Publications by authors named "Carlos F Luna"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Childhood and Adolescent Cancer in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil: Incidence, Geographical Distribution, and Association With Environmental Health Indicators.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 01;40(1):7-14

Immunology Department of the Aggeu Magalhães Research Cente, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation.

Cases of childhood and adolescent cancer diagnosed from 2009 to 2012 in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed considering the patients' sex and age, the type of cancer and the municipality of living to determine the incidence, geographical distribution, and association with environmental health indicators. The spatial distribution pattern of the cancer incidence was estimated using the Global Moran's index. The association between environmental health indicators and cancer incidence was evaluated by multiple regression. From 2009 to 2012, 1261 new cases of cancer were diagnosed in patients younger than 20 years old in the state of Pernambuco. Leukemia/lymphoma were the most common type of cancer contemplating 45.28% of the cases. The average age-adjusted incidence rate was 113 cases per million with no spatial distribution pattern. The municipalities were clustered according to their degree of inequality (P=0.017), human development index (P=0.001), population growth rate (P=0.008), urbanization level (P=0.001), number of agricultural crops per capita (P=0.001), and number of industries per capita (P=0.030). However, only urbanization level was positive correlated with incidence of pediatric cancer (P=0.009) likely because in more developed cities, people are more exposed to potential oncogenic factors, such as air and water pollution and processed and ultraprocessed food. The better access to specialized health services, which increases the chances of early diagnosis, may also contributes for a higher number of cases in more developed cities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
January 2018

Right aortic arch with situs solitus frequently heralds a vascular ring.

Congenit Heart Dis 2017 Sep 5;12(5):583-587. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Children's Heart Center Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Objective: We hypothesized that a right aortic arch in situs solitus, with or without an associated cardiovascular malformation, is often associated with a vascular ring.

Methods: From those born in Southern Nevada between March 2012 and March 2017, we identified 50 (3.6 per 10,000 live births) with a right aortic arch and situs solitus. From the 50 patients, 6 did not meet inclusion criteria for further analysis.

Results: Of the 44 remaining, 33 (75%) had a vascular ring. Of the 33 with a vascular ring, 26 (79%) occurred with an isolated right aortic arch, and 7 (21%) had an associated cardiovascular malformation. Of the total 44 patients with a right aortic arch in situs solitus, 34 (79%) were diagnosed prenatally.

Conclusions: In conclusion, we found a right aortic arch in situs solitus was often associated with a vascular ring. Further, to the best of our knowledge, no previous general population study has demonstrated an equal or higher right aortic arch, prenatal detection rate of 79%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
September 2017

Vascular Ring Diagnosis and Management: Notable Trends Over 25 Years.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2016 11;7(6):717-720

Children's Heart Center Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Background: Vascular rings (VRs) are recognized as uncommon but not rare cardiovascular malformations.

Methods: We analyzed data from all patients born in Southern Nevada, who underwent diagnosis and management of VR from 1990 to 2015, RESULTS: From 1990 to 2015, a total of 92 patients were diagnosed prenatally and postnatally. Of the 92 patients, 73 (79%) had right aortic arch and aberrant left subclavian artery (RAA-ALS) with a left ductus arteriosus or ligamentum, 17 (19%) had a double aortic arch (DAA), and 2 (2%) had a pulmonary artery sling. Of the 92 patients, 75 had an isolated VR and 17 VR had significant additional congenital heart disease (CHD). Of the 75 patients with an isolated VR, 52 underwent surgical repair, and the most common surgical diagnosis was DAA in 6 (66%) of 9 for the period 1990 to 2005 versus less common in 9 (21%) of 43 during the period 2006 to 2015, P < .05. The isolated VR repair age significantly negatively correlated with increasing time from 1990 to 2015, R = -0.7 (P < .0001). Of the 75 isolated VR, 23 remain asymptomatic. The 17 VR with CHD were treated during infant palliation or intracardiac repair. Of the total 92 VR, 60 were born after a 2004 community introduction of the three-vessel fetal echocardiography view, from then the prenatal-detection rate has significantly increased-2004 to 2006, 0 (0%) of 9; 2007 to 2009, 1 (9%) of 11; 2010 to 2012, 11 (55%) of 20; and 2013 to 1015, 14 (70%) of 20 (P < .0001).

Conclusion: Over 25 years in Southern Nevada, VR prenatal diagnosis has increased, isolated VR age at surgery has decreased, and the percentage of those with RAA-ALS has increased.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2016

Hybrid Palliation for Ductal-Dependent Systemic Circulation.

