Publications by authors named "Carlos Roberto Padovani"

202 Publications

Midgut and fat body: Multisystemic action of pyriproxyfen on non-target organism Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

Environ Pollut 2021 Nov 26:118580. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Laboratory of Insects, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biosciences of Botucatu, UNESP - São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil; Electron Microscopy Center, Institute of Biosciences of Botucatu, UNESP - São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Morphological tools can assist in the evaluation of effects of insecticides on non-target insects. Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog, is known to interfere with growth and metamorphosis of insects. However, there are studies showing indirect effects on natural enemies, including green lacewings. Few prior studies describe morphological effects of pyriproxyfen on target insect organs, especially on natural enemies. Through morphological tools, this study aimed to characterize the midgut and fat body, both important organs of digestion and great metabolic activity respectively, of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri after chronic exposure to pyriproxyfen. Larvae of C. claveri were fed Diatraea saccharalis egg clusters treated with pyriproxyfen in solution of 50 or 100 mg a.i. L throughout the larval stage. The biological data revealed significant increases in development time, especially in the third instar, and in cumulative mortality from the prepupal into the pupal stage. Morphological analysis of adult midgut (≤24 h old) showed damage including formation of epithelial folds, intercellular spaces, emission of cytoplasmic protrusions. Both fat body regions presented decrease of lipid droplets, vacuolization of trophocytes and mitochondrial injury featuring a multisystemic action. In both organs, pyriproxyfen exposure induced significant oxidative stress by mitochondrial superoxide production. Cytoprotective responses were induced in midgut and fat body cells by augmenting the number of cytoplasmic granules containing calcium and expression of HSP 90. Both organs proved to be efficient in presenting histopathological alterations, showing the sensitivity and applicability of this morphological tool for evaluating other insecticides in non-target organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118580DOI Listing
November 2021

Reasons for no-show to referrals at a university eye clinic after eye examination via a mobile ophthalmic unit in a Brazilian region.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2021 Nov-Dec;84(6):554-560

Ophthalmology Department, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: This study aimed to identify patient's reason for no-show at a university eye clinic after ophthalmic examination via a mobile ophthalmic unit, which provides comprehensive ophthalmic care to underserved communities in a region of Brazil.

Methods: In 2017/2018, this prospective observational study searched for no-shows at referrals to a university eye clinic after an outreach program screening via a mobile ophthalmic unit in 10 municipalities in the central-western region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 1,928 patients underwent a comprehensive eye examination at no cost, and 37.1% of them needed referral to a university eye clinic for specialized examinations or surgeries. We used the following two main tools: (1) comparative analysis between patients who attended the referral and those who did not; (2) active search using a questionnaire to assess reasons for no-show.

Results: Attendance to referrals was not influenced by age, gender, distance from the university hospital, number of ophthalmologists in the municipality, average family income, and visual acuity. The main cause for referrals was cataract (350 cases). No-show was most common among glaucoma/suspected glaucoma (54.1%) cases, followed by strabismus (45%) and anterior segment disease (33.6%) cases. Many patients who did not attend the referral sought another service.

Conclusion: Patient's issues and lack of knowledge regarding their ophthalmic condition are the main reasons for no-show at referrals for free ophthalmic care. Thus, educational campaigns are needed to achieve consistently high attendance to prevent avoidable blindness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20210092DOI Listing
November 2021

Ophthalmological knowledge of Family Health Network physicians working as first care providers in Brazil.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2021 Jun;67(6):795-799

Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - Botucatu (SP), Brazil.

Objective: First care providers working in the Brazilian Unified Health System are often physicians from the Family Health Program. Their knowledge on ophthalmology could indicate whether there is a need for training to decrease ophthalmological demands to secondary or tertiary health levels.

Methods: A cross-sectional observational study based on an electronic questionnaire was conducted to evaluate the ophthalmological knowledge of Family Health Program physicians working at the VI Regional Health Department, Sao Paulo, Brazil. All Family Health Program physicians from this regional health department were invited, and the study included those who responded to the full questionnaire (115 physicians). The data were evaluated using descriptive analysis.

Results: There was no difference in the ophthalmological knowledge between sexes or in relation to undergraduate schools. Only 20% of the interviewees were specialized in Family and Community Medicine, which did not influence the number of correct answers. Only 22 (19.1%) physicians reported having enough knowledge about the main eye disorders, and 82 (71.3%) physicians considered themselves capable of treating ophthalmological emergencies. However, acute glaucoma was recognized by only 51 (44.3%) physicians, and eye perforations could only be handled by 65 (56.5%) of them. In addition, only 47 (40.9%) participants correctly answered that congenital cataracts should be operated right after diagnosis.

Conclusions: Family Health Program physicians working as first care providers in the Health System in Brazil presented poor ophthalmological knowledge. Providing training on ophthalmology may improve the ophthalmological care at the primary level within SUS and reduce the case demands at other healthcare levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.20200866DOI Listing
June 2021

Is there a relationship between diet quality and bone health in elderly women? A cross-sectional study.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct 29;65(5):609-616. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Botucatu, SP, Brasil,

Objective: To evaluate whether there is a relationship between diet quality and bone health in a group of elderly Brazilian women.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 105 elderly women. Participants were evaluated regarding diet quality (good, needing improvement, and poor) and its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and C-telopeptide (CTX).

