Publications by authors named "Carlos Andres Trujillo"

5 Publications

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Norm-focused nudges influence pro-environmental choices and moderate post-choice emotional responses.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(3):e0247519. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Iowa State University-Debbie and Jerry Ivy College of Business, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

In this paper, we use choice architecture techniques to activate both social and personal norms, seeking to increase pro-environmental choices and to better understand the effect of such norm types on post-choice emotional responses. In four experiments, we make different social or personal norms salient by aligning choice environments with psychosocial mechanisms that activate different types of norms. We use different choice architecture techniques to change information, alter product sets, and generate the social consequences of choices. The target behavior, purchasing a recycled paper notebook, is captured through direct purchase behaviors or willingness to pay commitments. We find that choice architecture activates personal but not social norms, and that associated positive and negative emotions (guilt, shame, regret and pride) are elicited by choices but not by willingness to pay. Moreover, manipulating choice environment moderates the relationship between choice and norm-related emotions, such that positive emotional responses seem to be stronger than negative ones. The results suggest that choice architecture interventions can activate individual level beliefs about sustainability and help reduce the attitude-behavior gap.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247519PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920343PMC
March 2021

An examination of the association between early initiation of substance use and interrelated multilevel risk and protective factors among adolescents.

PLoS One 2019 11;14(12):e0225384. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia.

One of the major goals of drug use prevention programs is to delay the age of onset of substance use. What is called early initiation, usually occurring in adolescents under the age of 15, is a salient predictor of Substance Use Disorders later in adulthood. The causes of early initiation are complex and multifaceted and this has led to the identification of a rich set of risk and protective factors that influence age of onset. Nonetheless, there is little knowledge about the interdependence of these factors in their impact on early initiation. This paper addresses this question by applying Multiple Correspondence Analysis to data on family, community and social risk and protective factors from over 1200 adolescents. We find that community and to a lesser extent social factors are the most clearly associated to early initiation and we compare our results to those obtained from linear regression analyses of the same data that do not incorporate interdependence and find opposite results. We discuss the differences between linear regressions and MCA to evaluate the interplay of risk and protective factors and the implications of our findings for health policy and the design of prevention interventions aimed at delaying age of onset.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225384PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905657PMC
March 2020

The complementary role of affect-based and cognitive heuristics to make decisions under conditions of ambivalence and complexity.

PLoS One 2018 9;13(11):e0206724. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Universidad de los Andes - School of Management, Bogota, Colombia.

Little is known about the interplay between affective and cognitive processes of decision making within the bounded rationality perspective, in particular for the debate on adaptive decision making and strategy selection. This gap in the knowledge is particularly important as affect and deliberation may direct preferences in opposite directions. How do decision makers solve such dissonance? In this paper, we address this question by exploring the use of integral affect as a choice heuristic in comparison with and in conjunction to "take the best," and weighted addition of attributes (WADD). We operationalize theories of reliance on affect in choice through a "Take the emotionally best" algorithm. Its predictive power is experimentally tested against other models, including mixed-sequential cognitive/affective procedures. We find that individual decisions are better predicted by a sequential combination of "Take the emotionally best" and "Take the best" with a slight dominance of the former. Conditions of cognitive/affective ambivalence, low discrimination ability and high complexity provide the cognitive architecture where such blended choice strategies predict decisions more precisely. This implies that reliance on integral affect may precede the use of cognitive cues following an ecological rationality perspective rather than supporting a kind of competition between affect and cognition as implied in current literature.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206724PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6226170PMC
April 2019

Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

PLoS One 2016 29;11(7):e0158878. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

School of Management, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative direct effect on cooperation and trust.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158878PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4966936PMC
August 2017