Publications by authors named "Carlos E Eismann"

6 Publications

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A Nanostructured Lipid System to Improve the Oral Bioavailability of Ruthenium(II) Complexes for the Treatment of Infections Caused by .

Front Microbiol 2018 6;9:2930. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, Brazil.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, airborne disease caused by the bacterium that mainly affects the lungs. Fortunately, tuberculosis is a curable disease, and in recent years, death rates for this disease have decreased. However, the existence of antibiotic-resistant strains and the occurrence of co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have led to increased mortality in recent years. Another area of concern is that one-third of the world's population is currently infected with in its latent state, serving as a potential reservoir for active TB. In an effort to address the failure of current TB drugs, greater attention is being given to the importance of bioinorganic chemistry as an ally in new research into the development of anti-TB drugs. Ruthenium (Ru) is a chemical element that can mimic iron (Fe) in the body. In previous studies involving the following heteroleptic Ru complexes, [Ru(pic)(dppb)(bipy)]PF (SCAR1), [Ru(pic)(dppb)(Me-bipy)]PF (SCAR2), [Ru(pic)(dppb)(phen)]PF (SCAR4), -[Ru(pic)(dppe)]PF (SCAR5), and [Ru(pic)(dppe)(phen)]PF (SCAR7), we observed excellent anti-TB activity, moderate cell-toxicity, and a lack of oral bioavailability in an model of these complexes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and oral bioavailability of these complexes by loading them into a nanostructured lipid system. The nanostructured lipid system was generated using different ratios of surfactant (soybean phosphatidylcholine, Eumulgin, and sodium oleate), aqueous phase (phosphate buffer with a concentration of 1X and pH 7.4), and oil (cholesterol) to generate a system for the incorporation of Ru(II) compounds. The anti-TB activity of the compounds was determined using a microdilution assay with Resazurin (REMA) against strains of s HRv and clinical isolates resistant. Cytotoxicity assay using J774.A1 cells (ATCC TIB-67) and intra-macrophage activity were performed. The oral bioavailability assay was used to analyze blood collected from female BALB/C mice. Plasma collected from the same mice was analyzed via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify the number of Ru ions. The complexes loaded into the nanostructured lipid system maintained activity and toxicity was found to be reduced compared with the compounds that were not loaded. The complexes showed intra-macrophagic activity and were orally bioavailable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291527PMC
December 2018

Determination of in vitro absorption in Caco-2 monolayers of anticancer Ru(II)-based complexes acting as dual human topoisomerase and PARP inhibitors.

Biometals 2019 02 30;32(1):89-100. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center of Exact Sciences and Technology, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905, Brazil.

Due to their unique and versatile biochemical properties, ruthenium-based compounds have emerged as promising anticancer agents. Previous studies showed that three ruthenium(II) compounds: [Ru(pySH)(bipy)(dppb)]PF (1), [Ru(HSpym)(bipy)(dppb)]PF (2) and Ru[(SpymMe)(bipy)(dppb)]PF (3) presented anticancer properties higher than doxorubicin and cisplatin and acted as human topoisomerase IB (Topo I) inhibitors. Here, we focused our studies on in vitro intestinal permeability and anticancer mechanisms of these three complexes. Caco-2 permeation studies showed that 1 did not permeate the monolayer of intestinal cells, suggesting a lack of absorption on oral administration, while 2 and 3 permeated the cells after 60 and 120 min, respectively. Complexes 2 and 3 fully inhibited Topo II relaxation activity at 125 µM. In previously studies, 3 was the most potent inhibitor of Topo I, here, we concluded that it is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor. Moreover, it presented selectivity to cancer cells when evaluated by clonogenic assay. Thus, 3 was selected to gene expression assay front MDA-MB-231 cells from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which represents the highly aggressive subgroup of breast cancers with poor prognosis. The analyses revealed changes of 27 out of 84 sought target genes. PARP1 and PARP2 were 5.29 and 1.83 times down-regulated after treatment with 3, respectively. PARPs have been attractive antitumor drug targets, considering PARP inhibition could suppress DNA damage repair and sensitize tumor cells to DNA damage agents. Recent advances in DNA repair studies have shown that an approach that causes cell lethality using synthetic PARP-inhibiting drugs has produced promising results in TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-018-0160-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Not Good, but Not All Bad: Dehydration Effects on Body Fluids, Organ Masses, and Water Flux through the Skin of Rhinella schneideri (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

Physiol Biochem Zool 2017 May/Jun;90(3):313-320. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium. We found that dehydration caused an increase in the concentration of body fluids, as indicated by virtually all the parameters examined. There was a proportional change in the relative masses of visceral organs, except for the liver and kidneys, which exhibited a decrease in their relative masses greater than the whole-body level of dehydration. Changes-or the preservation-of relative organ masses during dehydration may be explained by organ-specific physiological adjustments in response to the functional stress introduced by the dehydration itself. As dehydration progressed, evaporative water loss diminished and water reabsorption increased. In both cases, the increase in body fluid concentration associated with the dehydration provided the osmotic driver for these changes in water flux. Additionally, dehydration-induced alterations on the cutaneous barrier may also have contributed to the decrease in water flux. Dehydration, therefore, while posing a considerable challenge on the water balance regulation of anurans, paradoxically facilitates water conservation and absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/690189DOI Listing
July 2017

Novel Zinc(II) Complexes [Zn(atc-Et)₂] and [Zn(atc-Ph)₂]: In Vitro and in Vivo Antiproliferative Studies.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 May 21;17(5). Epub 2016 May 21.

Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Campus Araraquara, Araraquara, São Paulo 14800-903, Brazil.

Cisplatin and its derivatives are the main metallodrugs used in cancer therapy. However, low selectivity, toxicity and drug resistance are associated with their use. The zinc(II) (Zn(II)) thiosemicarbazone complexes [Zn(atc-Et)₂] (1) and [Zn(atc-Ph)₂] (2) (atc-R: monovalent anion of 2-acetylpyridine N4-R-thiosemicarbazone) were synthesized and fully characterized in the solid state and in solution via elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) spectroscopy, conductometry and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of these complexes was evaluated in the HepG2, HeLa, MDA-MB-231, K-562, DU 145 and MRC-5 cancer cell lines. The strongest antiproliferative results were observed in MDA-MB-231 and HepG2 cells, in which these complexes displayed significant selective toxicity (3.1 and 3.6, respectively) compared with their effects on normal MRC-5 cells. In vivo studies were performed using an alternative model (Artemia salina L.) to assure the safety of these complexes, and the results were confirmed using a conventional model (BALB/c mice). Finally, tests of oral bioavailability showed maximum plasma concentrations of 3029.50 µg/L and 1191.95 µg/L for complexes 1 and 2, respectively. According to all obtained results, both compounds could be considered as prospective antiproliferative agents that warrant further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4881598PMC
May 2016
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