Publications by authors named "Carlos A Conte-Junior"

43 Publications

Virulence genes identification and characterization revealed the presence of the Yersinia High Pathogenicity Island (HPI) in Salmonella from Brazil.

Gene 2021 Jun 20;787:145646. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Molecular & Analytical Laboratory Center, Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Food Technology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; Chemistry Institute, Food Science Program, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Center for Food Analysis (NAL-LADETEC), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; National Institute of Health Quality Control, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Salmonella spp. is one of the major agents of foodborne disease worldwide, and its virulence genes are responsible for the main pathogenic mechanisms of this micro-organism. The whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens has become a lower-cost and more accessible genotyping tool providing many gene analysis possibilities. This study provided an in silico investigation of 129 virulence genes, including plasmidial and bacteriophage genes from Brazilian strains' public Salmonella genomes. The frequency analysis of the four most sequenced serovars and a temporal analysis over the past four decades was also performed. The NCBI sequence reads archive (SRA) database comprised 1077 Salmonella public whole-genome sequences of strains isolated in Brazil between 1968 and 2018. Among the 1077 genomes, 775 passed in Salmonella in silico Typing (SISTR) quality control, which also identified 41 different serovars in which the four most prevalent were S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Dublin, and S. Heidelberg. Among these, S. Heidelberg presented the most distinct virulence profile, besides presenting Yersinia High Pathogenicity Island (HPI), rare and first reported in Salmonella from Brazil. The genes mgtC, csgC, ssaI and ssaS were the most prevalent within the 775 genomes with more than 99% prevalence. On the other hand, the less frequent genes were astA, iucBCD, tptC and shdA, with less than 1% frequency. All of the plasmids and bacteriophages virulence genes presented a decreasing trend between the 2000 s and 2010 s decades, except for the phage gene grvA, which increased in this period. This study provides insights into Salmonella virulence genes distribution in Brazil using freely available bioinformatics tools. This approach could guide in vivo and in vitro studies besides being an interesting method for the investigation and surveillance of Salmonella virulence. Moreover, here we propose the genes mgtC, csgC, ssaI and ssaS as additional targets for PCR identification of Salmonella in Brazil due to their very high frequency in the studied genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145646DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent Advances on Nanomaterials to COVID-19 Management: A Systematic Review on Antiviral/Virucidal Agents and Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Inhibition/Inactivation.

Glob Chall 2021 Feb 22:2000115. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

COVID-19 Research Group Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC) Department of Biochemistry Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) UFRJ Rio de Janeiro 21941-909 Brazil.

The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is recognized as a public health emergency of worldwide concern. Nanomaterials can be effectively used to detect, capture/inactivate or inhibit coronavirus cell entry/replication in the human host cell, preventing infection. Their potential for nanovaccines, immunoengineering, diagnosis, repurposing medication, and disinfectant surfaces targeting the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is highlighted. In this systematic review the aim is to present an unbiased view of which and how nanomaterials can reduce the spread of COVID-19. Herein, the focus is on SARS-CoV-2, analyzing 46 articles retrieved before December 31, 2020. The interface between nanomaterials is described, and the main mechanisms to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and viral inactivation are also discussed. Nanocarbons, biopolymeric, copper, and silver nanoparticles are potential antiviral and virucidal agents toward self-cleaning and reusable filter media and surfaces (e.g., facial masks), drug administration, vaccines, and immunodiagnostic assays. Trends in toxicology research and safety tests can help fill the main gaps in the literature and overcome health surveillance's challenges. Phytochemicals delivery by nanocarriers also stand out as candidates to target and bio-friendly therapy. Nanocellulose might fill in the gaps. Future research using nanomaterials targeting novel therapies/prophylaxis measures to COVID-19 and future outbreaks is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gch2.202000115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994982PMC
February 2021

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized dairy products from Bahia, Brazil.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Graduate Program in Food Science (PGAli), Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA, 40170-115, Brazil; Laboratório de Inspeção e Tecnologia de Leite e Derivados (LAITLACTEOS), Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA, 40170-110, Brazil. Electronic address:

The presence of pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in dairy products represents a public health concern because of its ability to produce the toxins Stx1 and Stx2, which cause intestinal diseases. Monitoring the stages of milk production and checking dairy products for contamination are crucial steps to ensure dairy safety. This study aimed to report the occurrence of thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and STEC strains in pasteurized dairy products and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles, serotypes, and characterizations of the STEC isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We obtained a total of 138 pasteurized dairy products from 15 processing plants in Bahia, Brazil, to examine coliforms, E. coli, and STEC strains. We found that 43% of samples (59/138) contained thermotolerant coliforms, and 30% (42/138) did not comply with Brazilian regulations. Overall, 6% (9/138) were positive for E. coli and 4% (5/138) were positive for STEC. We recovered 9 STEC isolates from pasteurized cream (2/9), Minas Padrão cheese (2/9), Minas Frescal cheese (4/9), and ricotta (1/9). All isolates were stx2-positive, and 2 were eae-positive. All isolates were negative for the "big 6" STEC serogroups, belonging instead to serotypes ONT:HNT, ONT:H12, O148:H-, OR:H40, OR:HNT, and O148:HNT. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 100% genetic similarity among 3 isolates from 2 different samples produced in the same production facility, which may suggest cross-contamination. As well, we found isolates that were 98% similar but in samples produced in different production facilities, suggesting a mutual source of contamination or a circulating strain. Two STEC strains exhibited resistance to streptomycin. Although the isolates presented a low resistance profile and no strain belonged to the "big 6" pathogenic group, the circulation of stx2-positive STEC strains in ready-to-eat products highlights the importance of epidemiological surveillance inside the Brazilian dairy chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19511DOI Listing
March 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil built on socioeconomic and political pillars.

Pathog Glob Health 2021 03 14;115(2):75-77. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

COVID-19 Research Group, Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20477724.2021.1874202DOI Listing
March 2021

Insights into chemical and sensorial aspects to understand and manage beer aging using chemometrics.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020 Nov 3;19(6):3774-3801. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Post Graduate Program in Food Science, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Beer chemical instability remains, at present, the main challenge in maintaining beer quality. Although not fully understood, after decades of research, significant progress has been made in identifying "aging compounds," their origin, and formation pathways. However, as the nature of aging relies on beer manufacturing aspects such as raw materials, process variables, and storage conditions, the chemical profile differs among beers. Current research points to the impact of nonoxidative reactions on beer quality. The effect of Maillard and Maillard intermediates on the final beer quality has become the focus of beer aging research, as prevention of oxidation can only sustain beer quality to some extent. On the other hand, few studies have focused on tracing a profile of whose compound is sensory relevant to specific types of beer. In this matter, the incorporation of "chemometrics," a class of multivariate statistic procedures, has helped brewing scientists achieve specific correlations between the sensory profile and chemical data. The use of chemometrics as exploratory data analysis, discrimination techniques, and multivariate calibration techniques has made the qualitatively and quantitatively translation of sensory perception of aging into manageable chemical and analytical parameters. However, despite their vast potential, these techniques are rarely employed in beer aging studies. This review discusses the chemical and sensorial bases of beer aging. It focuses on how chemometrics can be used to their full potential, with future perspectives and research to be incorporated in the field, enabling a deeper and more specific understanding of the beer aging picture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12642DOI Listing
November 2020

Fish Quality Index Method: Principles, weaknesses, validation, and alternatives-A review.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2020 Sep 17;19(5):2657-2676. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Post Graduate Program in Sanitary Surveillance, National Institute of Health Quality Control, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Fish is a high nutritional value matrix of which production and consumption have been increasing in the last years. Advancements in the efficient evaluation of freshness are essential to optimize the quality assessment, to improve consumer safety, and to reduce raw material losses. Therefore, it is necessary to use rapid, nondestructive, and objective methodologies to evaluate the quality of this matrix. Quality Index Method (QIM) is a tool applied to indicate fish freshness through a sensory evaluation performed by a group of assessors. However, the use of QIM as an official method for quality assessment is limited by the protocol, sampling size, specificities of the species, storage conditions, and assessor's experience, which make this method subjective. Also, QIM may present divergences regarding the development of microorganisms and chemical analysis. In this way, novel quality evaluation methods such as electronic noses, electronic tongues, machine vision system, and colorimetric sensors have been proposed, and novel technologies such as proteomics and mitochondrial analysis have been developed. In this review, the weaknesses of QIM were exposed, and novel methodologies for quality evaluation were presented. The consolidation of these novel methodologies and their use as methods of quality assessment are an alternative to sensory methods, and their understanding enables a more effective fish quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12600DOI Listing
September 2020

Optimization of UV-C light and lactic acid combined treatment in decontamination of sliced Brazilian dry-cured loin: Salmonella Typhimurium inactivation and physicochemical quality.

