Publications by authors named "Carlos Leal"

42 Publications

Richter´s Hernia Incarcerated Bowel Hernia at 5mm Port Site.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 Nov 21. Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology Oncology, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Hospital Christus Muguerza Del Parque, Chihuahua México (all authors).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2021.11.014DOI Listing
November 2021

Total mercury in commercial fishes and estimation of Brazilian dietary exposure to methylmercury.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2020 Dec 6;62:126641. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

LBqA, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Brazil; CEDAFAR, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Brazil.

Background: Mercury, in particular its most toxic form methylmercury, poses a risk to public health. Dietary methylmercury exposure is mainly by fish, and it can vary with fish contamination and by dietary habits of the population. This study aimed to quantify total mercury levels in different fish from Brazil and to estimate Brazilian exposure to methylmercury by fish consumption.

Methods: Total mercury occurrence was investigated in 18 different fish species by atomic absorption spectrometry with thermal decomposition and gold amalgamation. Dietary exposure to methylmercury was estimated by a deterministic method for different groups considering consumption by sex, different Brazilian geographical regions and habitat (rural or urban).

Results: Carnivorous fish showed higher levels of mercury (0.01 to 0.93 mg/kg) compared to non-strictly carnivorous fish (<0.01 to 0.30 mg/kg). Farmed fishes showed significantly lower levels compared to wild fish. Mean Brazilian fish consumption achieves FAO/WHO health recommendation of about two portions of fish per week. However, there is a large difference between fish consumption at urban and rural homes and among Brazilian geographic regions. These differences in consumption impacted estimated methylmercury intake that was higher in the Northern (1.85 μg/kg bw week) and in the Northeastern (0.72 μg/kg bw week) regions and also by rural population (1.08 μg/kg bw week). These values were compared with the toxicological reference dose for neurotoxicity of 1.6 μg/kg bw week.

Conclusion: Even though total levels of mercury in fish were lower than Brazilian and international legislations, in the Northern Brazilian region methylmercury intake overpassed the toxicological reference dose for neurotoxicity and in rural areas it achieved 68% of this reference dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126641DOI Listing
December 2020

Biomathematical model for simulating abnormal orifice patterns in colonic crypts.

Math Biosci 2019 09 2;315:108221. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Department of Mathematics and the Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA.

Colonic polyps, which are abnormal growths in the colon, are a major concern in colon cancer diagnosis and prevention. Medical studies evidence that there is a correlation between histopathology and the shapes of the orifices in colonic crypts. We propose a biomathematical model for simulating the appearance of anomalous shapes for the orifices of colonic crypts, associated to an abnormal cell proliferation. It couples a mechanical model that is a mixed elastic/viscoelastic quasi-static model describing the deformation of the crypt orifice, with a convection-diffusion model that simulates the crypt cell dynamics in space and time. The coupling resides in the variation of pressure generated by abnormal proliferative cells that induce a mechanical force and originate the change in shape of the crypt orifice. Furthermore the model is formulated in a two-dimensional setting, for emulating the top view of the colonic mucosa, observed in vivo in colonoscopy images. The primary focus of this study is on the modeling of this complex biological phenomenon, by defining an appropriate reduced biomathematical model. Additionally, a numerical procedure to determine its solution is also addressed. The overall numerical simulations indicate that an excess of cell proliferation, in different crypt locations, creates some of the anomalous patterns of the colonic crypt orifices, observed in vivo in medical images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2019.108221DOI Listing
September 2019

Identification and Characterization of , Spp., , and Isolates from Reptiles in Brazil.

Biomed Res Int 2019 27;2019:9530732. Epub 2019 May 27.

