synapses, both at the postsynaptic density and in a subset of glutamatergic boutons. Zinc can modulate synaptic plasticity, memory formation and nociception by regulating transmitter receptors and signal transduction pathways. Also, intracellular zinc accumulation is a hallmark of degenerating neurons in several neurological disorders. To date, no single zinc extrusion mechanism has been directly localized to synapses. Based on the presence of a canonical PDZ I motif in the Zinc Transporter-1 protein (ZnT1), we hypothesized that ZnT1 may be targeted to synaptic compartments for local control of cytosolic zinc. Using our previously developed protocol for the co-localization of reactive zinc and synaptic proteins, we further asked if ZnT1 expression correlates with presynaptic zinc content in individual synapses.

Findings: Here we demonstrate that ZnT1 is a plasma membrane protein that is enriched in dendritic spines and in biochemically isolated synaptic membranes. Hippocampal CA1 synapses labelled by postembedding immunogold showed over a 5-fold increase in ZnT1 concentration at synaptic junctions compared with extrasynaptic membranes. Subsynaptic analysis revealed a peak ZnT1 density on the postsynaptic side of the synapse, < 10 nm away from the postsynaptic membrane. ZnT1 was found in the vast majority of excitatory synapses regardless of the presence of vesicular zinc in presynaptic boutons.

Conclusions: Our study has identified ZnT1 as a novel postsynaptic density protein, and it may help elucidate the role of zinc homeostasis in synaptic function and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-6606-7-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3975337PMC
March 2014

Modulation of neuronal signal transduction and memory formation by synaptic zinc.

Front Behav Neurosci 2011 9;5:68. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

The physiological role of synaptic zinc has remained largely enigmatic since its initial detection in hippocampal mossy fibers over 50 years ago. The past few years have witnessed a number of studies highlighting the ability of zinc ions to regulate ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways implicated in neuroplasticity, and others that shed some light on the elusive role of synaptic zinc in learning and memory. Recent behavioral studies using knock-out mice for the synapse-specific zinc transporter ZnT-3 indicate that vesicular zinc is required for the formation of memories dependent on the hippocampus and the amygdala, two brain centers that are prominently innervated by zinc-rich fibers. A common theme emerging from this research is the activity-dependent regulation of the Erk1/2 mitogen-activated-protein kinase pathway by synaptic zinc through diverse mechanisms in neurons. Here we discuss current knowledge on how synaptic zinc may play a role in cognition through its impact on neuronal signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3211062PMC
November 2011

The diurnal oscillation of MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and adenylyl cyclase activities in the hippocampus depends on the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

J Neurosci 2011 Jul;31(29):10640-7

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7750, USA.

Consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory is dependent on activation of the cAMP/Erk/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction pathway in the hippocampus. Recently, we discovered that adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities undergo a circadian oscillation in the hippocampus and that inhibition of this oscillation impairs contextual memory. This suggests the interesting possibility that the persistence of hippocampus-dependent memory depends upon the reactivation of MAPK in the hippocampus during the circadian cycle. A key unanswered question is whether the circadian oscillation of this signaling pathway is intrinsic to the hippocampus or is driven by the master circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). To address this question, we ablated the SCN of mice by electrolytic lesion and examined hippocampus-dependent memory as well as adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities. Electrolytic lesion of the SCN 2 d after training for contextual fear memory reduced contextual memory measured 2 weeks after training, indicating that maintenance of contextual memory depends on the SCN. Spatial memory was also compromised in SCN-lesioned mice. Furthermore, the diurnal oscillation of adenylyl cyclase and MAPK activities in the hippocampus was destroyed by lesioning of the SCN. These data suggest that hippocampus-dependent long-term memory is dependent on the SCN-controlled oscillation of the adenylyl cyclase/MAPK pathway in the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6535-10.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146036PMC
July 2011

Zinc transporter ZnT-3 regulates presynaptic Erk1/2 signaling and hippocampus-dependent memory.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Feb 18;108(8):3366-70. Epub 2011 Jan 18.