Results: Fifty eight participants (55.2%) presented a poor-quality diet and 47 (44.8%) required dietary improvements, while no subjects presented a good quality diet. The group requiring dietary improvements had lower CTX [0.35 (0.05;1.09) vs. 0.52 (0.10;1.45); p = 0.03)] and BSAP (38.7 ± 12.9 U/L vs. 46.10 ± 15.2 U/L; p < 0.01) levels than the poor-quality diet group. Groups did not differ in terms of BMD.

Conclusion: In this group of elderly Brazilian women, there was a relationship between diet quality and bone health, where worse diet quality was associated with higher levels of bone remodelling markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20945/2359-3997000000394DOI Listing
October 2021

Flies as possible vectors of inflammatory trachoma transmission in a Brazilian municipality.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2021 3;63:e66. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Especialidades Cirúrgicas e Anestesiologia, Divisão de Oftalmologia, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Trachoma is a keratoconjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, considered an important leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. This study aimed at verifying if flies can be the vectors for trachoma in our municipality. Flies were assessed in the households of children diagnosed with inflammatory trachoma at the municipality of Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Fly traps were placed in the backyard of the houses during 24 h, in each of the four weather seasons, over a period of one year. The collected dipterans were taxonomically classified and the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in the flies was evidenced by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). During the studied period, 2,188 flies were collected, mainly during the summer and the spring. The most common identified fly was Musca domestica. All fly samples were negative for Chlamydia trachomatis but several other different bacteria were identified in these flies. The authors concluded that flies are probably not the vectors for trachoma in the studied area. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate other possible factors responsible for the maintenance of the disease in our environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946202163066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428871PMC
September 2021

Diode Green Laser in the Lid Trichiasis Treatment.

J Ophthalmic Vis Res 2021 Jul-Sep;16(3):320-324. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Faculty of Medicine of Botucatu, 18618687, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: To validate the standard values and evaluate the success rate in the treatment of minor and major trichiasis using thermoablation with a diode green laser.

Methods: In this interventional prospective study, individuals with minor or major trichiasis who were treated with thermoablation using diode green laser were included. The patients' mean age was 72.1 years; the majority were females (54.1%) and Caucasian (98%). The parameters of the diode laser were wavelength of 532 nm, application time of 200 ms, target size of 50 μm, interval between the shots 150 to 200 ms, and power of 600 to 750 mW. The number of shots was defined by the depth of ablation sufficient to reach the pilus hair bulb. The patients were evaluated by slit-lamp every 3 to 4 months, for up to 15 months. The treatment success rate and the association between variables were analyzed.

Results: The study sample was comprised of 98 patients with 135 affected lids and 337 lashes with trichiasis. Minor trichiasis (91.8%), unilateral trichiasis (67.3%), trichiasis affecting the lower eyelid (85.9%), and trichiasis resulting from blepharitis (64.3%) were the most common presentation profiles. The overall cure rate at the end of the study was 85%, with 69% being cured with a single session and 82.8% with two treatment sessions.

Conclusion: Thermoablation using a diode green laser applying the specified parameters to treat minor and major trichiasis is effective and results in high cure rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/jovr.v16i3.9428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358756PMC
July 2021

Efficacy of Flower Therapy for Anxiety in Overweight or Obese Adults: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Altern Complement Med 2021 May 27;27(5):416-422. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Nursing Department, Medical School, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Botucatu, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of flower therapy for the treatment of anxiety in overweight or obese adults with that of a placebo. The authors examined improvement in sleep patterns, reduction in binge eating, and change in resting heart rate (RHR). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with a parallel-group design and two arms. Clinical Research Unit, Medical School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. The study included 40 participants in the placebo group and 41 in the intervention group. Participants were of both genders, from 20 to 59 years of age, overweight or obese, with moderate to high anxiety. The participants were divided into two random groups: one group was treated with Bach flower remedies (BFR) (bottles containing 30 mL of 30% hydro-brandy solution with two drops each of Impatiens, White Chestnut, Cherry Plum, Chicory, Crab Apple, and Pine), and the other group was given a placebo (same solution without BFR). The patients were instructed to orally ingest the solution by placing four drops directly in the mouth four times a day for 4 weeks. : The primary outcome was anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]). Secondary outcomes were sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), binge eating (Binge Eating Scale [BES]), and RHR (electrocardiogram). Multivariate analysis showed significant reductions in scores for the following variables in the intervention group when compared with the placebo group: STAI (β = -0.190;  < 0.001), PSQI (β = -0.160;  = 0.027), BES (β = -0.226;  = 0.001), and RHR (β = -0.07;  = 0.003). The anxiety symptoms, binge eating, and RHRs of the individuals treated with flower therapy decreased, and their sleep patterns improved when compared with those treated with the placebo. Registered at the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (no. RBR-47-kfxh).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2020.0305DOI Listing
May 2021