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Considering the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets and their possible role as reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms, the aim of this study was to isolate spp, and strains from reptiles in Brazil and to characterize the isolated strains. The characterization was based on phylogenetic typing of , identification of virulence genes of and , serotyping of spp., ribotyping and MLST of and antimicrobial susceptibility test of pathogenic strains. Cloacal swabs were collected from 76 reptiles, of which 15 were lizards, 16 chelonians, and 45 snakes, either living in captivity, in the wild, or as companion animals. was isolated from 52 (68.4%) reptiles, of which 46 (88.4%) were characterized as phylogroup B1. The virulence factor CNF1 of was found in seven (9.2%) sampled animals, whereas the gene of EAST1 was found in isolates from two (2.6%) reptiles. Three isolates positive for CNF1 were resistant to cephalothin, one of which was also resistant to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol, being then classified as multidrug resistant strain (MDR). was identified in 26 (34.2%) reptiles, of which 13 belonged to the subspecies Serotypes such as Mbandaka, Panama, . Infantis, Heidelberg, and Anatum were identified. One isolate of subsp. was resistant to cephalothin and ciprofloxacin. type A was isolated from six (7.8%) animals. was isolated from three (3.9%) reptiles. Two of these isolates were toxigenic and classified into ribotypes/MLST 081/ST9 and 106/ST42, which have been previously reported to infect humans. In conclusion, reptiles in Brazil can harbor toxigenic and potentially pathogenic and subsp. , thus representing a risk to human and animal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9530732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556801PMC
January 2020

Effects of temperature changes in the transcriptional profile of the emerging fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

Microb Pathog 2019 Aug 18;133:103548. Epub 2019 May 18.

AQUACEN, National Reference Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Diseases, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address: http://www.vet.ufmg.br/.

One of the major challenges in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) farming is the occurrence of bacterial infections, and the Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (FNO) is an important pathogen that has emerged in last decades. Francisellosis outbreaks have been reported in the literature as occurring seasonally when water temperature is below 24 °C. The aim of this study was to quantify the median lethal doses (LD) of FNO in experimental challenges at 28 °C and 22 °C, and to investigate the impact of temperature changes in whole genome expression using microarray technology. The LD for Nile tilapia at 28 °C was ∼10, whereas at 22 °C, the LD was ∼10, showing that the decrease in temperature enhanced disease outcome. Out of 1917 genes screened, a total of 31 and 19 genes were down- and up-regulated at 22 °C, respectively. These genes were grouped by orthology into functional categories of: amino acid, inorganic ion, and carbohydrate transport and metabolism; transcription; and posttranslational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones. Expression of genes related to metabolism, oxidative stress, and thermal shock were regulated by temperature changes, reflecting an ability of FNO to adapt to the environment. Expression of virulence genes usually required for the Francisella genus was not changed between tested temperatures, including that of genes located on the Francisella Pathogenicity Island.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103548DOI Listing
August 2019

Severe outbreak of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in farm-raised ornamental platies Xiphophorus maculatus.

Dis Aquat Organ 2019 May;134(2):107-111

AQUAVET, Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases, Veterinary School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31.270-901, Brazil.

This report describes a severe outbreak of the gill fluke Centrocestus formosanus in farm-raised platies Xiphophorus maculatus in Brazil, with mortality rate approaching 95%. Typical clinical signs of infection were observed, with microscopic examinations of fresh gills revealing multiple cysts containing a once-folded metacercaria with an X-shaped excretory bladder. The 18S subunit of the metacercariae (BR1) was amplified by PCR, sequenced and analyzed by BLAST. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that the BR1 isolate was closely related to C. formosanus from Thailand. This is the first report of C. formosanus in ornamental fish in Brazil. Our observations suggest that platies are highly sensitive to this digenetic parasite. Controlling population densities of the parasite's intermediate host, the snail Melanoides tuberculata, would help to reduce outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03361DOI Listing
May 2019

Streptococcus agalactiae Sequence Type 283 in Farmed Fish, Brazil.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 04;25(4):776-779

In 2016 and 2017, we characterized outbreaks caused by Streptococcus agalactiae serotype III sequence type (ST) 283 in Nile tilapia farms in Brazil. Whole-genome multilocus sequence typing clustered the fish isolates together with the zoonotic ST283 and other STs related to cases in humans, frogs, dogs, cattle, and dolphins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433023PMC
April 2019

Economic appraisal of vaccination against Streptoccocus agalactiae in Nile tilapia farms in Brazil.