Pediatr Cardiol 2016 Jun 1;37(5):868-77. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Children's Heart Center Nevada, 3006 S. Maryland Pkwy Ste. 690, Las Vegas, NV, 89109, USA.

We reviewed our hybrid palliation experience for 91 neonates, with ductal-dependent systemic circulation, born between August 2007 and October 2015. For analysis, we stratified the 91 patients by a risk factor (RF) score and divided them into three groups: (1) high-risk two-functional ventricles (2V) median RF score of 3 (N = 20); (2) low-risk one-functional ventricle (1V) RF score 0-1 (N = 32); and (3) high-risk 1V RF score ≥2 (N = 39). Midterm survival (median 4 years) by group was: (1) 95 %, (2) 91 %, and (3) 15 %, (p = 0.001). In conclusion, hybrid palliation was associated with excellent midterm results for high-risk 2V and low-risk 1V patients with ductal-dependent systemic circulation. In contrast, high-risk 1V patients had significantly worse outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2016

Correlation between platelet count and both liver fibrosis and spleen diameter in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni.

Arq Gastroenterol 2014 Jan-Mar;51(1):34-8

Gastroenterology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE, Recife, PE, Brasil.

Context: Studies have described the correlation between platelet count and the stages of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis, but few publications have studied this correlation in Schistosomiasis mansoni.

Objectives: Therefore, this study aimed to correlate platelet count with both the periportal fibrosis pattern and spleen diameter evaluated by ultrasound exam in patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni.

Methods: Patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni were evaluated by abdominal ultrasound by a single examiner for the determination of periportal fibrosis pattern (Niamey classification) and spleen diameter. Platelet counts were performed in an automated cell counter.

Results: One hundred eighty-seven patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni (mean age: 50.2 years) were included in the study, 114 of whom (61%) were women. Based on the Niamey classification, the ultrasound analysis revealed that 37, 64, 64 and 22 patients exhibited patterns C, D, E and F, respectively. In these four groups, the mean number of platelets was 264, 196, 127 and 103 x 109/L and mean spleen diameter was 9.2, 11.9, 14.9 and 16.2 centimeters, respectively. A reduction in platelet count was significantly associated with both the progression of the periportal fibrosis and the increase in spleen size.

Conclusions: Platelet count in patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni was inversely correlated with the severity of periportal fibrosis and spleen diameter.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2014

Comparison of the burden of diarrhoeal illness among individuals with and without household cisterns in northeast Brazil.

BMC Infect Dis 2013 Feb 4;13:65. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

Centre for Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Lack of access to safe and secure water is an international issue recognized by the United Nations. To address this problem, the One Million Cisterns Project was initiated in 2001 in Brazil's semi-arid region to provide a sustainable source of water to households. The objectives of this study were to determine the 30-day period prevalence of diarrhoea in individuals with and without cisterns and determine symptomology, duration of illness and type of health care sought among those with diarrhoea. A subgroup analysis was also conducted among children less than five years old.

Methods: A face-to-face survey was conducted between August 20th and September 20th, 2007 in the Agreste Central Region of Pernambuco State, Brazil. Households with and without a cistern that had at least one child under the age of five years were selected using systematic convenient sampling. Differences in health outcomes between groups were assessed using Pearson's Chi-squared and two-way t-tests. Demographic variables were tested for univariable associations with diarrhoea using logistic regression with random effects. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 3679 people from 774 households were included in the analysis (1863 people from 377 households with cisterns and 1816 people from 397 households without cisterns). People from households with a cistern had a significantly lower 30-day period prevalence of diarrhoea (prevalence = 11.0%; 95% CI 9.5-12.4) than people from households without a cistern (prevalence = 18.2%; 95% CI 16.4-20.0). This significant difference was also found in a subgroup analysis of children under five years old; those children with a cistern had a 30-day period prevalence of 15.6% (95% CI 12.3-18.9) versus 26.7% (95% CI 22.8-30.6) in children without a cistern. There were no significant differences between those people with and without cisterns in terms of the types of symptoms, duration of illness and health care sought for diarrhoea.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the use of cisterns for drinking water is associated with a decreased occurrence of diarrhoea in this study population. Further research accounting for additional risk factors and preventative factors should be conducted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
February 2013

Serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight correlations before and after hemodialysis session.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2009 ;64(10):941-5

Department of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE, Brazil.

Purpose: To evaluate alanine aminotransferase levels before and after a hemodialysis session and to correlate these values with the hematocrit rate and weight loss during hemodialysis.