Departments of Pharmacology and Biochemistry and The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

The physiological role of vesicular zinc at central glutamatergic synapses remains poorly understood. Here we show that mice lacking the synapse-specific vesicular zinc transporter ZnT3 (ZnT3KO mice) have reduced activation of the Erk1/2 MAPK in hippocampal mossy fiber terminals, disinhibition of zinc-sensitive MAPK tyrosine phosphatase activity, and impaired MAPK signaling during hippocampus-dependent learning. Activity-dependent exocytosis is required for the effect of zinc on presynaptic MAPK and phosphatase activity. ZnT3KO mice have complete deficits in contextual discrimination and spatial working memory. Local blockade of zinc or MAPK in the mossy fiber pathway of wild-type mice impairs contextual discrimination. We conclude that ZnT3 is important for zinc homeostasis modulating presynaptic MAPK signaling and is required for hippocampus-dependent memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1019166108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044399PMC
February 2011

A role for calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases in cocaine sensitization.

J Neurosci 2009 Feb;29(8):2393-403

Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Cocaine sensitization is produced by repeated exposure to the drug and is thought to reflect neuroadaptations that contribute to addiction. Here, we identify the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, type 1 (AC1) and type 8 (AC8), as novel regulators of this behavioral plasticity. We show that, whereas AC1 and AC8 single knock-out mice (AC1(-/-) and AC8(-/-)) exhibit Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in striatal membrane fractions, AC1/8 double-knock-out (DKO) mice do not. Furthermore, DKO mice are acutely supersensitive to low doses of cocaine and fail to display locomotor sensitization after chronic cocaine treatment. Because of the known role for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity and its coupling to calcium-stimulated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus, we measured phosphorylated ERK (pERK) levels in the striatum. Under basal conditions, pERK is upregulated in choline acetyltransferase-positive interneurons in DKO mice relative to wild-type (WT) controls. After acute cocaine treatment, pERK signaling is significantly suppressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of DKO mice relative to WT mice. In addition to the lack of striatal ERK activation by acute cocaine, signaling machinery downstream of ERK is uncoupled in DKO mice. We demonstrate that AC1 and AC8 are necessary for the phosphorylation of mitogen and stress-activated kinase-1 (pMSK1) at Ser376 and Thr581 and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) at Ser133 after acute cocaine treatment. Our results demonstrate that the Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclases regulate long-lasting cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity via activation of the ERK/MSK1/CREB signaling pathway in striatonigral MSNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4356-08.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2678191PMC
February 2009

Ca2+ -stimulated adenylyl cyclases regulate ERK-dependent activation of MSK1 during fear conditioning.

Neuron 2007 Jan;53(1):79-89

Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

The cAMP and ERK/MAP kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory, a process that depends on CREB-mediated transcription. However, the extent of crosstalk between these pathways and the downstream CREB kinase activated during memory formation has not been elucidated. Here we report that PKA, MAPK, and MSK1, a CREB kinase, are coactivated in a subset of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons following contextual fear conditioning. Activation of PKA, MAPK, MSK1, and CREB is absolutely dependent on Ca(2+)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. We conclude that adenylyl cyclase activity supports the activation of MAPK, and that MSK1 is the major CREB kinase activated during training for contextual memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2006.11.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1858648PMC
January 2007

Boutons containing vesicular zinc define a subpopulation of synapses with low AMPAR content in rat hippocampus.

Cereb Cortex 2003 Aug;13(8):823-9

Departament de Biologia Cellular, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, ES-08071 Barcelona, Spain.

Cortical regions of the brain stand out for their high content in synaptic zinc, which may thus be involved in synaptic function. The relative number, chemical nature and transmitter receptor profile of synapses that sequester vesicular zinc are largely unknown. To address this, we combined pre-embedding zinc histochemistry and post-embedding immunogold electron microscopy in rat hippocampus. All giant mossy fibre (MF) terminals in the CA3 region and approximately 45% of boutons making axospinous synapses in stratum radiatum in CA1 contained synaptic vesicles that stained for zinc. Both types of zinc-positive boutons selectively expressed the vesicular zinc transporter ZnT-3. Zinc-positive boutons further immunoreacted to the vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT-1, but not to the transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Most dendritic spines in CA1 immunoreacted to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluR1-3 (approximately 80%) and to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits NR1 + NR2A/B (approximately 90%). Synapses made by zinc-positive boutons contained 40% less AMPAR particles than those made by zinc-negative boutons, whereas NMDAR counts were similar. Further analysis indicated that this was due to the reduced synaptic expression of both GluR1 and GluR2 subunits. Hence, the levels of postsynaptic AMPARs may vary according to the presence of vesicular zinc in excitatory afferents to CA1. Zinc-positive and zinc-negative synapses may represent two glutamatergic subpopulations with distinct synaptic signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/13.8.823DOI Listing
August 2003