Publications by authors named "Carlomagno Panlilio"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A randomized control trial of a child abuse mandated reporter training: Knowledge and attitudes.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 23;117:105033. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States.

Background: Despite being well-positioned to identify maltreatment in the children that they provide care for and being legally required to report suspected child maltreatment, early childhood professionals (ECPs) make a limited proportion of reports to child protective services. It is critical to identify evidence-based interventions to improve the reporting practices of this group of mandated reporters allowing for the better protection of children from maltreatment.

Objective: The goal of the present study was to determine if iLookOut, an online child abuse identification and reporting training for ECPs, results in differential gains in knowledge and attitudes towards child abuse and its reporting among ECPs, as compared to an online standard training.

Participants And Setting: Both interventions were completed online by participants recruited from licensed child care programs in Southern Maine from October 2017 to January 2020. Eligibility criteria included being at least 18 years of age, English-speaking, and working as paid or volunteer staff at a licensed child care program taking care of children 5 years of age or younger. Of the 1152 enrolled individuals, 1094 provided complete pre- and post-intervention data.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial comparing iLookOut with an online standard training.

Results: ECPs who completed iLookOut significantly outperformed those who completed Standard mandated reporter training in terms of both knowledge (d=1.09 vs. 0.67) and attitudes (d=0.67 vs. 0.54) relative to pre-test scores.

Conclusions: iLookOut is a promising candidate for widespread use in meeting the need for evidence-based training on child abuse and its reporting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105033DOI Listing
April 2021

Exploring the mediating effect of academic engagement on math and reading achievement for students who have experienced maltreatment.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 5;117:105048. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Educational Psychology, Counseling, and Special Education, The Pennsylvania State University, United States.

Background: Students who experience maltreatment tend to underperform academically relative to their peers, requiring an understanding of academically-related mechanisms that are potential intervention targets. Academic engagement, a multidimensional construct that is influential in students' investment in learning and the school context, is one such mechanism that has been associated with positive academic outcomes and develops through interactions between students and their environment.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine how maltreatment experiences and trauma symptoms were indirectly associated with academic achievement in adolescence through academic engagement.

Participants And Setting: The study was conducting on a subsample of 583 youths from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing II (NSCAW II) cohort.

Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect engagement on the relationship between maltreatment and trauma symptomology and academic achievement.

Results: Academic engagement significantly mediated trauma symptoms and later standardized reading (β = -0.02; 95 % CI [-0.04, -0.0004]) and math (β = -0.02; 95 % CI [-0.05, -0.0003]) achievement test scores. However, similar mediating effects were not found for engagement on maltreatment and later standardized reading (β = -0.01; 95 % CI [-0.03, 0.01]) and math (β = -0.01; 95 % CI [-0.03, 0.01]) achievement test scores.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that variability in academic outcomes was indirectly associated with engagement but only for students who exhibited trauma symptoms rather than experiencing maltreatment alone. The findings suggest future researchers should consider engagement should as an academically-related mechanism to help students who were maltreated succeed academically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105048DOI Listing
April 2021

COGNITIVE MAPPING FOR ILOOKOUT FOR CHILD ABUSE: AN ONLINE TRAINING PROGRAM FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD PROFESSIONALS.

Online J Distance Educ Elearn 2020 Apr;8(2):80-89

Penn State University.

This article delineates the theory and framework for an innovative child abuse training program for mandated reporters called ''. is an online learning delivery system that utilizes mastery learning and self-determination theory in the Core Training program, along with spaced retrieval and retrieval practice in a follow-up micro-learning program that reinforces learning from the Core Training. A cognitive mapping model provides the structure for documenting and organizing the learning content in both the Core training and the follow-up micro-learning program. The article provides a conceptual framework for designing and implementing effective and efficient online learning programs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511090PMC
April 2020

Heterogeneity in the dynamic arousal and modulation of fear in young foster children.

Child Youth Serv Rev 2020 Sep 2;116. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Human Development & Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, USA.

Guided by emotional security theory, we explored how child and context-related factors were associated with heterogeneity in young foster children's organized patterns of fear response to distress. Results from group-based trajectory modeling used to analyze observational data from a fear-eliciting task showed that children from our sample (mean age = 62 months, = 9) were classified into 3 specific fear regulation patterns differentiated by the emotional response parameters of onset intensity, peak intensity, and rise time. A descriptive examination of child's emotion knowledge, aggressive behaviors, and attention problems, as well as length of time in current foster home, placement transitions, and caregiver responsiveness and modeling showed class-specific differences in means. Moreover, the likelihood of class membership was significantly predicted by children's emotion knowledge, aggressive behaviors, and foster mothers' responsiveness and modeling of appropriate boundaries. Results show promising support for the implementation of individualized, child-directed interventions targeting specific patterns of response parameters of emotion regulation for young foster children. Further, parenting intervention services need to promote the emotion socialization skills of foster parents that are tailored toward each specific trajectory pattern of emotion arousal and modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430554PMC
September 2020

The Interpersonal Neurobiology of Child Maltreatment: Parasympathetic Substrates of Interactive Repair in Maltreating and Nonmaltreating Mother-Child Dyads.