Meat Sci 2021 Feb 11;172:108308. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Avenida Horácio Macedo, 1281, Polo de Química, bloco C, 21941-598, Ilha do Fundão, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Food Science Program, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; National Institute of Health Quality Control, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to test the effect of UV-C light (0.01-0.64 J/cm) (UV) and lactic acid (0.1-12.9%) (LA) combined treatment on sliced Brazilian dry-cured loin (Socol, BDL) for (i) Salmonella Typhimurium reduction, (ii) physicochemical changes (color (a*, cured color, and ΔE), protein and lipid oxidation) and (iii) optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Linear inactivation rate was achieved and UV was 2-fold more efficient than LA to inactivate S. Typhimurium. At the same time these combined technologies increased lipid (linear rate, R = 0.88), protein oxidation (quadratic rate, R = 0.86) and meat discoloration. Furthermore, the minimum point of the physicochemical changes was obtained using RSM, and the decontamination process was optimized. Hence, a reduction of 1.3 log cfu/g was achieved using 0.36 J/cm of UV and 7.7% of LA. These combined methods represent a promising industrial intervention strategy to dry-meat safety and quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108308DOI Listing
February 2021

Relationship between COVID-19 and weather: Case study in a tropical country.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2020 08 19;229:113587. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

COVID-19 Research Group, Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Avenida Horácio Macedo, 1281, Polo de Química, bloco C, 21941-598, Ilha do Fundão, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; National Institute of Health Quality Control, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, 21040-900, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between weather factors (temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and rainfall) and COVID-19 infection in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Solar radiation showed a strong (-0.609, p < 0.01) negative correlation with the incidence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Temperature (maximum and average) and wind speed showed negative correlation (p < 0.01). Therefore, in this studied tropical state, high solar radiation can be indicated as the main climatic factor that suppress the spread of COVID-19. High temperatures, and wind speed also are potential factors. Therefore, the findings of this study show the ability to improve the organizational system of strategies to combat the pandemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and other tropical countries around the word.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303605PMC
August 2020

Combined Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and UV-C Radiation on Pathogens Reduction, Biogenic Amines, and Shelf Life of Refrigerated Tilapia () Fillets.

Molecules 2020 Jul 15;25(14). Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Departmento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-909, Brazil.

This study investigated the isolated effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 50% CO and 50% N) and ultraviolet radiation (UV; 0.30 J/cm) as well as their combined (MAP/UV) effect on reduction of and O157:H7, biogenic amines (BA), and on shelf life of tilapia fillets stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 10 days. UV samples had the highest reduction of (1.13 log colony forming units/g; CFU/g) and O157:H7 (0.70 log CFU/g). MAP and MAP/UV reduced the growth of in 0.50 log CFU/g and did not affect the growth of O157:H7. UV, MAP, and MAP/UV increased lag phase and/or generation time of all evaluated bacterial groups, decreased pH values, ammonia formation, texture changes, and, in general, the BA formation throughout storage period, and, therefore, UV, MAP, and MAP/UV extended the shelf life for two, three, and at least five days, respectively. MAP/UV, MAP, and UV decreased redness, MAP/UV and MAP increased yellowness and lipid oxidation, while UV did not affect it. MAP/UV demonstrated promising results for shelf life extension; however, different gas ratios in combination with other ultraviolet radiation type C (UV-C) doses should be investigated to reach the highest microbiological safety and maintenance of the overall quality of tilapia fillets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397001PMC
July 2020

Enalapril and treadmill running reduce adiposity, but only the latter causes adipose tissue browning in mice.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Feb 2;236(2):900-910. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Exercise Sciences, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

This study investigated whether regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by enalapril and/or aerobic exercise training (AET) causes browning of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat (HF) diet for 16 weeks. At Week 8, HF-fed animals were divided into sedentary (HF), enalapril (HF-E), AET (HF-T), and enalapril plus AET (HF-ET) groups. Subsequently, sWAT was extracted for morphometry, determination of RAS expression, and biomarkers of WAT browning. The HF group displayed adipocyte hypertrophy and induction of the classical RAS axis. Conversely, all interventions reduced adiposity and induced the counterregulatory RAS axis. However, only AET raised plasma irisin, increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and uncoupling protein-1 levels, and the expression of PR-domain containing 16 in sWAT. Therefore, we concluded that AET-induced sWAT browning was independent of the counterregulatory axis shifting of RAS in HF diet-induced obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29900DOI Listing
February 2021

A Chemometric Approach to Establish Underlying Connections between Lipid and Protein Oxidation and Instrumental Color and Texture Characteristics in Brazilian Dry-cured Loin.

Foods 2020 Apr 24;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Avenida Horácio Macedo, 1281, Polo de Química, bloco C, Ilha do Fundão, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-598, Brazil.

This study aimed to use chemometrics to evaluate the influence of lipid and protein oxidation on the color and texture characteristics of Brazilian dry-cured loin (Socol, BDL). Upon exploration using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), two clusters were formed, indicating that higher water activity (a) was associated with higher lipid and protein oxidation. However, this fact was associated with softening and low color quality (a*, chroma, and cured color). In a more in-depth exploration, using principal component analysis (PCA) for each cluster separately, connections between protein and lipid oxidation were found in high a, as demonstrated by their statistical association. In the same way, relationships between high hardness and carbonyl contents were obtained only in high a. In addition, an overall relationship ( < 0.05) between nondestructive measurements, such as hardness, and destructive methods (malonaldehyde and carbonyl contents) demonstrate that nondestructive techniques can be promising for further studies in the method replacement field. In this study, reasonable explanations of the connections between oxidative damage and quality traits in Socol are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9040536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231182PMC
April 2020

Modeling Typhimurium Inactivation in Dry-Fermented Sausages: Previous Habituation in the Food Matrix Undermines UV-C Decontamination Efficacy.