Prev Vet Med 2019 Jan 6;162:131-135. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

EpiPlan-Veterinary Epidemiology Laboratory, Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasília, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Infection with Streptococcus agalactiae causes mortality and major economic losses in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farming worldwide. In Brazil, serotype strains Ia, Ib and III have been isolated in streptococcosis outbreaks, but serotype Ib is the most prevalent. Vaccination is considered an effective method to prevent economically-important diseases in aquaculture and has been associated with decreased use of antibiotics and improvements in fish survival. We developed a flexible partial-budget model to undertake an economic appraisal of vaccination against Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile tilapia farmed in net cages in large reservoirs. The model considers the benefits and costs that are likely to be associated with vaccination at the farm-level, in one production cycle. We built three epidemiological scenarios of cumulative mortality attributable to S. agalactiae (5%, 10%, and 20%, per production cycle) in a non-vaccinated farm. For each scenario, we applied a stochastic model to simulate the net return of vaccination, given a combination of values of "vaccine efficacy", "gain in feed conversion ratio", "feed price", "fish market price ", and "cost of vaccine dose". In the 20% cumulative mortality scenario, the net return would break-even (benefits ≥ costs) in at least 97.9% of interactions. Should cumulative mortality be lower than 10%, the profitability of vaccination would be more dependent on better feed conversion ratio. The inputs "feed price" and "cost of vaccine" had minor effects on the output, in all pre-vaccination mortality scenarios. Although our simulations are based on conservative values and consider uncertainty about the modeled parameters, we conclude that vaccination against S. agalactiae is likely to be profitable in Nile tilapia farms, under similar production conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.12.003DOI Listing
January 2019

Delineation of the pan-proteome of fish-pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae strains using a label-free shotgun approach.

BMC Genomics 2019 Jan 7;20(1):11. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

AQUACEN - National Reference Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, Veterinary School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a major pathogen of Nile tilapia, a global commodity of the aquaculture sector. The aims of this study were to evaluate protein expression in the main genotypes of GBS isolated from diseased fishes in Brazil using a label-free shotgun nano-liquid chromatography-ultra definition mass spectrometry (nanoLC-UDMS) approach and to compare the differential abundance of proteins identified in strains isolated from GBS-infected fishes and humans.

Results: A total of 1070 protein clusters were identified by nanoLC-UDMS in 5 fish-adapted GBS strains belonging to sequence types ST-260 and ST-927 and the non-typeable (NT) lineage and 1 human GBS strain (ST-23). A total of 1065 protein clusters corresponded to the pan-proteome of fish-adapted GBS strains; 989 of these were identified in all fish-adapted GBS strains (core proteome), and 62 were shared by at least two strains (accessory proteome). Proteins involved in the stress response and in the regulation of gene expression, metabolism and virulence were detected, reflecting the adaptive ability of fish-adapted GBS strains in response to stressor factors that affect bacterial survival in the aquatic environment and bacterial survival and multiplication inside the host cell. Measurement of protein abundance among different hosts showed that 5 and 26 proteins were exclusively found in the human- and fish-adapted GBS strains, respectively; the proteins exclusively identified in fish isolates were mainly related to virulence factors. Furthermore, 215 and 269 proteins were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in the fish-adapted GBS strains in comparison to the human isolate.

Conclusions: Our study showed that the core proteome of fish-adapted GBS strains is conserved and demonstrated high similarity of the proteins expressed by fish-adapted strains to the proteome of the human GBS strain. This high degree of proteome conservation of different STs suggests that, a monovalent vaccine may be effective against these variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-5423-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323687PMC
January 2019

Transcriptome and Proteome of Fish-Pathogenic Are Modulated by Temperature.