Child Maltreat 2019 11 23;24(4):353-363. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

Children's repair of conflict with parents may be particularly challenging in maltreating families, and early, stressful parent-child interactions may contribute to children's altered neurobiological regulatory systems. To explore neurobiological signatures of repair processes, we examined whether mother and child individual and dyadic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) covaried with interactive repair differently in maltreating versus nonmaltreating mother-preschooler dyads ( = 101), accounting for whether repair was mother or child initiated. Mother-initiated repair was equally frequent and protective across groups, associated with no change in mother or child RSA at higher levels of repair. But lower levels of mother repair were associated with child RSA withdrawal in nonmaltreating dyads versus child RSA augmentation in maltreating dyads. In maltreating dyads only, higher child-initiated repair was associated with higher mean mother RSA, whereas lower child repair was associated with mother RSA withdrawal. Findings suggest that interactive repair may have a buffering effect on neurobiological regulation but also that maltreating mothers and children show atypical neurobiological response to interpersonal challenges including differences related to children conducting the work of interactive repair that maltreating parents are less able to provide. We conclude by considering the role of maladaptive parent-child relationship processes in the biological embedding of early adversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559518824058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556358PMC
November 2019

Preschoolers' Self-Regulation in Context: Task Persistence Profiles with Mothers and Fathers and Later Attention Problems in Kindergarten.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2019 06;47(6):947-960

Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, 140 Moore Building, University Park, PA, USA.

Task persistence is related to attentional regulation and is needed for the successful transition to school. Understanding preschoolers' task persistence with caregivers could better inform the development and prevention of attention problems across this transition. Preschoolers' real-time task persistence profiles during problem-solving tasks with mothers (N=214) and fathers (N=117) were examined as antecedents of teacher-rated attention problems in kindergarten, accounting for child temperament, parenting, and preschool attention problems. Group-based trajectory modeling identified five profiles with mothers and four with fathers; more children showed high task persistence with mothers than fathers. With mothers, when persistence started low and increased over time, children had lower inhibitory control, higher verbal skills, and received more directives. This increasing profile had the highest-rated attention problems, followed by the stable low persistence profile; both groups showed higher attention problems than children who started high and declined slowly in persistence over time. Results implied children who start tasks low in persistence may require the most maternal effort to get on task, and whether those efforts are successful (increasing persistence) or not (stable low persistence), may be the same children teachers perceive as having the most attention problems. Profiles with fathers were not associated with attention problems but pointed to the importance of father-child affective processes (child negative emotion, paternal praise) in children's task persistence. Findings suggest mothers and fathers play different roles in regulatory development and that person-centered profiles of self-regulation in context may inform the prevention of children's regulatory problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00512-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556356PMC
June 2019

Assessing risk of commercial sexual exploitation among children involved in the child welfare system.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 01 1;87:88-99. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, United States.

The objective of this study was to assess item characteristics indicative of the severity of risk for commercial sexual exploitation among a high-risk population of child welfare system involved youth to inform the construction of a screening tool. Existing studies have discerned factors that differentiate Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) victims from sexual abuse victims, yet no research has been conducted to discriminate which items in a high risk population of youth are most predictive of CSEC. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) cohorts I and II, we examined responses from 1063 males and 1355 females ages 11 and older, over three interview periods. A 2-parameter logistic Item Response Theory (2 PL IRT) model was employed in order to examine item performance as potential indicators for the severity of risk for CSEC. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis was conducted in order to examine potential differences in item responses based on gender. Modeling strategies to assess item difficulty and discrimination were outlined and Item Characteristic Curves for the final retained items were presented. Evidence for uniform DIF were present within items that asked about runaway, any drug use, suicidality, and experiencing severe violence. Results from this study can inform the construction of a screening instrument to assess the severity of risk for experiencing CSEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.07.021DOI Listing
January 2019

School readiness of maltreated preschoolers and later school achievement: The role of emotion regulation, language, and context.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 01 7;75:82-91. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

University of Maryland, College Park, Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology Measurement, Statistics, and Evaluation, 3492 Campus Drive, 3304 Benjamin Building, College Park, MD 20742, United States.

Guided by bio-ecological theory, this study aimed to: (1) identify heterogeneity in the developmental patterns of emotion regulation for maltreated preschool-aged children; (2) examine the role of gender, language, placement instability, cognitive stimulation, and emotional support on patterns of stability and change of emotion regulation over time; and (3) elucidate the role of emotion regulation/dysregulation patterns on later academic achievement. This study utilized data from the first cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Results using LCA and LTA models indicated stability and change in emotionally regulated vs. emotionally dysregulated latent classes across 4, 5, and 6 ½ years of age. Placement instability significantly increased the likelihood of being classified as emotionally dysregulated at wave 1. Moreover, children classified as emotionally dysregulated by age 6 ½ scored significantly lower than children who were classified as emotionally regulated on measures of reading and math achievement by age 10. Based on these findings, placement stability at first contact with CPS should be promoted in order to prevent cascading negative effects on emotion regulation. Additionally, children who are more emotionally dysregulated by the time they transition to formal schooling should receive increased socioemotional and socioemotional learning supports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.06.004DOI Listing
January 2018