Publications by authors named "Carlo Scapellato"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Screening of Organ-Specific Autoantibodies in a Large Cohort of Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases.

Thyroid 2021 09 19;31(9):1416-1423. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Clinical, Surgical and Neurological Sciences and University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Autoimmune diseases tend to cluster in the same individual or in families. Four types of autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) have been described based on the combination of endocrine and/or non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. In particular, type-3 APS is defined by the association of an autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) and other autoimmune diseases and has a multifactorial etiology. The natural history of autoimmune diseases is characterized by three stages: potential, subclinical, and clinical. To determine the prevalence of organ-specific autoantibodies (anti-adrenal, anti-ovary [StCA], anti-pituitary [APA], anti-parietal cells [PCA], anti-tissue transglutaminase [tTGAb], anti-mitochondrial [AMA], anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase [GADA], anti-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) in patients with ATD and to define the stage of the disease in patients with positive autoantibodies. From January 2016 to November 2018, 1502 patients (1302 female; age 52.7 ± 14.7 [mean ± standard deviation] years, range 18-86 years) with ATD (1285/1502 [85.6%] with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and 217/1502 [14.4%] with Graves' disease) were prospectively enrolled. The most common organ-specific autoantibodies were PCA (6.99%) and GADA (2.83%), while the prevalence of the remaining autoantibodies was ≤1%. All autoimmune diseases, but celiac disease, were predominant at the potential stage. Sex, ATD type, smoking habit, and coexistence of other autoimmune diseases correlated with the susceptibility to develop chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) or autoimmune diabetes mellitus. The association between ATD and CAG was the most common manifestation of type-3 APS, mainly at the potential stage, that could lead to appropriate follow-up for early detection and timely treatment of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2021.0170DOI Listing
September 2021

Methodology to Evaluate Clinical Impact of 0/3 Hour High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Protocol on Managing Acute Coronary Syndrome in Daily Emergency Department Practice.

Lab Med 2021 Sep;52(5):452-459

Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Objective: Sex-/age-differentiated cutoffs and the magnitude of serial changes in high-sensitivity cardiac troponins (hs-cTn) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) diagnosis algorithms are still under discussion. This study presents a methodology to evaluate decision-making limits and to assess whether sex-specific cutoffs could improve diagnostic accuracy.

Methods: A high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) 0-/3-hour protocol was adopted, applying the 2015 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines. Decision-making limits (99th percentile: 14 ng/L; delta change ≥ 30%) were agreed upon with the emergency department (ED) at the University Hospital of Siena in Siena, Italy. One-year requests (5177) for hs-cTnT serial determination were compared with the final International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, clinical modifications diagnosis (contingency tables; receiver operating characteristic curves).

Results: The algorithm's capability to exclude or confirm ACS was verified by remarkable negative predictive value (97%) and high areas under the curve for the first troponin sampling (0.712), troponin sampling at 3 hours (0.789), and delta (0.744). The clinical utility for the general population-even those with comorbidities-accessing the ED was verified. Our data did not support a sex-differentiated cutoff utility because it would not have affected patient management.

Conclusion: This methodology allowed us to confirm the effectiveness of our decision-making limits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/labmed/lmaa118DOI Listing
September 2021

A computer model for professional competence assessment according to ISO 15189.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2020 07;58(8):1242-1249

Medical Biotechnologies Department, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Background As defined by ISO 15189 competence is the "demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills" thus, its assessment is fundamental for ensuring the quality of the total testing process in order to reduce the risk for the patient. We have developed a functional software for the measurement of professional competences in order to standardize the procedure and to collect all the data in a single platform, avoiding redundancy and dispersion. Methods Our model objectively assesses the skills, as they become measurable and comparable with appropriate standards and involves both managers and operators, to increase their active engagement. The assessment concerns everyone, but the standards to be met (numerical values) can vary according to the responsibilities. Several subjective and objective criteria are evaluated: each parameter can contribute in a variable proportion to the total skills measured according to the needs of the organization. Results The data are automatically analyzed and can be easily monitored in real time in the form of indicators, thanks to dashboards. The comparison between the skills required and those measured allows highlighting the gap useful for planning personalized training paths. Conclusions Our tool is reliable and highly adaptable to laboratories about competences to track criteria, standards and monitored indicators. The computerized management is a strategic action as it fulfills the requirements of registration, traceability, communication, data analysis and indicators development, which are the tenets of continuous improvement, and allows planning to be made on the basis of the actual training needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2019-1018DOI Listing
July 2020