The effects of two types of Western diet on the induction of metabolic syndrome and cardiac remodeling in obese rats.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 06 8;92:108625. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) include obesity as a critical feature and is strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insights into mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of these clinical manifestations are essential for the development of therapeutic strategies. Thus, Western diets (WD) have been widely employed in diet-induced obesity (DIO) model. However, there are variations in fat and sugar proportions of such diets, making comparisons challenging. We aimed to assess the impact of two types of the WD on metabolic status and cardiac remodeling, to achieve a DIO model that better mimics the human pathogenesis of MetS-induced CVD. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: control diet, Western diet fat (WDF), and Western diet sugar (WDS) for 41 weeks. Metabolic and inflammatory parameters and cardiac changes were characterized. WDF and WDS feeding promoted higher serum triglycerides, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance, while just WDF presented inflammation in adipose tissue. WDF-fed rats showed increased catalase activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein levels, suggesting cardiac oxidative stress, while WDS-fed rats only raised MDA. Both WD equally elevated protein expressions involved in lipid metabolism, but only WDF downregulated the glycolysis pathway. Furthermore, the mechanical myocardial function was impaired in obese rats, being more relevant in WDF. In conclusion, both WD effectively triggered MetS features, although inflammation was detected just on the WDF-fed animals. Moreover, the WDF promoted a more pronounced functional, metabolic, and oxidative cardiac disorder, suggesting to be an adequate model for studying CVD in the scenario of MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108625DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of a mobile unit on access to eye care in São Paulo, Brazil.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2021 Jan-Feb;84(1):51-57

Departamento de Oftalmologia, Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of a mobile eye health unit on access to eye care and to generate a profile of the population requiring ophthalmic care by age, nature of their ophthalmic diseases, and optimal management.

Methods: The study was conducted in 14 cities in the southwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. Subjects included individuals who participate in the Brazilian Unified Health System who were in need of eye care. There were no restrictions on age, gender or socioeconomic status. Data was transferred to an Excel table for statistical analyses.

Results: We evaluated 6,878 participants in this survey with mean age of 44 years (range 4 months to 96 years); 65.5% were female. Among the diagnoses, 78.6% presented with refractive errors, 9.6% presented with cataracts and 8.3% presented with pterygium. New corrective lenses were prescribed for 60.9% of the participants; 10% retained their existing lenses, ~28% required counseling only and18.1% of the participants were referred to a tertiary facility for specialized exams and/or surgical procedures. Of the participants who required outside referrals, 36.4% required oculoplastic/external eye surgery and 31.8% required cataract surgery.

Conclusion: The vast majority of patients presenting to a mobile eye health unit required prescriptions for corrective lenses. The rate of detection of ocular disorders was relatively high and the mobile unit provided effective treatment of refractive errors and referrals for specialized ophthalmic examinations and procedures. A mobile eye health unit can be an effective alternative method for improving access to basic eye care, for promoting eye health education and preventing blindness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20210009DOI Listing
February 2021

NEI VFQ-25 questionnaire is an excellent option to evaluate the quality of life of Brazilian patients with cataract?

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2020 Sep-Oct;83(5):447-448

Ophthalmology Department, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20200103DOI Listing
January 2021

Cardioprotection Generated by Aerobic Exercise Training is Not Related to the Proliferation of Cardiomyocytes and Angiotensin-(1-7) Levels in the Hearts of Rats with Supravalvar Aortic Stenosis.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2020 Jul;54(4):719-735

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil,

Background/aims: The beneficial effect of aerobic exercise training (ET) on cardiac remodeling caused by supravalvar aortic stenosis (AS) has been demonstrated in experimental studies; however, the mechanisms responsible for improving cardiac function are not entirely understood. We evaluated whether ET-generated cardioprotection in pressure-overloaded rats is dependent on cardiomyocyte proliferation, increased angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-1-7) levels, and its receptor in the myocardium.

Methods: Eighteen weeks after ascending AS surgery, Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sedentary control (C-Sed), exercised control (C-Ex), sedentary aortic stenosis (AS-Sed) and exercised aortic stenosis (AS-Ex) groups. The moderate treadmill exercise protocol was performed for ten weeks. The functional capacity was assessed by treadmill exercise testing. Cardiac structure and function were evaluated by echocardiogram. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was evaluated by flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle regulatory genes as CCND2, AURKB, CDK1, and MEIS1 was verified by RT-qPCR. Cardiac and plasma angiotensin I (Ang I), angiotensin II (Ang II), and Ang-(1-7) levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was assessed by the fluorometric method and protein expression of AT1 and Mas receptors by Western blot.

Results: The AS-Ex group showed reduced left ventricular wall relative thickness and improved ejection fraction; also, it showed decreased gene expression of myocyte cell cycle regulators, ACE, Ang I, Ang II and Ang II/Ang-(1-7) ratio levels compared to AS-Sed group. However, ET did not induce alterations in Ang-(1-7) and cardiac Mas receptor expression and myocyte proliferation.

Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training improves systolic function regardless of myocyte proliferation and Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor levels. However, the ET negatively modulates the vasoconstrictor/hypertrophic axis (ACE/Ang II) and decreases the expression of negative regulatory genes of the cell cycle in cardiomyocytes of rats with supravalvular aortic stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33594/000000251DOI Listing
July 2020

Adjustments in β-Adrenergic Signaling Contribute to the Amelioration of Cardiac Dysfunction by Exercise Training in Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2020 Jul;54(4):665-681

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil,

Background/aims: Aortic stenosis-induced chronic pressure overload leads to cardiac dysfunction and congestive heart failure. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the myocardial impairment are multifactorial and include maladaptive β-adrenergic signaling. Exercise training (ET) has been used as a non-pharmacological therapy for heart failure management. The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise training attenuates diastolic dysfunction through β-adrenergic signaling preservation.

Methods: Wistar rats were submitted to ascending aortic stenosis (AS) surgery, and after 18 weeks, a moderate aerobic exercise training protocol was performed for ten weeks.