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:591. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Post Graduate Program in Food Science, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The effects of previous Typhimurium habituation to an Italian-style salami concerning pathogen resistance against ultraviolet-C light (UV-C) treatment were modeled in order to establish treatment feasibility for the decontamination of dry-fermented sausage. Typhimurium following 24 h habituation in fermented sausage (habituated cells) or non-habituation (non-habituated cells) were exposed to increasing UV-C radiation treatment times. The Weibull model was the best fit for describing Typhimurium UV-C inactivation. Heterogeneity in UV-C treatment susceptibilities within the Typhimurium population was observed, revealing intrinsic persistence in a sub-population. UV-C radiation up to 1.50 J/cm was a feasible treatment for dry-fermented sausage decontamination, as the matrices retained instrumental color and lipid oxidation physiochemical characteristics. However, habituation in the sausage matrix led to a 14-fold increase in the UV-C dose required to achieve the first logarithm reduction (δ value) in Typhimurium population. The results indicate that, although UV-C radiation might be considered an efficient method for dry-fermented sausage decontamination, effective doses should be reconsidered in order to reach desirable food safety parameters while preserving matrix quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156554PMC
April 2020

Principles and applications of non-thermal technologies and alternative chemical compounds in meat and fish.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 22;61(7):1163-1183. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Center for Food Analysis (NAL), Technological Development Support Laboratory (LADETEC), Avenida Horácio Macedo, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Conventional methods of food preservation have demonstrated several disadvantages and limitations in the efficiency of the microbial load reduction and maintain food quality. Hence, non-thermal preservation technologies (NTPT) and alternative chemical compounds (ACC) have been considered a high promissory replacer to decontamination, increasing the shelf life and promoting low levels of physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial alterations of meat and fish products. The combination of these methods can be a potential alternative to the food industry. This review deals with the most critical aspects of the mechanisms of action under microbial, physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial parameters and the efficiency of the different NTPT (ultrasound, high pressure processing, gamma irradiation and UV-C radiation) and ACC (peracetic acid, bacteriocins, nanoparticles and essential oils) applied in meat and fish products. The NTPT and ACC present a high capacity of microorganisms inactivation, ensuring low alterations level in the matrix and high reduction of environmental impact. However, the application conditions of the different methods as exposition time, energy intensity and concentration thresholds of chemical compounds need to be specifically established and continuously improved for each matrix type to reduce to the maximum the physicochemical, nutritional and sensorial changes. In addition, the combination of the methods (hurdle concept) may be an alternative to enhance the matrix decontamination. In this way, undesirable changes in meat and fish products can be further reduced without a decrease in the efficiency of the decontamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1754755DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of ripening time on bacteriological and physicochemical goat milk cheese characteristics.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2020 Apr 1;29(4):459-467. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

1Department of Food Technology, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Niterói, RJ CEP: 24230-340 Brazil.

Cheese ripening involves lactose metabolism, lipolysis and proteolysis, which are affected by many factors. The aim of this study was to assess changes due to ripening (90 days) of goat milk cheese through bacteriological and physicochemical analysis in order to verify if, at the end of ripening period, this cheese could be considered "lactose-free". Three batches of the goat milk cheese were manufactured and ripened at 10 °C and 80% relative humidity for 90 days. Titratable acidity increased by about 59 °D due to carbohydrate degradation and organic acid production. However, pH (5.31-5.25) remained constant. was the dominant cheese microbiota, acting in the fermentation of lactose (1.17-0.06 mg/g) and lactic acid production (5.49-s10.01 mg/g). Thus, ripening time was decisive for bacteriological and physicochemical goat milk cheese characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00682-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142192PMC
April 2020

The Effect of Different Packaging Systems on the Shelf Life of Refrigerated Ground Beef.