Front Microbiol 2018 2;9:2639. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

AQUACEN-National Reference Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Diseases, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, Veterinary School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

is one of the most important pathogens associated with streptococcosis outbreaks in Nile tilapia farms worldwide. High water temperature (above 27°C) has been described as a predisposing factor for the disease in fish. At low temperatures (below 25°C), fish mortalities are not usually observed in farms. Temperature variation can modulate the expression of genes and proteins involved in metabolism, adaptation, and bacterial pathogenicity, thus increasing or decreasing the ability to infect the host. This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptome and proteome of a fish-pathogenic strain SA53 subjected to growth at different temperatures using a microarray and label-free shotgun LC-HDMS approach. Biological triplicates of isolates were cultured in BHIT broth at 22 or 32°C for RNA and protein isolation and submitted for transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. In total, 1,730 transcripts were identified in SA53, with 107 genes being differentially expressed between the temperatures evaluated. A higher number of genes related to metabolism, mainly from the phosphotransferase system (PTS) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system, were upregulated at 32°C. In the proteome analysis, 1,046 proteins were identified in SA53, of which 81 were differentially regulated between 22 and 32°C. Proteins involved in defense mechanisms, lipid transport and metabolism, and nucleotide transport and metabolism were upregulated at 32°C. A higher number of interactions were observed in proteins involved in nucleotide transport and metabolism. We observed a low correlation between the transcriptome and proteome datasets. Our study indicates that the transcriptome and proteome of a fish-adapted strain are modulated by temperature, particularly showing differential expression of genes/proteins involved in metabolism, virulence factors, and adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6224512PMC
November 2018

Complete genome sequencing of sixteen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis isolates: A genomic approach for molecular characterization and spread dynamics of this clonal population.

Genomics 2018 11 24;110(6):442-449. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

AQUACEN, National Reference Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Diseases, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (FNO) is an important emerging pathogen associated with disease outbreaks in farm-raised Nile tilapia. FNO genetic diversity using PCR-based typing, no intra-species discrimination was achieved among isolates/strains from different countries, thus demonstrating a clonal behaviour pattern. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the population structure of FNO isolates by comparing whole-genome sequencing data. The analysis of recombination showed that Brazilian isolates group formed a clonal population; whereas other lineages are also supported by this analysis for isolates from foreign countries. The whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) analysis showed varying numbers of dissimilar alleles, suggesting that the Brazilian clonal population are in expansion. Each Brazilian isolate could be identified as a single node by high-resolution gene-by-gene approach, presenting slight genetic differences associated to mutational events. The common ancestry node suggests a single entry into the country before 2012, and the rapid dissemination of this infectious agent may be linked to market sales of infected fingerlings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2018.10.011DOI Listing
November 2018

Transcriptome analysis of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar Equi in two conditions of the environmental stress.

Gene 2018 Nov 8;677:349-360. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Laboratory of Genomic and Bioinformatics, Center of Genomics and System Biology, Institute of Biological Science, Federal University of Para, Belém, Pará, Brazil, Rua Augusto Corrêa, Belém 66.075-110, Brazil. Electronic address:

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis has been widely studied in an effort to understand its biological evolution. Transcriptomics has revealed possible candidates for virulence and pathogenicity factors of strain 1002 (biovar Ovis). Because C. pseudotuberculosis is classified into two biovars, Ovis and Equi, it was interesting to assess the transcriptional profile of biovar Equi strain 258, the causative agent of ulcerative lymphangitis. The genome of this strain was re-sequenced; the reassembly was completed using optical mapping technology, and the sequence was subsequently re-annotated. Two growth conditions that occur during the host infection process were simulated for the transcriptome: the osmotic and acid medium. Genes that may be associated with the microorganism's resilience under unfavorable conditions were identified through RNAseq, including genes present in pathogenicity islands. The RT-qPCR was performed to confirm the results in biological triplicate for each condition for some genes. The results extend our knowledge of the factors associated with the spread and persistence of C. pseudotuberculosis during the infection process and suggest possible avenues for studies related to the development of vaccines, diagnosis, and therapies that might help minimize damage to agribusinesses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.08.028DOI Listing
November 2018

Label-free proteome of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) seminal plasma.

Reprod Domest Anim 2018 Oct 11;53(5):1243-1246. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

The study aimed to describe the Bubalus bubalis seminal plasma proteome using a label-free shotgun UDMS approach. A total of 859 nonredundant proteins were identified across five biological replicates with stringent identification. Proteins specifically related to sperm maturation and protection, capacitation, fertilization and metabolic activity were detected in the buffalo seminal fluid. In conclusion, we provide a comprehensive proteomic profile of buffalo seminal plasma, which establishes a foundation for further studies designed to understand regulation of sperm function and discovery of novel biomarkers for fertility. MS data are available in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003728.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13206DOI Listing
October 2018

Large-scale genomic analyses reveal the population structure and evolutionary trends of Streptococcus agalactiae strains in Brazilian fish farms.