Results: ET attenuated diastolic dysfunction, evaluated by echocardiogram and isolated papillary muscle (IPM) assay. Also, ET reduced features of heart failure, cross-sectional cardiomyocyte area, and exercise intolerance, assessed by treadmill exercise testing. The β2 adrenergic receptor protein expression was increased in AS rats independently of exercise. Interestingly, ET restored the protein levels of phosphorylated phospholamban at Serine 16 and preserved the β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness as visualized by the lower myocardial compliance decline and time to 50% tension development and relaxation during β-adrenergic stimulation in the IPM than untrained rats. Additionally, AS rats presented higher levels of TNFα and iNOS, which were attenuated by ET.

Conclusion: Moderate ET improves exercise tolerance, reduces heart failure features, and attenuates diastolic dysfunction. In the myocardium, ET decreases the cross-sectional area of the cardiomyocyte and preserves the β-adrenergic responsiveness, which reveals that the adjustments in β-adrenergic signaling contribute to the amelioration of cardiac dysfunction by mild exercise training in aortic stenosis rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33594/000000247DOI Listing
July 2020

Effects of the cryopreservation process on dog sperm integrity.

Anim Reprod 2020 Mar 24;17(1):e20190081. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Departamento de Cirurgia Veterinária e Reprodução Animal, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

Sperm cryopreservation has become an indispensable tool in reproductive biology. However, frozen/thawed semen has a short lifespan due to loss of sperm cell integrity. To better understand which sperm cell structures are compromised by the cryopreservation process and apoptosis markers, the sperm of five healthy mature dogs was analyzed in this study. Analysis was performed after collection, cooling, and thawing via computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) and evaluation of membrane fluidity and permeability, phosphatidylserine translocation (Annexin V), membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity of the apoptotic markers caspases 3 and 7 by flow cytometry. Cryopreservation decreased total and progressive motility and the percentage of rapid sperm ( 0.01). Damage to sperm cells was confirmed by Annexin V ( 0.01), indicating that capacitation-like changes were induced by the cryopreservation procedures. An increase in sperm membrane fluidity was also noted in frozen/thawed samples ( 0.01). Plasma and acrosomal cell membranes were affected ( 0.01), with decreases in the subpopulation displaying high membrane potential ( 0.01). Membrane LPO was increased in thawed sperm compared to cooled sperm ( 0.05) but was not different from that in fresh sperm. No differences were observed in caspase 3 and 7 activity after cooling, freezing, or thawing. In conclusion, total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential suffered from the deleterious effects caused by cryopreservation, unlike the activity of caspases that remained stable during the freezing process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21451/1984-3143-AR2019-0081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212748PMC
March 2020

Increased angiotensin II from adipose tissue modulates myocardial collagen I and III in obese rats.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 12;252:117650. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo 18618687, Brazil. Electronic address:

It has been described that the cardiac dysfunction in the obesity model is because of collagen imbalance and that angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to myocardial fibrosis. However, it remains undefined if changes in collagen I and III metabolism in obesity is due to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) dysregulation from myocardium or excessive adipose tissue.

Aim: This study aimed to verify whether the changes in myocardial collagen metabolism result from RAS deregulation of cardiac or adipose tissue in an obesity model.

Main Methods: Wistar rats were fed with control (CD) and high-fat (HFD) diets for 30 weeks. After the dietary intervention, animals were assigned to be treated with losartan at the 30 mg/kg/day dosage or kept untreated for an additional five weeks.

Key Findings: HFD induced obesity, comorbidities, and cardiac collagen overexpression. The HFD group presented an increase in Ang II levels in both adipose tissue and plasma, as well as AT1 receptor expression in cardiac tissue. Of note, the myocardial Ang II was not changed in the HFD group. Losartan administration reduced some obesity-induced comorbidities regardless of weight loss. The AT1 receptor blockade also decreased the release of Ang II from adipose tissue and myocardial AT1 receptor and collagen.

Significance: It was seen that excessive adipose tissue is responsible for the exacerbated circulating Ang II, which induced cardiac fibrosis development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117650DOI Listing
July 2020

Decreased Collagen Type I is Associated with Increased Metalloproteinase-2 Activity and Protein Expression of Leptin in the Myocardium of Obese Rats.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2020 07 7;115(1):61-70. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

Background Obesity is a risk factor for medical complications, including the cardiovascular system. There is limited information on collagen in the heart in obesity. Our previous study showed decreased protein levels of myocardial collagen type I in obese rats fed a high-fat diet for 34 weeks. However, the mechanisms responsible for low levels are not fully elucidated. Objective The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in collagen type I is associated with increased metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity, which is linked to elevated leptin in the myocardium of obese rats. Methods Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, control (standard diet) and obese (high-fat diet), and fed for 34 weeks. The general animal characteristics and metabolic and endocrine profiles were evaluated. Myocardial protein expressions of collagen I, leptin, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP), and MMP-2 activity were assessed. Pearson correlation was employed to determine the associations between variables. The level of significance was 5%. Results The obese animals had increased adiposity index compared to control. Comorbidities such as glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, and hypertension were observed in obese rats. Obesity reduced collagen I, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, and it increased leptin and MMP-2 in the myocardium. There was a negative correlation between collagen I and MMP-2 and a positive correlation between leptin and MMP-2. Conclusion The hypothesis was confirmed; the reduction in collagen type I is associated with increased MMP-2 activity and leptin expression in the myocardium of obese rats. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):61-70).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.36660/abc.20180143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384327PMC
July 2020

Temporal Measures in Cardiac Structure and Function During the Development of Obesity Induced by Different Types of Western Diet in a Rat Model.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 26;12(1). Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu 18618687, Brazil.