Foods 2020 Apr 14;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, Rio de Janeiro 24220-000, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different packaging systems on the shelf life of refrigerated ground beef. The ground beef samples were packaged as follows: AA (100% ambient air), 90O:10CO (90% O and 10% CO), 80O:20CO (80% O and 20% CO), 70O:30CO (70% O and 30% CO), 60O:40CO (60% O and 40% CO), 50O:50CO (50% O and 50% CO), 100O (100% O), and VP (vacuum packaging). All treatments were analyzed daily for O and CO levels, pH, filtration time, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria (AMHB), and aerobic psychrotrophic heterotrophic bacteria (APHB) over 20 days at 2 °C. All MAP systems had a decrease of O and an increase of CO levels during storage period ( < 0.05). Overall, the MAP systems were similarly able to decrease the pH and retard the increase of TVB-N and filtration time over the storage period ( > 0.05). Moreover, the MAP systems increased the lag phase and/or the generation time of both AMHB and APHB, extending the shelf life by 3 (90O:10CO), 4 (70O:30CO and 100O), and 5 days (80O:20CO, 60O:40CO, 50O:50CO and VP). All MAP systems were equally effective in retarding physicochemical degradation; however, 80O:20CO, 60O:40CO, 50O:50CO and VP were the most effective in impairing bacterial growth and extending the shelf life of ground beef stored under refrigeration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9040495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230568PMC
April 2020

Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle oxygen saturation during exercise recovery and flow-mediated dilation are impaired in HIV-infected patients.

Microvasc Res 2020 07 28;130:104004. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Bioactive Products and Biosciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Food Science, Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been associated with the presence of endothelial dysfunction in HIV-infected patients, which may impair oxygen delivery to muscles during exercise and exercise recovery. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to assess muscle oxygen saturation (SmO) kinetics during exercise in different clinical populations in order to evaluate the balance between oxygen delivery and utilization by muscles. However, studies assessing SmO in HIV-infected patients have not been conducted. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate NIRS-derived SmO during rhythmic handgrip exercise and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV-infected patients (HIV) compared to non-HIV-infected controls (N-HIV). Eighteen HIV and 17 N-HIV individuals underwent FMD assessment by ultrasound. The subjects then performed one set of rhythmic handgrip exercise until fatigue at 30% maximal isometric voluntary contraction. SmO was measured during entire exercise and 2-min exercise 3recovery. Muscle oxygen resaturation rate (upslope of the SmO over 10 s of recovery) was calculated. A significant lower FMD (3.5 ± 1.7 vs 5.9 ± 1.5%, P < 0.001) and slower oxygen resaturation rate (0.78 ± 0.4 vs 1.14 ± 0.4%·s, P = 0.020) in HIV as compared to N-HIV group were observed. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that HIV-infected patients had reduced FMD and impaired muscle oxygenation during exercise recovery compared to non-HIV individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2020.104004DOI Listing
July 2020

Type three secretion system in Salmonella Typhimurium: the key to infection.

Genes Genomics 2020 05 28;42(5):495-506. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Molecular and Analytical Laboratory Center, Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Food Technology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil.

Background: Type Three Secretion Systems (T3SS) are nanomachine complexes, which display the ability to inject effector proteins directly into host cells. This skill allows for gram-negative bacteria to modulate several host cell responses, such as cytoskeleton rearrangement, signal transduction, and cytokine production, which in turn increase the pathogenicity of these bacteria. The Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) T3SS has been the most characterized so far. Among gram-negative bacterium, ST is one of enterica groups predicted to have two T3SSs activated during different phases of infection.

Objective: To comprise current information about ST T3SS structure and function as well as an overview of its assembly and hierarchical regulation.

Methods: With a brief and straightforward reading, this review summarized aspects of both ST T3SS, such as its structure and function. That was possible due to the development of novel techniques, such as X-ray crystallography, cryoelectron microscopy, and nano-gold labelling, which also elucidated the mechanisms behind T3SS assembly and regulation, which was addressed in this review.

Conclusion: This paper provided fundamental overview of ST T3SS assembly and regulation, besides summarized the structure and function of this complex. Due to T3SS relevance in ST pathogenicity, this complex could become a potential target in therapeutic studies as this nanomachine modulates the infection process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-00918-8DOI Listing
May 2020

Draft Genome Sequences of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Copenhageni Strains Isolated from Patients with Weil's Disease in Brazil.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Feb 13;9(7). Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Bacterial Zoonosis Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic species of In Brazil, this disease is endemic, presenting epidemic potential in rainy seasons. Here, we announce the whole-genome sequences of two serovar Copenhageni strains isolated from blood samples from two icteric patients associated with severe leptospirosis in Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01538-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019067PMC
February 2020

Shiga Toxin-Producing and Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in Animal, Foods, and Humans: Pathogenicity Mechanisms, Detection Methods, and Epidemiology.

Curr Microbiol 2020 Apr 13;77(4):612-620. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Food Technology, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Street Vital Brazil Filho, n. 64. Santa Rosa, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 24230-340, Brazil.