Patients And Methods: The serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight were measured and correlated before and after a single hemodialysis session for 146 patients with chronic renal failure. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the serum alanine aminotransferase levels collected before and after hemodialysis was plotted to identify hepatitis C virus-infected patients.

Results: The mean weight loss of the 146 patients during hemodialysis was 5.3% (p < 0.001). The mean alanine aminotransferase levels before and after hemodialysis were 18.8 and 23.9 IU/, respectively, denoting a significant 28.1% increase. An equally significant increase of 16.4% in the hematocrit rate also occurred after hemodialysis. The weight loss was inversely correlated with the rise in both the alanine aminotransferase level (r = 0.3; p < 0.001) and hematocrit rate (r = 0.5; p < 0.001). A direct correlation was found between the rise in alanine aminotransferase levels and the hematocrit during the hemodialysis session (r = 0.4; p < 0.001). Based on the ROC curve, the upper limit of the normal alanine aminotransferase level should be reduced by 40% relative to the upper limit of normal if the blood samples are collected before the hemodialysis session or by 60% if blood samples are collected after the session.

Conclusion: In the present study, significant elevations in the serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hematocrit rates occurred in parallel to a reduction in body weight after the hemodialysis session. These findings suggest that one of the factors for low alanine aminotransferase levels prior to hemodialysis could be hemodilution in patients with chronic renal failure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2010

Is it better to be rich in a poor area or poor in a rich area? A multilevel analysis of a case-control study of social determinants of tuberculosis.

Int J Epidemiol 2009 Oct 4;38(5):1285-96. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Background: Tuberculosis is known to have socio-economic determinants at individual and at area levels, but it is not known whether they are independent, whether they interact and their relative contributions to the burden of tuberculosis.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Recife, Brazil, to investigate individual and area social determinants of tuberculosis, to explore the relationship between determinants at the two levels and to calculate their relative contribution to the burden of tuberculosis. It included 1452 cases of tuberculosis diagnosed by the tuberculosis services and 5808 controls selected at random from questionnaires completed for the demographic census. Exhaustive information on social factors was collected from cases, using the questionnaire used in the census. Socio-economic information for areas was downloaded from the census. Multilevel logistic regression investigated individual and area effects.

Results: There was a marked and independent influence of social variables on the risk of tuberculosis, both at individual and area levels. At individual level, being aged >or=20, being male, being illiterate, not working in the previous 7 days and possessing few goods, all increased the risk of tuberculosis. At area level, living in an area with many illiterate people and where few households own a computer also increased this risk; individual and area levels did not appear to interact. Twice as many cases were attributable to social variables at individual level than at area level.

Conclusions: Although individual characteristics are the main contributor to the risk of tuberculosis, contextual characteristics make a substantial independent contribution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
October 2009

Cellular immune response profile in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis prior and post chemotherapy treatment.

J Clin Lab Anal 2009 ;23(1):63-9

Departamento de Imunologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães-CPqAM/Fiocruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

In this study, we have the objective of evaluating the lymphoproliferative response and determining interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis prior and post 12 months of chemotherapy treatment with meglumine antimoniate compared with the PBMC of noninfected donors. Lymphoproliferation, such as cytokine production, was evaluated through in vitro stimulus with the soluble antigenic fraction from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes (1.25 microg/ml) and Concanavalin A (2.5 microg/ml). Patients showed a significant lymphoproliferative response prior and post treatment compared with the control group. Similar result, prior to chemotherapy treatment, was observed in IFN-gamma and IL-10 production when patients were compared with the control group. After chemotherapy treatment, PBMC lymphoproliferative response of the patients revealed an increase, whereas patients have shown a decrease in IFN-gamma levels and an increase in IL-10, although without statistical difference. These results may indicate that the patients produced a specific cellular response to the soluble antigenic fraction suggesting that besides Th1 and Th2 dichotomy, immunological regulation mechanisms with the participation of memory T cells and regulatory T cells could be present in the clinical evolution of these patients. This understanding will allow the study and identification of new L. (V.) braziliensis molecules potentially candidates to vaccines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
August 2009

Modified De Vega mitral valve annuloplasty in an infant with endocarditis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2008 Jul;86(1):291-3

Cardiovascular Surgical Associates, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

Surgical management of infant mitral valve regurgitation is challenging. There are no large surgical series of mitral valve repair in infants. Mitral valve repair is preferable to replacement. We report the modified De Vega adjustable annuloplasty with mitral valve repair in an infant with mitral valve regurgitation from endocarditis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
July 2008

Prenatal detection of congenital heart disease in southern Nevada: the need for universal fetal cardiac evaluation.