Obesity is recognized worldwide as a complex metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions and is often associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To study this pathology and evaluate cardiac function, several models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) have been developed. The Western diet (WD) is one of the most widely used models; however, variations in diet composition and time period of the experimental protocol make comparisons challenging. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different types of Western diet on cardiac remodeling in obese rats with sequential analyses during a long-term follow-up. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups fed with control diet (CD), Western diet fat (WDF), and Western diet sugar (WDS) for 41 weeks. The animal nutritional profile and cardiac histology were assessed at the 41st week. Cardiac structure and function were evaluated by echocardiogram at four different moments: 17, 25, 33, and 41 weeks. A noninvasive method was performed to assess systolic blood pressure at the 33rd and 41st week. The animals fed with WD (WDF and WDS) developed pronounced obesity with an average increase of 86.5% in adiposity index at the end of the experiment. WDF and WDS groups also presented hypertension. The echocardiographic data showed no structural differences among the three groups, but WDF animals presented decreased endocardial fractional shortening and ejection fraction at the 33rd and 41st week, suggesting altered systolic function. Moreover, WDF and WFS animals did not present hypertrophy and interstitial collagen accumulation in the left ventricle. In conclusion, both WD were effective in triggering severe obesity in rats; however, only the WDF induced mild cardiac dysfunction after long-term diet exposure. Further studies are needed to search for an appropriate DIO model with relevant cardiac remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12010068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019835PMC
December 2019

Myocardial Dysfunction after Severe Food Restriction Is Linked to Changes in the Calcium-Handling Properties in Rats.

Nutrients 2019 Aug 22;11(9). Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University, Botucatu 18618687, Brazil.

Severe food restriction (FR) impairs cardiac performance, although the causative mechanisms remain elusive. Since proteins associated with calcium handling may contribute to cardiac dysfunction, this study aimed to evaluate whether severe FR results in alterations in the expression and activity of Ca-handling proteins that contribute to impaired myocardial performance. Male 60-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a control or restricted diet (50% reduction in the food consumed by the control group) for 90 days. Body weight, body fat pads, adiposity index, as well as the weights of the soleus muscle and lung, were obtained. Cardiac remodeling was assessed by morphological measures. The myocardial contractile performance was analyzed in isolated papillary muscles during the administration of extracellular Ca and in the absence or presence of a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA2a) specific blocker. The expression of Ca-handling regulatory proteins was analyzed via Western Blot. Severe FR resulted in a 50% decrease in body weight and adiposity measures. Cardiac morphometry was substantially altered, as heart weights were nearly twofold lower in FR rats. Papillary muscles isolated from FR hearts displayed mechanical dysfunction, including decreased developed tension and reduced contractility and relaxation. The administration of a SERCA2a blocker led to further decrements in contractile function in FR hearts, suggesting impaired SERCA2a activity. Moreover, the FR rats presented a lower expression of L-type Ca channels. Therefore, myocardial dysfunction induced by severe food restriction is associated with changes in the calcium-handling properties in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11091985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770438PMC
August 2019

Topical cyclosporine A 0.05% before and after surgery to prevent pterygium recurrence.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2019 06 27;82(5):372-376. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Botucatu Medical School, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: We evaluated the role of the conjunctival flap rotation technique using 5-fluorouracil and adjuvant therapy with topical cyclosporine A at 0.05% during short pre- and postoperative periods for the prevention of primary pterygium recurrence.

Methods: In this prospective study, 76 patients with primary pterygium (76 eyes) were categorized into two groups: the control group with 31 patients who did not receive cyclosporine treatment, and the cyclosporine group with 45 patients who received topical cyclosporine A (0.05%) twice a day, for 10 days before and 10 days after the pterygium excision operations. Patients were examined for disease recurrence, side effects, and complications at 10 and 21 days, and at 2 and 6 months after the operation. Data on demography, systemic diseases, and ophthalmologic histories were obtained from all patients, and these data were analyzed using descriptive statistics involving the absolute and relative percentages of frequency distribution. Goodman test was used for contrasts among multinomial populations to study the association between cyclosporine A and recurrence.

Results: Most patients were between 30 and 60 years of age, and 67.1% were women. We confirmed a higher recurrence in patients with occupational sunlight exposure. The cyclosporine A used topically 10 days before and 10 days after the pterygium removal did not significantly reduce the recurrence of the pterygium.

Conclusion: Topical 0.05% cyclosporine A when used for 10 days before and 10 days after the pterygium removal does not prevent or reduce the recurrence of primary pterygium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20190075DOI Listing
June 2019

ACAT-1 gene rs1044925 SNP and its relation with different clinical forms of chronic Chagas disease.

Parasitol Res 2019 Aug 24;118(8):2343-2351. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista), Laboratório de Moléstias Infecciosas - UNIPEX - FMB UNESP, Rua Dr. Walter Mauricio Correa s/n, São Paulo, Brazil.