The main Enterobacteriaceae habitat is the mammal gastrointestinal tract. In most cases, this group of species displays a symbiotic relationship with its hosts. However, some groups may be pathogenic to humans, such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. The presence of these groups represents a direct risk to consumers, and recent serotypes displaying the presence of pathogenic genes in both groups are a novel challenge for food production. Thus, microbiological control strategies presenting accurate detection methodologies are required. However, with the appearance of mutations among different species, knowledge, genetic monitoring, and bioinformatics techniques must be expanded. In addition, as a strategy to ensure safe products on an industrial scale, the monitoring by different techniques and fundamentals should be applied throughout the entire processing chain. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe the pathogenesis mechanisms of different groups, mutant strain dispersion, and current and alternative epidemiological investigation methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-019-01842-1DOI Listing
April 2020

Prior Exposure to Dry-Cured Meat Promotes Resistance to Simulated Gastric Fluid in Typhimurium.

Foods 2019 Nov 21;8(12). Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro 21941-909, RJ, Brazil.

This study assessed if exposure of foodborne in Brazilian dry-cured loin (BDL) affects pathogen inactivation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The acid tolerance responses of three serovars, Typhimurium, Derby and Panama, were assessed by an acid challenge trial at pH 3.0 for 4 h following pre-adaptation to three conditions: neutral pH, acidic pH (4.5) or BDL matrix. The influence of exposure temperature and time in the BDL on pathogen gastric fluid resistance was evaluated by the response surface methodology. The serovars acquired acid tolerance when exposed to the BDL matrix and their response to acid stress was strain-dependent, with . Typhimurium being the most tolerant strain. . Typhimuirum exposed to temperatures >25 °C in the BDL matrix displayed increased resistance to SGF. By using the response surface methodology, it was determined that . Typhimurium becomes less resistant against SGF if maintained in the BDL matrix at temperatures <7 °C, reinforcing the recommendation to store dry-cured meat under refrigeration in order to minimize consumer risks. The results presented herein point to a novel aspect of hurdle technology that should be taken into account to further understand the risks associated with hurdle-stable meat product, such as dry-cured meats, concerning foodborne pathogen contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods8120603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963427PMC
November 2019

Modelling inactivation of Staphylococcus spp. on sliced Brazilian dry-cured loin with thermosonication and peracetic acid combined treatment.

Int J Food Microbiol 2019 Nov 26;309:108328. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Post Graduate Program in Food Science, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Cidade Universitária, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Analytical and Molecular Laboratory Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Fluminense Federal University, Vital Brazil Filho, 64, 24230-340 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; National Institute of Health Quality Control, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ultrasound (US) has a high capacity to increase food safety. Although high and/or moderate temperature in combination with US has been studied, the knowledge about cooling/low temperatures as well as its combined effect with chemical preservation methods is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the inactivation of Staphylococcus spp. (SA) present in the natural microbiota of sliced Brazilian dry-cured loin (Socol, BDL) using US (40 kHz and 5.40 W/g) at 1.6-17.9 kJ/g, temperature (T) between 6.4 and 73.6 °C and peracetic acid (PA) between 5.5 and 274.5 mg/L employing the Central Composite Rotatable Design. The model fully describes how the combination of US, T, and PA affects SA inactivation. In BDL, an increase in US acoustic energy density (kJ/g) allows the reduction of T necessary to inactivate SA because of the occurrence of synergistic effect. However, US applied at low T was inefficient. On the other hand, PA was more efficient at low T, since high T degraded this compound at different rates according to the holding T. Therefore, the data indicates a relation between the technologies used in the combined decontamination of sliced BDL improving dry-cured meat safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2019.108328DOI Listing
November 2019

Short communication: Biogenic amine formation during fermentation in functional sheep milk yogurts.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Oct 24;102(10):8704-8709. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Universidade Federal Fluminense, Department of Food Technology, Faculdade de Veterinária, 24230-340, Niterói, Brazil; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Química, Food Science Program, 21941-909, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

The present study evaluated biogenic amine (BA) content during the fermentation period in functional sheep milk yogurts. Four treatments were prepared and assessed: natural (NSY), prebiotic (PreSY), probiotic (ProSY), and synbiotic (SynSY). Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine, and tyramine), proteolysis activity, and pH were measured during each hour of fermentation. Grumixama pulp was added to all formulations as a technological strategy and potential substrate for bacteria during fermentation. The yogurt and probiotic bacteria were viable (≥7 log cfu·mL) on d 0. The pH levels of the functional sheep milk yogurts had a more pronounced decrease than did the control of NSY. However, all yogurt samples underwent gradual decreases in pH until final fermentation. Proteolytic activity remained constant in all treatments during fermentation. The NSY, PreSY, ProSY, and SynSY presented the same behavior for all BA, with differences in concentration. Putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine contents decreased, whereas spermine remained constant and tyramine increased. We conclude that fermentation of functional sheep milk yogurts can produce tyramine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-16379DOI Listing
October 2019