Sci Rep 2017 10 19;7(1):13538. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

National Reference Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Diseases (AQUACEN) of Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Streptococcus agalactiae is a major pathogen and a hindrance on tilapia farming worldwide. The aims of this work were to analyze the genomic evolution of Brazilian strains of S. agalactiae and to establish spatial and temporal relations between strains isolated from different outbreaks of streptococcosis. A total of 39 strains were obtained from outbreaks and their whole genomes were sequenced and annotated for comparative analysis of multilocus sequence typing, genomic similarity and whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST). The Brazilian strains presented two sequence types, including a newly described ST, and a non-typeable lineage. The use of wgMLST could differentiate each strain in a single clone and was used to establish temporal and geographical correlations among strains. Bayesian phylogenomic analysis suggests that the studied Brazilian population was co-introduced in the country with their host, approximately 60 years ago. Brazilian strains of S. agalactiae were shown to be heterogeneous in their genome sequences and were distributed in different regions of the country according to their genotype, which allowed the use of wgMLST analysis to track each outbreak event individually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13228-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5648781PMC
October 2017

Importance of the Correct Use of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2017 10;98(10):2100-2101

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Clínica Ortopedica Brazil, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2017.04.028DOI Listing
October 2017

Use of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for the Fast Identification of Gram-Positive Fish Pathogens.

Front Microbiol 2017 9;8:1492. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

AQUACEN, National Reference Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Diseases, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, Federal University of Minas GeraisBelo Horizonte, Brazil.

Gram-positive cocci, such as , and subsp. , are found throughout the world, particularly in outbreaks in farmed fish, and are thus associated with high economic losses, especially in the cultivation of Nile Tilapia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative for the diagnosis of these pathogens. One hundred and thirty-one isolates from Brazilian outbreaks assisted by the national authority were identified using a MALDI Biotyper from Bruker Daltonics. The results showed an agreement with respect to identification (Kappa = 1) between this technique and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing for and . However, for and subsp. , perfect agreement was only achieved after the creation of a custom main spectra profile, as well as further comparisons with 16S ribosomal RNA and multilocus sequence analysis. MALDI-TOF MS was shown to be an efficient technology for the identification of these Gram-positive pathogens, yielding a quick and precise diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5552964PMC
August 2017

Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from broilers with vertebral osteomyelitis in Southeast Brazil.

Avian Pathol 2018 Feb 24;47(1):14-22. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

a Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinária , Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil.

Vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) is a worldwide emerging disease that affects broilers. Recently, the isolation of Enterococcus faecalis in cases of the disease has been described. This study aimed at determining the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profile of 12 E. faecalis strains isolated from broilers with VO. Strains were isolated from nine flocks from six farms in a high-density poultry production area in Southeast Brazil and were evaluated using multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and PCR were performed to detect antimicrobial resistance genes. E. faecalis isolates belonged to different sequence types (ST), six of which (ST49, ST100, ST116, ST202, ST249, and ST300) have been previously described. Strains ST708 and ST709 were newly identified in this study. Strain ST49 was most frequently isolated (50% of the flocks) from the analysed VO cases. No phylogenetic or phylogeographic relationship was found among the strains. The VO isolated E. faecalis strains showed highest resistance to aminoglycosides, mainly gentamicin (40%), but were highly susceptible to vancomycin (10%). Aminoglycoside resistance genes were detected in seven E. faecalis strains, and AAC6'-APH2″ genes were most frequently detected. The results showed that E. faecalis strains isolated from recently reported VO cases were highly diverse genetically. The diversity of genotypes in circulation in the analysed flocks, without apparent relationship among them, raises questions on aetiopathogenesis of the disease in broilers and evolutionary aspects of E. faecalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2017.1359403DOI Listing
February 2018

An international survey of classification and treatment choices for group D retinoblastoma.