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), although discovered more than a century ago, is still a not very well-elucidated aspect. Individuals in the chronic phase of the disease may present asymptomatic clinical form or symptomatologies related to the cardiac, digestive systems, or both (mixed clinical form). SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) have been identified as important markers because they constitute about 90% of the variation in the human genome. One of them is localized to the ACAT-1 gene (cholesterol acyltransferase 1) (rs1044925) and has been linked to lipid disorders. Some studies have suggested the interaction between T. cruzi and the lipid metabolism of the host. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between the ACAT-1 gene rs1044925 SNP in relation to clinical manifestations in patients with chronic Chagas disease. A total of 135 individuals with chronic Chagas disease, 86 (63.7%) asymptomatic individuals and 49 (36.3%) symptomatic patients (22 with cardiac clinical form, 18 with digestive form and 9 with mixed form) participated in the study. To evaluate the polymorphism, the PCR-RFLP technique were used. There was a significant difference and a higher frequency of AA and AC genotypes (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively) of the ACAT-1 gene in asymptomatic chagasic individuals. The result suggests a protective character of the AA and AC genotypes of the rs1044925 SNP in relation to the presence of symptomatic clinical manifestations of the disease in chronic chagasic individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06377-9DOI Listing
August 2019

Negative impact of Novaluron on the nontarget insect Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

Environ Pollut 2019 Jun 1;249:82-90. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Laboratory of Insects, Department of Morphology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Biosciences, Botucatu, Brazil; Electron Microscopy Center of the Institute of Biosciences of Botucatu, UNESP, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Due to increased use of agrochemicals and growing concerns about ecotoxicology, the development of new insecticides, moving away from those with neurotoxic and broad spectrum effects towards insecticides that are safer for the environment and nontarget beneficial species, has been a research priority. Novaluron stands out among these newer insecticides, is an insect growth regulator that is used for the control of insect pests in crops grown close to mulberry plantations. Mulberry serves as food for the silkworm Bombyx mori, which is a nontarget insect of great economic importance to silk production. We investigated the lethal and sublethal effects of Novaluron on the development of B. mori. Larvae were segregated into experimental groups: the control groups (CGs) and the treatment groups (TGs), which were treated with the Novaluron concentration of 0.15 mL/L. Following exposure, we analyzed: larval mortality, changes in the insect life cicle and cytotoxic effects on the midgut cells. This is the first report about the Novaluron's effects on B.mori. We detected rupture in the integument, complete cessation of feeding, late development, incomplete ecdysis and production of defective cocoons. After 240 h of exposure, there was 100% mortality in TG larvae exposed in the 3rd instar and 20% mortality from larvae exposed in the 5th instar. Cytotoxic effects was observed, such as dilation of cells, emission of cytoplasmic protrusions, extreme rarefaction of the cytoplasm and nuclei, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum in addition to changes in mitochondria, the presence of large digestive vacuoles and intercellular spaces and the presence of active caspase. Novaluron exposure impairs the midgut and may affect the physiological functions of this organ. Novaluron additionally compromises several phases of insect development, indicating the importance of toxicology studies that utilize different life stages of nontarget species to evaluate the safe use of insecticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.02.095DOI Listing
June 2019

The role of laparoscopy in the propaedeutics of gynecological diagnosis1.

Acta Cir Bras 2019 Feb 14;34(1):e20190010000010. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Associate Professor III, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, Botucatu-SP, Brazil. Conception and design of the study, manuscript preparation.

Purpose: To evaluate agreement between pre- and post-laparoscopy gynecological diagnosis in order to demonstrate the rationality of this minimally invasive technique use in gynecological propaedeutics.

Methods: Retrospective chart review study conducted between March 2010 and October 2016 based on a convenience sample. 315 patients undergoing surgical laparoscopy at the Center of Gynecologic Endoscopy and Family Planning of Botucatu Medical School/UNESP. Pre- and postoperative diagnoses were compared by the diagnosis agreement test considering the proportions of events.

Results: Laparoscopy contributed to diagnosis in 59.6% of infertility cases (P>0.05), in 93.7% of chronic pelvic pain of undetermined origin (P<0.01) and conclusively elucidated the diagnosis of acute abdomen and the ruling out of tubo-ovarian abcess (P<0.05). Laparoscopy also increased the diagnosis of pelvic-abdominal adhesions in 76.7% (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The use of laparoscopy considerably contributed to diagnostic elucidation, especially in cases of undetermined chronic pelvic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-865020190010000010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585922PMC
February 2019

Pest and natural enemy: how the fat bodies of both the southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania and the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri react to azadirachtin exposure.

Protoplasma 2019 May 14;256(3):839-856. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Laboratory of Insects, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biosciences of Botucatu, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

The effects of biopesticides on insects can be demonstrated by morphological and ultrastructural tools in ecotoxicological analysis. Azadirachtin-based products are widely used as biopesticides, affecting numerous insect populations. Through morphological biomarkers, this study aimed to characterize the fat bodies of both the southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania and the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri after chronic exposure to azadirachtin. Larvae of S. eridania and C. claveri were fed with fresh purple lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa) and egg clusters of Diatraea saccharalis treated with azadirachtin solution of 6 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/L and 18 mg a.i./L for 7 days, respectively. The biological data showed a significant reduction in survival and body mass in S. eridania and cytotoxic effects in the parietal and perivisceral fat bodies in both species. Ultrastructural cell damage was observed in the trophocytes of both species such as dilated cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and swollen mitochondria. Trophocytes of S. eridania and C. claveri of the parietal and perivisceral layers responded to those injuries by different cytoprotective and detoxification means such as an increase in the amount of cytoplasmic granules containing calcium, expression of heat shock protein (HSP)70/HSP90, and development of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Despite all the different means of cytoprotection and detoxification, they were not sufficient to recover from all the cellular damages. Azadirachtin exhibited an excellent performance for the control of S. eridania and a moderate selectivity for the predator C. claveri, which presents better biological and cytoprotective responses to chronic exposure to azadirachtin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-019-01347-5DOI Listing
May 2019

A protocol for selection of Trichoderma spp. to protect grapevine pruning wounds against Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Jan 7;50(1):213-221. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Instituto Biológico, Alameda dos Vidoeiros, Campinas, Brazil.