Worldwide Epidemiology of Serovars in Animal-Based Foods: a Meta-analysis.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 07 1;85(14). Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Molecular and Analytical Laboratory Center, Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Veterinary, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Brazil

spp. are among the most important foodborne pathogens and the third leading cause of human death among diarrheal diseases worldwide. Animals are the primary source of this pathogen, and animal-based foods are the main transmission route to humans. Thus, understanding the global epidemiology of serovars is key to controlling and monitoring this bacterium. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and diversity of serovars in animal-based foods (beef, pork, poultry, and seafood) throughout the five continents (Africa, the Americas [North and Latin America], Asia, Europe, and Oceania). The meta-analysis consisted of a chemometric assessment (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) to identify the main epidemiological findings, including the prevalence and diversity of the serovars in each matrix. Regarding the serovar distribution, Typhimurium presented a cosmopolitan distribution, reported in all four assessed matrices and continents; poultry continues to play a central role in the dissemination of the Enteritidis serovar to humans, and Anatum and Weltevreden were the most frequently found in beef and seafood, respectively. Additionally, we recommended careful monitoring of certain serovars, such as Derby, Agona, Infantis, and Kentucky. Finally, given the scientific data regarding the most frequently reported serovars and which matrices constitute the main vehicles for the transmission of this pathogen, control programs may be improved, and specific interventions may be implemented in an attempt to reduce the risk of this pathogen reaching humans. Salmonellosis is caused by spp. and is the third leading cause of death among food-transmitted diseases. This pathogen is commonly disseminated in domestic and wild animals, and the infection's symptoms are characterized by acute fever, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The animals are the primary source of salmonellae, and animal-based foods are the main transmission route to humans. Therefore, data collected from these sources could contribute to future global interventions for effective control and surveillance of along the food chain. In light of this, the importance of our research is in identifying the prevalence of serovars in four animal-based food matrices (pork, poultry, beef, and seafood) and to evaluate the importance that each matrix has as the primary source of this pathogen to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00591-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6606869PMC
July 2019

Mixture design approach for the development of reduced fat lamb patties with carboxymethyl cellulose and inulin.

Food Sci Nutr 2019 Apr 19;7(4):1328-1336. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Faculdade de Veterinária, Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos Universidade Federal Fluminense Niterói Brazil.

Fat replacement by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and inulin (IN) for the manufacture of low-fat lamb patties was investigated utilizing mixture design. The effect of fat, CMC, and IN levels on texture, color, weight loss, patty diameter reduction, and sensory characteristics was investigated. The presence of CMC decreased hardness ( < 0.05). While CMC and IN also decreased springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness ( < 0.05), no effect on adhesiveness was observed ( > 0.05). CMC increased (lightness), (redness), and (yellowness) values in raw patties, whereas IN and fat contributed to a decrease on these parameters. Higher contents of CMC resulted in products with lower weight loss ( < 0.05) with no significative diameter reduction ( > 0.05). Nonetheless, higher levels of CMC affected the sensory acceptance resulting on products described as crumbly and with residual flavor by check-all-that-apply questions. CMC and IN can be used as fat replacers in lamb patties; however, the content of each ingredient must be carefully considered. In this study, it was observed that contents of CMC higher than 1% (w/w) negatively affected the product, whereas IN levels were not capable to decrease weight loss and diameter reduction in lamb patties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6475733PMC
April 2019

Synergistic effect of ultraviolet radiation and high hydrostatic pressure on texture, color, and oxidative stability of refrigerated tilapia fillets.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Jul 2;99(9):4474-4481. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9685DOI Listing
July 2019

Muscle-specific color stability in fresh beef from grain-finished Bos indicus cattle.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2019 Jul 28;32(7):1036-1043. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Chemistry Institute, Technology Center, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-909, Brazil.

Objective: To investigate the color and oxidative stabilities of longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles from grain-finished Bos indicus cattle in Brazil.

Methods: The LL and PM muscles were obtained 24 h post-mortem from eight (n = 8) Nellore bull carcasses, fabricated into 1.5-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed for myoglobin concentration, pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) and lipid oxidation.

Results: The LL steaks exhibited greater (p<0.05) redness, color stability, and MRA than their PM counterparts on days 5 and 9. The LL and PM steaks demonstrated similar (p>0.05) lightness and yellowness on days 0, 5, and 9. On the other hand, PM steaks exhibited greater (p<0.05) myoglobin concentration, pH, and lipid oxidation than their LL counterparts.