J Ultrasound Med 2007 Dec;26(12):1715-9; quiz 1720-1

Children's Heart Center, 3006 S Maryland Pkwy, Suite 690, Las Vegas, Nevada 89109, USA.

Objective: Congenital cardiac malformations are common developmental anomalies. In the United States, congenital heart disease is the number one cause of infant mortality from congenital malformations. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects aids treatment coordination. Our aim was to evaluate prenatal detection of serious congenital heart malformations in Clark County, Nevada.

Methods: We electronically searched our research department-maintained computer database for patients with serious congenital heart disease born in Clark County between May 2003 and April 2006. We excluded patients that did not have at least 1 local prenatal ultrasound examination. All pre-natal ultrasound studies were performed in obstetric offices, radiology imaging centers, or maternal-fetal medicine specialty practices. Fetal echocardiography was performed in maternal-fetal medicine specialists' offices under the supervision of a fetal cardiologist. Pediatric cardiologists performed all postnatal echocardiographic examinations.

Results: During the study period, we diagnosed serious congenital heart malformations in 161 patients among a total estimated 77,000 births (2/1000). Of the 161 patients, 58 (36%) had a prenatal diagnosis, and 103 (64%) had an exclusively postnatal diagnosis.

Conclusions: Standard prenatal ultrasound fails to show congenital heart disease in most fetuses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
December 2007

Diagnosis of absent ductus venosus in a population referred for fetal echocardiography: association with a persistent portosystemic shunt requiring postnatal device occlusion.

J Ultrasound Med 2007 Aug;26(8):1077-82

Fetal Cardiology Program, Children's Heart Center, Las Vegas, NV 89109, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this series was to assess the incidence, anatomic variants, and implications of an absent ductus venosus (ADV) in patients referred for fetal echocardiography.

Methods: We searched our fetal cardiology database for diagnoses of ADV from May 2003 to December 2006.

Results: During the study period, we performed 1328 fetal echocardiographic examinations in 990 fetuses. We found 6 cases of ADV (6/1000). Indications for fetal echocardiography were cardiomegaly, dilated umbilical or systemic veins, and extracardiac abnormalities. We identified 5 anatomic variants of ADV. In 2 patients, the umbilical vein connected to the systemic venous circulation by way of the portal sinus: via an abnormal venous channel from the portal sinus to the right atrium (case 1) and presumably via hepatic sinusoids to the hepatic veins (case 2). In the remaining 4 patients, the umbilical vein bypassed the portal sinus and the liver and connected to the systemic venous circulation via an abnormal venous channel: from the umbilical vein to the right atrium (case 3), from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava (cases 4 and 5), and from the umbilical vein to the right iliac vein (case 6). All patients survived; 2 required cardiovascular intervention. No intervention was required in 3 patients.

Conclusions: An ADV should be ruled out in a fetus with unexplained cardiomegaly or dilatation of the umbilical vein, systemic veins, or portal sinus. To our knowledge, prenatal diagnosis of an ADV with an abnormal communication between the portal sinus and the right atrium has not been reported previously. The portosystemic communication persisted after birth and required device occlusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
August 2007

Repeated infections with Schistosoma mansoni and liver fibrosis in undernourished mice.

Acta Trop 2007 Jan 27;101(1):15-24. Epub 2006 Dec 27.

Laboratory of Immunopathology, Department of Immunology, Aggeu Magalhães Research Center, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Av. Moraes Rego s/n, Cidade Universitária, Recife, PE, CEP 50670-420, Brazil.

The mouse model of schistosomal periportal fibrosis (Symmers' "pipestem" fibrosis), that develops in 30-50% of the infected animals, is not reproduced in undernourished mice. Host nutritional status is likely to be a variable that may influence the outcome and progression of infection, since it interferes with the dynamics of connective tissue changes occurring in chronic hepatic schistosomiasis. Re-infections increase the occurrence of periportal liver fibrosis in well-nourished animals, but it is not known how undernourished mice would behave being repeatedly re-infected. So, 21-day-old male albino Swiss mice were individually exposed to 30 cercariae (percutaneous route) of the BH strain of Schistosoma mansoni, 4 weeks after being on a low-protein diet. Control animals were fed on a commercial balanced chow for mice. The nutritional status was evaluated by body weight gain and measurement of food intake. Mice were divided into four groups: A1 (undernourished, single infected), A2 (well-nourished, single infected), B1 (undernourished, re-infected), B2 (well-nourished, re-infected). The primary infection was performed 4 weeks after ingesting the respective diet. Re-infections started 45 days later, with exposure to 15 cercariae, at 15 day intervals. Mice were sacrificed 18 weeks after the primary exposure. The livers were submitted to morphological (gross and microscopic pathology), morphometric (percentage of fibrosis; granuloma size; volume and numerical densities) by using semi-automatic morphometry, and biochemical (quantification of collagen as hydroxyproline) studies. Worm burdens and hepatic egg counting were also recorded. Values for body weight gains were always lower in undernourished mice, the effects of re-infection being minimal on this regard. Liver and spleen weights were higher in well-nourished mice (either single infected or re-infected) and mainly related to the type of ingested diet. A greater number of re-infected well-nourished mice developed periportal fibrosis, but undernourished re-infected animals did not reproduce this lesion. The percentage of fibrosis and hepatic collagen content were higher in well-nourished mice, but differences between single infected and re-infected groups were not statistically significant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
January 2007