There is no standardized protocol to select Trichoderma against trunk disease pathogens in grapevine. This study describes a protocol to select Trichoderma isolates for protecting the pruning wounds of grapevine against Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Thus, four assays were performed: (1) in vitro antagonism of Trichoderma isolates, molecularly identified, to control L. theobromae; (2) in vitro effect of grapevine fungicides on the conidia of the antagonists; (3) capability of Trichoderma to survive and endophytically penetrate in grapevine canes; and (4) efficiency of Trichoderma and fungicides to protect the pruning wounds of grapevine shoots against L. theobromae. T. asperelloides (02/03), T. koningiopsis (09/02), and T. asperellum (01/13) were the best antagonists for L. theobromae. The conidia of the three isolates were affected only by tebuconazole, with the first two fungi being the most tolerant to the fungicides. The Trichoderma isolates survived on the cane tip for 15 days, but only T. asperelloides (02/03) penetrated endophytically 4 cm in the cane and showed preventive and curative capability to control L. theobromae, with similar efficiency as that of the fungicides in both the periods tested post inoculation. These four assays are suggested to select Trichoderma against L. theobromae or other trunk disease pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-018-0029-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863197PMC
January 2019

Nanoskin® to treat full thickness skin wounds.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2019 04 29;107(3):724-732. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil.

This experimental study evaluated 40 guinea pigs that received Nanoskin®. A full thickness skin rectangle measuring 2x4 cm was removed from the median dorsal region and the wound was covered by a 2X2 cm fragment of uncoated Nanoskin® graft (uncoated group) or Nanoskin® coated with gelatin (coated group) and sutured in the caudal region and a 2x2 cm fragment of autologous skin sutured in the cranial aspect of the surgical wound served a control. The animals were examined daily by ectoscopy and euthanized at 7, 30, 90 and 180 days postoperatively. Immediately after euthanasia, the operated area was shaved, documented with photos and removed, and prepared for morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural exam. It was found that the full thickness skin wound healed in a centripetal pattern. The healing process was similar between groups, with a more pronounced inflammatory reaction initially that gradually decreased over time. The conclusion is that the uncoated Nanoskin® or Nanoskin® coated with gelatin is a good material to treat full thickness skin wound. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res B Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 724-732, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34166DOI Listing
April 2019

Immunohistochemical expression of hormone receptors, Ki-67, endoglin (CD105), claudins 3 and 4, MMP-2 and -9 in endometrial polyps and endometrial cancer type I.

Onco Targets Ther 2018 9;11:3949-3958. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics,

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the malignant potential of endometrial polyps (EP) by assessing the immunoexpressions of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67 cell proliferation index, neovascularization network (endoglin - CD105), cellular adhesion molecules (claudins 3 and 4), and extracellular matrix proteins (MMP-2 and -9) in both EP and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (type I) in comparison with the normal endometrium.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional comparative study. Patients were identified from the database of Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University (BMS-UNESP) Clinical Pathology Laboratory.

Setting: The study was conducted using a convenience sample of patients attending the Sectors of Gynecologic Endoscopy and Family Planning and Gynecologic Oncology of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of BMS-UNESP, Brazil.

Patients: A total of 90 women were allocated into the following three groups: EP without atypia (EP, n=30), endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC, n=30), and normal endometrium (control, n=30).

Methods: Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained by reviewing medical records. Adenocarcinoma and control cases were assessed using the tissue microarray technique. The immunoexpressions of ER, PR, Ki-67, CD105, claudins 3 and 4, and MMP-2 and -9 were assessed in paraffin blocks containing sections of the largest polyploid lesion fragment and tissue microarray recipient blocks.

Major Results: Compared to the control group, significant differences in the expression of ER (<0.001), PR (<0.05), Ki-67 (<0.001), CD105 (<0.001), and claudin 3 (<0.001) were observed in EP and EC. No significant differences were found between EP and EC (≥0.05). MMP-2 and -9 expression were nearly absent in all groups.

Conclusion: The malignant potential of EP could not be determined through the immunohistochemical parameters used in this study. No MMP-2 or -9 expression was observed in any endometrial tissue sample. Further studies are necessary for a better understanding of the biomolecular mechanisms underlying endometrial carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S160014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6042493PMC
July 2018

TECHNICAL VARIATION IN AFFIXING HAMSTRING GRAFTS TO THE TIBIA IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION.

Acta Ortop Bras 2018 Mar-Apr;26(2):94-97

. Instituto de Biociências da Unesp de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To present a technical variation in tibial fixation of quadruple hamstring grafts during anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The secondary purpose was to decrease the costs associated with this procedure.

Methods: Twenty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction were selected. A tibial tunnel was constructed using standard techniques, and a femoral tunnel was anatomically created using the outside-in technique. The hamstring autograft was passed (with its bend) into the tibial tunnel and affixed to the tibia using the suspensory technique and a simple staple. Femoral fixation was performed using a titanium interference screw. The patients underwent postoperative evaluations at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months using the subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form and Lysholm knee scores.

Results: The IKDC and Lysholm score results improved over time (p<0.001) without major complications. The cost of the procedure could be reduced by using lower-cost hardware (staples).