Int J Ophthalmol 2017 18;10(6):961-967. Epub 2017 Jun 18.

Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty & Oncology Institute, Istanbul 34303, Turkey.

Aim: To determine which IIRC scheme was used by retinoblastoma centers worldwide and the percentage of D eyes treated primarily with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies as well as to correlate trends in treatment choice to IIRC version used and geographic region.

Methods: An anonymized electronic survey was offered to 115 physicians at 39 retinoblastoma centers worldwide asking about IIRC classification schemes and treatment patterns used between 2008 and 2012. Participants were asked to record which version of the IIRC was used for classification, how many group D eyes were diagnosed, and how many eyes were treated with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies. Averages of eyes per treatment modality were calculated and stratified by both IIRC version and geographic region. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests using Prism.

Results: The survey was completed by 29% of physicians invited to participate. Totally 1807 D eyes were diagnosed. Regarding IIRC system, 27% of centers used the Children's Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA) version, 33% used the Children's Oncology Group (COG) version, 23% used the Philadelphia version, and 17% were unsure. The rate for primary enucleation varied between 0 and 100% and the mean was 29%. By IIRC version, primary enucleation rates were: Philadelphia, 8%; COG, 34%; and CHLA, 37%. By geographic region, primary enucleation rates were: Latin America, 57%; Asia, 40%; Europe, 36%; Africa, 10%, US, 8%; and Middle East, 8%. However, systemic chemoreduction was used more often than enucleation in all regions except Latin America with a mean of 57% per center (<0.0001).

Conclusion: Worldwide there is no consensus on which IIRC version is used, systemic chemoreduction was the most frequently used initial treatment during the study period followed by enucleation and primary treatment modality, especially enucleation, varied greatly with regards to IIRC version used and geographic region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2017.06.20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5515152PMC
June 2017

Complete Genome Sequence of the Attenuated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain T1.

Genome Announc 2016 Sep 8;4(5). Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Genetics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

We present here the genome sequence of the attenuated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain T1. The sequencing was performed with an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform. The genome is a circular chromosome of 2,337,201 bp, with a G+C content of 52.85% and a total of 2,125 coding sequences (CDSs), 12 rRNAs, 49 tRNAs, and 24 pseudogenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00947-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5017227PMC
September 2016

Whole-Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium auriscanis Strain CIP 106629 Isolated from a Dog with Bilateral Otitis from the United Kingdom.

Genome Announc 2016 Aug 11;4(4). Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil

In this work, we describe a set of features of Corynebacterium auriscanis CIP 106629 and details of the draft genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprises a 2.5-Mbp-long single circular genome with 1,797 protein-coding genes, 5 rRNA, 50 tRNA, and 403 pseudogenes, with a G+C content of 58.50%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00683-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982281PMC
August 2016

Incorrect methodology may favor ultrasound-guided needling over shock wave treatment in calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2016 08;25(8):e241-3

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, AUVA-Trauma Center Meidling, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2016.04.031DOI Listing
August 2016

Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain GBS85147 serotype of type Ia isolated from human oropharynx.

Stand Genomic Sci 2016 3;11:39. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Genetics (LGCM), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus, is a frequent resident of the rectovaginal tract in humans, and a major cause of neonatal infection. The pathogen can also infect adults with underlying disease, particularly the elderly and immunocompromised ones. In addition, S. agalactiae is a known fish pathogen, which compromises food safety and represents a zoonotic hazard. This study provides valuable structural, functional and evolutionary genomic information of a human S. agalactiae serotype Ia (ST-103) GBS85147 strain isolated from the oropharynx of an adult patient from Rio de Janeiro, thereby representing the first human isolate in Brazil. We used the Ion Torrent PGM platform with the 200 bp fragment library sequencing kit. The sequencing generated 578,082,183 bp, distributed among 2,973,022 reads, resulting in an approximately 246-fold mean coverage depth and was assembled using the Mira Assembler v3.9.18. The S. agalactiae strain GBS85147 comprises of a circular chromosome with a final genome length of 1,996,151 bp containing 1,915 protein-coding genes, 18 rRNA, 63 tRNA, 2 pseudogenes and a G + C content of 35.48 %.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40793-016-0158-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891928PMC
June 2016

Smartphone application for emergency signal detection.