An index for evaluating results in paediatric cardiac intensive care.

Cardiol Young 2006 Aug;16(4):369-77

Unidade de Cardiologia & Medicina Fetal, Real Hospital Português, Recife, Brazil.

Objective: To determine if in-hospital mortality after cardiac surgery can be predicted, in children, using a new clinical and surgical index.

Study Design: Observational, retrospective, cross-sectional.

Methods: We reviewed 818 charts from children undergoing surgery between January, 2000, and December, 2004. The index was calculated by summing the scores from five variables, specifically age, nutritional state, the presence of associated clinical risk factors, surgical complexity, and use and time of cardiopulmonary bypass. Each variable was subdivided into categories of low, medium or high risk, with scores attributed as zero, one or two, respectively. Risks for death were calculated using the odds ratio.

Results: Our overall mortality was 14.7%, with our proposed index correlating strongly with mortality (p less than 0.0001). No patients died with scores of zero, but mortality increased from around 10% with a score of three, to close to 30% with scores of five and six, and to over 50% with a score of eight. No patients reached scores of 10, and more than three-fifths of all patients had scores between zero and three. We observed higher mortalities independently for each variable in association with the highest risk scores.

Conclusions: We found that surgery undertaken in the neonatal period, weight below the 5th percentile, the presence of associated clinical risk factors, operations of higher complexity, and more than 90 minutes of cardiopulmonary bypass were all significantly associated with mortality. Our suggested new index showed a linear correlation with mortality, and in our current experience, has proved a valuable tool for predicting adverse outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
August 2006

Health care users' satisfaction in Brazil, 2003.

Cad Saude Publica 2005 31;21 Suppl:109-18. Epub 2006 Jan 31.

Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, Brazil.

Evaluation of users' satisfaction with the health system brings back longstanding questions concerning the quality of services provided to the Brazilian population. The current study analyzes satisfaction with outpatient and inpatient care based on the results of the World Health Survey, conducted in Brazil in 2003. To explain satisfaction with various aspects of care through a small number of factors, the factor analysis technique was used, through principal components analysis (PCA). Multiple regression models identified associations between satisfaction scores and different sociodemographic variables. For outpatient care, waiting time showed the lowest degree of satisfaction, and in the case of hospitalization, freedom to choose the physician was the worst evaluated aspect. Three components were extracted from the PCA, related respectively to satisfaction with health professionals, health services, and health problem solution. Multiple regression analysis showed that having experienced some type of discrimination (on the basis of gender, age, poverty, social class, skin color, or type of disease) and being an exclusive user of the public National Health System involved a lower degree of users' satisfaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2006

Humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice immunized with cytoplasmic (CRA) and flagellar (FRA) recombinant repetitive antigens, in acute experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

Parasitol Res 2005 Jun 27;96(3):154-61. Epub 2005 Apr 27.

Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães/FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE, Brazil.

In previous studies, cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses in susceptible and resistant mice in the absence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with a significant induction of the Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in those animals. In this follow-up paper, the immunostimulatory and protective effects of these proteins were evaluated by immunizing with CRA or FRA antigens, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and challenging with a T. cruzi (Y strain). Both proteins induced humoral response with high levels of IgG isotypes as well as cellular immunity with high levels of IFN-gamma when compared to controls. However, the lymphocyte proliferative response was minimal. The survival rate at 30 days post-infection was significant in CRA (60%) or FRA (50%)--immunized BALB/c mice and CRA (83.3%)--immunized C57BL/6 mice. Taken as a whole these findings indicate that CRA and FRA are immunogenic and potentially important for protective immunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2005