Defining and Managing the Preanalytical Phase With FMECA: Automation and/or "Human" Control.

Hum Factors 2020 02 16;62(1):20-36. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

161157 University Hospital of Siena, Italy.

Objective: Our scope is to provide methodological elements on how to manage effectively the preanalytical phase in the laboratory testing process, by objectively measuring the risk connected to the phases handled by man with respect to those managed by machines.

Background: Preanalytical errors account for most of the mistakes related to laboratory testing and can affect patient care. Hence, it is necessary to manage the risk connected to the preanalytical phase, as required by certification and accreditation bodies. The risk assessment discloses the steps at greater risk and gives indications to make decisions.

Method: We have reviewed the state of art in the automation of the preanalytical phase, addressing needs and problems. We have used the proactive risk assessment methodology FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis) to identify the most critical phases in our preanalytical process and have calculated the risk associated.

Results: The most critical phases were the human controlled ones. In particular, the highest risk indexes were associated to manual acceptance of test orders, identification of the patients, tube labeling, and sample collection.

Conclusion: Automation in the preanalytical phase is fundamental to replace, support, or extend the human contribution. Nevertheless each organization is different about workloads and competencies, so the most suitable management must be tailor-made in each context.

Application: We present a method by which each organization is able to find its best balance between automation and human contribution in the control of the preanalytical phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018720819874906DOI Listing
February 2020

C reactive protein in healthy term newborns during the first 48 hours of life.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Mar 30;103(2):F163-F166. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Background: Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease in newborns. C reactive protein (CRP) is the most used laboratory biomarker for the detection of EOS. Little is known about normal reference values of CRP during the perinatal period as several factors are able to influence it.

Objectives: To identify an appropriate range of CRP values in healthy term newborns during the first 48 hours of life.

Design: CRP determination was performed in 859 term newborns at 12, 24 and 48 hours of life. Mode of delivery, maternal vaginal culture results, intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP) and other perinatal variables were recorded.

Results: CRP mean values were significantly higher at 48 hours (4.10 mg/L) than at both 24 (2.30 mg/L) and 12 hours of life (0.80 mg/L). CRP levels were affected by a number of perinatal proinflammatory variables. In particular, CRP mean values were significantly higher in babies born by vaginal delivery (3.80 mg/L) and emergency caesarean section (3.60 mg/L) than in babies born by elective caesarean section (2.10 mg/L). Completed course of IAP led to lower CRP mean values (2.90 mg/L) than IAP not completed (3.80 mg/L) or not performed (4.70 mg/L).

Conclusions: Postnatal age and mode of delivery significantly influence CRP values. Reliable reference values are crucial in order to obtain an adequate diagnostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2016-312506DOI Listing
March 2018

Decreased plasma endogenous soluble RAGE, and enhanced adipokine secretion, oxidative stress and platelet/coagulative activation identify non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia and/or metabolic syndrome.

Vascul Pharmacol 2015 Sep 25;72:16-24. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Division of Hematology, University of Siena, Italy; Atherothrombosis Centre, University of Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: In patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), without metabolic syndrome (MS), occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to a specific pro-inflammatory profile, influenced by genetic traits, involved in oxidative stress and adipokine secretion. Among FCHL or MS patients, hyperactivity of the ligand-receptor for advanced glycation-end-products (RAGE) pathway, as reflected by inadequate protective response by the endogenous secretory (es)RAGE, in concert with genetic predisposition, may identify those with NAFLD even before and regardless of MS.