Med Eng Phys 2016 09 2;38(9):1021-7. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

OnCaring, Parque Industrial de Taveiro, Lote 49, 3045-504 Coimbra, Portugal.

Currently, a number of studies focus on the study and design of new healthcare technologies to improve elderly health and quality of life. Taking advantage of the popularity, portability, and inherent technology of smartphones, we present an emergency application for smartphones, designated as knock-to-panic (KTP). This innovative and novel system enables users to simply hit their devices in order to send an alarm signal to an emergency service. This application is a complete and autonomous emergency system, and can provide an economic, reliable, and unobtrusive method for elderly monitoring or safety protection. Moreover, the simple and fast activation of KTP makes it a viable and potentially superior alternative to traditional ambient assisted living emergency calls. Furthermore, KTP can be further extended to the general population as well and not just be limited for elderly persons. The proposed method is a threshold-based algorithm and is designed to require a low battery power consumption. The evaluation of the performance of the algorithm in collected data indicates that both sensitivity and specificity are above 90%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2016.05.002DOI Listing
September 2016

Whole-genome optical mapping reveals a mis-assembly between two rRNA operons of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002.

BMC Genomics 2016 Apr 30;17:315. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Genetics, Department of General Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Studies have detected mis-assemblies in genomes of the species Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. These new discover have been possible due to the evolution of the Next-Generation Sequencing platforms, which have provided sequencing with accuracy and reduced costs. In addition, the improving of techniques for construction of high accuracy genomic maps, for example, Whole-genome mapping (WGM) (OpGen Inc), have allow high-resolution assembly that can detect large rearrangements.

Results: In this work, we present the resequencing of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 (Cp1002). Cp1002 was the first strain of this species sequenced in Brazil, and its genome has been used as model for several studies in silico of caseous lymphadenitis disease. The sequencing was performed using the platform Ion PGM and fragment library (200 bp kit). A restriction map was constructed, using the technique of WGM with the enzyme KpnI. After the new assembly process, using WGM as scaffolder, we detected a large inversion with size bigger than one-half of genome. A specific analysis using BLAST and NR database shows that the inversion occurs between two homology RNA ribosomal regions.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the results showed by WGM could be used to detect mismatches in assemblies, providing genomic maps with high resolution and allow assemblies with more accuracy and completeness. The new assembly of C. pseudotuberculosis was deposited in GenBank under the accession no. CP012837.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-2673-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851793PMC
April 2016

Complete genome sequences of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains FNO12, FNO24 and FNO190: a fish pathogen with genomic clonal behavior.

Stand Genomic Sci 2016 12;11:30. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

National Reference Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Diseases (AQUACEN), Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

The genus Francisella is composed of Gram-negative, pleomorphic, strictly aerobic and non-motile bacteria, which are capable of infecting a variety of terrestrial and aquatic animals, among which Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis stands out as the causative agent of pyogranulomatous and granulomatous infections in fish. Accordingly, F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis is responsible for high mortality rates in freshwater fish, especially Nile Tilapia. In the current study, we present the genome sequences of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis strains FNO12, FNO24 and FNO190. The genomes include one circular chromosome of 1,859,720 bp, consisting of 32 % GC content, 1538 coded proteins and 363 pseudogenes for FNO12; one circular chromosome of 1,862,322 bp, consisting of 32 % GC content, 1537 coded proteins and 365 pseudogenes for FNO24; and one circular chromosome of 1,859,595 bp, consisting of 32 % GC content, 1539 coded proteins and 362 pseudogenes for FNO190. All genomes have similar genetic content, implicating a clonal-like behavior for this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40793-016-0151-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4828924PMC
April 2016

The genome anatomy of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis VD57 a highly virulent strain causing Caseous lymphadenitis.

Stand Genomic Sci 2016 8;11:29. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Institute of Biologic Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG Brazil.