Conclusion: The proposed technique for anatomic ACL reconstruction using inverted hamstring grafts with their bend in the tibial tunnel, suspension-type fixation using a staple demonstrated good to excellent results after 1 year of follow up, with lower aggregate costs. Level of Evidence IV; Case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-785220182602155160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6032612PMC
July 2018

GONIOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF JOINT ANGLES IN CRAB-EATING FOXES ( CERDOCYON THOUS).

J Zoo Wildl Med 2018 Jun;49(2):460-463

  This study aimed to assess joint angle values in the forelimbs and hind limbs of crab-eating foxes ( Cerdocyon thous) using a conventional manual goniometer. Nine captive crab-eating foxes, aged over 1 yr old, weighing from 5.9 to 7.5 kg were used. The maximum flexion and maximum extension of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints were measured. The range of motion was determined through the difference between the maximum flexion and the maximum extension. There was no significant difference between the right and left sides in the goniometric measurements. The mean values of the range of motion for shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints were respectively 108°, 99°, 131°, 79°, 103°, and 86°. The goniometric values of the crab-eating foxes can be used as means of comparison with other animals from the same species for diagnostic purposes, research documentation, and evaluation of therapeutic procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2016-0172.1DOI Listing
June 2018

Effectiveness of the retreatment of patients with multibacillary leprosy and episodes of erythema nodosum leprosum and/or persistent neuritis: a single-center experience.

An Bras Dermatol 2018 03;93(2):181-184

Department of Biostatistics, Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Background: Erythema nodosum leprosum may appear before, during or after treatment of leprosy and is one of the main factors for nerve damage in patients. When it occurs or continues to occur after treatment, it may indicate disease recurrence and a new treatment may be instituted again.

Objective: To evaluate the retreatment of patients with multibacillary leprosy who underwent standard treatment with multidrug therapy, but developed or continued to present reactions of erythema nodosum leprosum and/or neuritis 3-5 years after its end.

Method: For this objective, a new treatment was performed in 29 patients with multibacillary leprosy who maintained episodes of erythema nodosum and/or neuritis 3-5 years after conventional treatment.

Results: In general, we observed that 27 (93.10%) had no more new episodes after a follow up period of eight months to five years. In five of these patients the reason for the retreatment was the occurrence of difficult-to-control neuritis, and that has ceased to occur in all of them.

Study Limitations: Small number of patients..

Conclusion: In the cases observed, retreatment was an effective measure to prevent the occurrence of erythema nodosum leprosum and/or persistent neuritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20185387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916387PMC
March 2018

Pathological hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction are linked to aberrant endogenous unsaturated fatty acid metabolism.

PLoS One 2018 1;13(3):e0193553. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

Pathological cardiac hypertrophy leads to derangements in lipid metabolism that may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction. Since previous studies, using high saturated fat diets, have yielded inconclusive results, we investigated whether provision of a high-unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) diet was sufficient to restore impaired lipid metabolism and normalize diastolic dysfunction in the pathologically hypertrophied heart. Male, Wistar rats were subjected to supra-valvar aortic stenosis (SVAS) or sham surgery. After 6 weeks, diastolic dysfunction and pathological hypertrophy was confirmed and both sham and SVAS rats were treated with either normolipidic or HUFA diet. At 18 weeks post-surgery, the HUFA diet failed to normalize decreased E/A ratios or attenuate measures of cardiac hypertrophy in SVAS animals. Enzymatic activity assays and gene expression analysis showed that both normolipidic and HUFA-fed hypertrophied hearts had similar increases in glycolytic enzyme activity and down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation genes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed depletion of unsaturated fatty acids, primarily linoleate and oleate, within the endogenous lipid pools of normolipidic SVAS hearts. The HUFA diet did not restore linoleate or oleate in the cardiac lipid pools, but did maintain body weight and adipose mass in SVAS animals. Overall, these results suggest that, in addition to decreased fatty acid oxidation, aberrant unsaturated fatty acid metabolism may be a maladaptive signature of the pathologically hypertrophied heart. The HUFA diet is insufficient to reverse metabolic remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, or pathologically hypertrophy, possibly do to preferentially partitioning of unsaturated fatty acids to adipose tissue.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193553PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5832311PMC
July 2018

Eyelid fissure dimensions in Japanese and in Brazilians of European descent over 50 years of age.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2017 Sep-Oct;80(5):304-308

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho", Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: To investigate differences in the palpebral fissure eyelid position in Japanese subjects and in Brazilian subjects of European descent over 50 years of age.

Methods: A cross-sectional study evaluating 50 Japanese subjects and 50 Bra---zilian subjects of European descent over 50 years of age was performed to evaluate the effect of aging on eyelid position. Digital photographs were taken with the eyes in the primary position and transferred to a computer to be processed by Scion imaging software for evaluation of palpebral fissure width, height, and margin reflex distance (MRD). The data were statistically analyzed according to sex, age, and race.

Results: The width of the eyelid fissure in Japanese subjects was higher than that in Brazilian subjects, whereas the height of the eyelid fissure and the MRD1 was higher in Brazilians than in Japanese (p<0.01). Width, height, and MRD1 were linearly associated with age only in the Japanese group (p<0.05); this association was observed only with width in the Brazilian group (p<0.05). There were no differences according to laterality in either group (p>0.05).

Conclusion: There are racial differences in age-related changes in the eyelids, which are more marked in Japanese subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20170074DOI Listing
December 2017
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