Conclusion: These results indicated that muscle source influenced the color and oxidative stabilities of beef from grain-finished Bos indicus animals. These results highlighted the necessity of muscle-specific strategies to improve the color stability of beef from grain-fed Bos indicus cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601059PMC
July 2019

Short communication: Antimicrobial activity of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) waste extract on goat Minas Frescal cheese presenting sodium reduction.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Apr 1;102(4):2966-2972. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Veterinária, Department of Food Technology, Niterói, RJ, 24230-340, Brazil; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Química, Food Science Program, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21941-909, Brazil. Electronic address:

Sodium chloride reduction in foods is a significant focus of the dairy industry; however, it can interfere with dairy product quality. Thus, researchers have carried out studies on alternatives to maintain dairy product safety when presenting reduced NaCl content, such as natural antimicrobial addition. Caryocar brasiliense (pequi) is a fruit with high phenolic compound concentrations in the pulp and peel and known antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to define the optimum stage for pequi waste extract addition during cheese manufacturing in order to maintain and prolong the shelf life of reduced-sodium goat Minas Frescal cheese. Four different goat Minas Frescal cheese treatments were carried out: control cheese (without extract; CC), pequi extract addition to milk (CM), pequi extract addition to mass (CS), and cheese immersion in pequi extract (CIE). The treatments were subjected to microbiological (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms and fecal coliforms, Lactococcus spp., and lactic acid bacteria counts), textural (hardness and consistency), and instrumental color (luminosity, yellow intensity, red intensity, chroma, hue angle, and total color change) analyses. No Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp., E. coli, or coliforms and fecal coliforms were detected during storage for any of the assessed samples, including CC. Regarding texture, all samples presented a trend for decreasing rigidity during storage. In addition, lower luminosity values were also observed in cheeses produced with added pequi extract (CM, CS, and CIE) when compared with CC. All cheeses produced with added pequi were stable regarding all evaluated parameters; however, pequi extract addition to milk (CM) was shown to be more efficient, leading to higher textural parameters and better microbiological quality during storage. Thus, the CM treatment is the most recommended for pequi waste extract addition during Minas Frescal cheese manufacture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15268DOI Listing
April 2019

Natural antioxidants in processing and storage stability of sheep and goat meat products.

Food Res Int 2018 09 22;111:379-390. Epub 2018 May 22.

Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brazil; Instituto de Química, Centro de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-909, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Oxidative damage is one of the main reasons for loss of quality in sheep and goat meat and meat products. Synthetic antioxidants are the current solution to stabilize oxidative process and extend the shelf life of such products; however, the negative impact on health may impose a risk to consumers. Natural antioxidants, extracted from several vegetable sources, have been considered an attractive alternative for this conflicting situation. Phenolic compounds are minor components in herbs, spices, tea and fruits that display potential application against the progression of lipid and protein oxidation and their consequences for meat quality, which can even overcome the protective effect of synthetic compounds. This review aims to discuss the mechanisms associated to lipid and protein oxidation and their implications on meat quality attributes and provides recent data regarding the application of natural antioxidants in sheep and goat meat products, which have a high susceptibility to oxidative processes compared to other red meats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.05.041DOI Listing
September 2018

Virulence Factors in Salmonella Typhimurium: The Sagacity of a Bacterium.

Curr Microbiol 2019 Jun 21;76(6):762-773. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Veterinary, Molecular & Analytical Laboratory Center, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil.

Currently, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is responsible for most cases of food poisoning in several countries. It is characterized as a non-specific zoonotic bacterium that can infect both humans and animals and although most of the infections caused by this microorganism cause only a self-limiting gastroenteritis, some ST strains have been shown to be invasive, crossing the intestinal wall and reaching the systemic circulation. This unusual pathogenicity ability is closely related to ST virulence factors. This review aims to portray the main virulence factors in Salmonella Typhimurium, in order to better understand the strategies that this pathogen uses to reach the systemic circulation and increase its infectivity in humans and animals. Thus, the most studied Salmonella pathogenicity islands in Salmonella Typhimurium were detailed as to the functions of their encoded virulence factors. In addition, available knowledge on virulence plasmid was also compiled, as well as the chromosome regions involved in the virulence of this bacterium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-018-1510-4DOI Listing
June 2019

Tilapia-waste flour as a natural nutritional replacer for bread: A consumer perspective.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(5):e0196665. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Food Technology, University Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Six bread formulations with different levels of tilapia-waste flour (BTF0%, BTF2.5%, BTF5%, BTF10%, BTF15%, and BTF20%) were analyzed for nutritional composition and sensory characterization. Tilapia-waste flour (TF) increased (P < 0.05) the lipid, protein and ash contents, and decreased (P < 0.05) the levels of carbohydrates and total dietary fiber. BTF0%, BTF2.5% and BTF5% received the highest (P < 0.05) scores for acceptance and preference. Despite this apparent consumer preference for low or no levels, TF can be added to bread at levels below 12.17% (P < 0.05) without triggering consumer rejection. TF changed (P < 0.05) the sensory characterization of bread because of a disagreeable flavor, aroma, and texture; however, airy appearance, sticky in the teeth and cream color did not influence the overall liking. TF at 5% enhanced the nutritional value while maintaining acceptable sensory scores for bread, constituting a potential strategy to satisfy consumer and industry requirements.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196665PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5933794PMC
August 2018