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain VD57 (Cp_VD57), a highly virulent, nonmotile, non-sporulating, and a mesophilic bacterium, was isolated from a goat's granulomatous lesion in the municipality of Juazeiro, Bahia State, Brazil. Here, we describe a set of features of the strain, together with the details of its complete genome sequence and annotation. The genome comprises of a 2.5 Mbp long, single circular genome with 2,101 protein-coding genes, 12 rRNA, 49 tRNA and 47 pseudogenes and a G + C content of 52.85 %. Genetic variation was detected in Cp_VD57 using C. pseudotuberculosis strain 1002 as reference, wherein small genomic insertions and deletions were identified. The comparative analysis of the genome sequence provides means to better understand the host pathogen interactions of this strain and can also help us to understand the molecular and genetic basis of virulence of this bacterium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40793-016-0149-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4826502PMC
April 2016

Evaluating the efficacy of the new Ion PGM Hi-Q Sequencing Kit applied to bacterial genomes.

Genomics 2016 05 24;107(5):189-98. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

AQUACEN, National Reference Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Diseases, Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Benchtop NGS platforms are constantly evolving to follow new advances in genomics. Thus, the manufacturers are making improvements, such as the recent Ion PGM Hi-Q chemistry. We evaluate the efficacy of this new Hi-Q approach by comparing it with the former Ion PGM kit and the Illumina MiSEQ Nextera 3rd version. The Hi-Q chemistry showed improvement on mapping reads, with 49 errors for 10kbp mapped; in contrast, the former kit had 89 errors. Additionally, there was a reduction of 80% in erroneous variant detection with the Torrent Variant Caller. Also, an enhancement was observed in de novo assembly with a more confident result in whole-genome MLST, with up to 96% of the alleles assembled correctly for both tested microbial genomes. All of these advantages result in a final genome sequence closer to the performance with MiSEQ and will contribute to turn comparative genomic analysis a reliable task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2016.03.004DOI Listing
May 2016

Complete genome sequence of strain Z31.

Gut Pathog 2016 1;8:11. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

National Reference Laboratory for Aquatic Animal Diseases (AQUACEN), Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Background: () is a spore-forming bacterium responsible for nosocomial infections in humans. It is recognized as an important agent of diarrhea and colitis in several animal species and a possible zoonotic agent. Despite the known importance of infection in humans and animals, no vaccine or other effective measure to control the disease is commercially available. A possible alternative treatment for infection is the use of a nontoxigenic strain of as a competitive exclusion agent. However, a thorough knowledge of this strain is necessary for this purpose. We selected Z31, a nontoxigenic strain (PCR ribotype 009), for investigation because it prevents infection in a hamster model.

Results: The genome sequence of Z31 is a circular chromosome of 4298,263 bp, with a 29.21 % GC content, encoding 4128 proteins, and containing 78 pseudogenes. This strain belongs to ST 3, clade 1, and has five phage regions in its genome. Genes responsible for resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin were detected and more importantly, Z31 also contains genes that promote spore production and stability, cell attachment, intestinal adherence, and biofilm formation.

Conclusion: In this study, we present the first complete genome sequence of nontoxigenic strain Z31. When the Z31 genome was compared with those of other isolates available in GenBank, including a draft genome of a nontoxigenic strain, several unique regions were evident. Z31 contains no toxin genes, but encodes several non-toxin virulence factors, which may favor host colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13099-016-0095-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5562067PMC
April 2016

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Corynebacterial Species Isolated from Cows.

J Genomics 2016 2;4:7-9. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

1. Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA, Brazil.

The species Corynebacterium renale, Corynebacterium pilosum, and Corynebacterium cystitidis were initially thought to be the same species C. renale, but with different immunological types. These bacteria are the causative agent of cystitis, urethritis and pyelonephritis and are found usually as constituents of the normal flora in the lower urogenital tract of cattle. Therefore, we present the draft genome sequences of two pathogenic Corynebacterium species: C. renale CIP 52.96 and C. pilosum CIP 103422. The genome sequences of these species have 2,322,762 bp with 2,218 protein encoding genes and 2,548,014 bp with 2,428 protein encoding genes, respectively. These genomes can help clarify the virulence mechanisms of these unknown bacteria and enable the development of more effective methods for control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jgen.14456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4780121PMC
March 2016
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