Methods: We cross-sectionally compared 60 patients with vs. 50 without NAFLD. Each group included patients with FCHL alone, MS alone, and FCHL plus MS.

Results: NAFLD patients had significantly lower plasma esRAGE, IL-10 and adiponectin, and higher CD40 ligand, endogenous thrombin potential and oxidized LDL. The effects of MS plus FCHL were additive. The genotypic cluster including LOX-1 IVS4-14A plus ADIPO 45GG and 256 GT/GG plus IL-10 10-1082G, together with higher esRAGE levels highly discriminate FCHL and MS patients not developing NAFLD.

Conclusions: Among FCHL or MS patients, noncarriers of the protective genotypic cluster, with lower esRAGE and higher degree of atherothrombotic abnormalities coincide with the diagnosis of NAFLD. This suggests an interplay between genotype, adipokine secretion, oxidative stress and platelet/coagulative activation, accelerating NAFLD occurrence as a proxy for cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vph.2015.04.004DOI Listing
September 2015

Reference range of serum calcitonin in pediatric population.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 May 12;100(5):1780-4. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Department of Medical, Surgical, and Neurological Sciences (M.G.C., F.M., S.M., F.S., C.F., F.P.), University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy; Endocrine Unit (L.F., D.C.), Fondazione Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Ca'Granda, and Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy; Clinical Pathology Laboratory (C.F.F.), Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda, 20122 Milan, Italy; Laboratory of Clinical Pathology (C.S.), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, 53100 Siena, Italy; Pediatric Surgery Unit (F.M.), Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda, 20122 Milan, Italy; and Department of Surgery and Bioengineering (G.C.), University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Background: Children belonging to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) pedigree and carrying germline RET mutations are candidates for prophylactic thyroidectomy, the timing of which is based on the mutation-associated risk and the calcitonin (CT) levels.

Design: The aim of this study was to establish the reference range for serum CT in a pediatric population. The study included 2740 subjects (1339 females and 1401 males) ranging in age from 1 day to 16 years and undergoing blood testing for any medical condition not affecting serum CT.

Results: Overall, serum CT was undetectable in 61.5% of the samples and detectable in 38.5%. Detectable samples were more frequent in the first 2 years of life. Thereafter, undetectable samples became more frequent, particularly in females. Mean serum CT concentrations were higher in the first year of life (9.81 ± 8.8 pg/mL; range, 2.0-48.9 pg/mL) and the second year of life (4.56 ± 2.64 pg/mL; range, 2.0-14.7 pg/mL). A significant decrease of serum CT levels was observed thereafter (P < .001), and starting from the third year of life serum CT levels were similar to those found in adults. No gender difference was found in any age group. Based on these results, age-specific CT reference ranges are needed in the pediatric population, and especially in the first 2 years of life.

Conclusions: This is the first study defining the reference range for serum CT in the pediatric population and large enough to be statistically meaningful. Our proposal may facilitate the process of decision making when dealing with gene carriers of MEN 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-4508DOI Listing
May 2015

Erratum to: Assessment of a combination screening assay for celiac disease.

Auto Immun Highlights 2012 Apr 11;3(1):33. Epub 2011 Oct 11.

University of Siena, Polo Scientifico di San Miniato Via Alcide Dè Gasperi 2, 53100 Siena, Italy.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s13317-011-0020-1.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13317-011-0026-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4389020PMC
April 2012

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate measurement by VES Matic Cube 80 in relation to inflammation plasma proteins.

J Clin Lab Anal 2011 ;25(3):198-202

Dipartimento di Medicina Interna Scienze Endocrino-Metaboliche e Biochimica, Università di Siena, Siena, Italy.

Westergren method is considered as the reference procedure to measure Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) by the International Council for Standardization in Haematology. However, a closed automated method, VES Matic Cube 80 (DIESSE S.p.A., Siena, Italy), has been introduced as a new ESR measurement instrument. In this article, we report two different studies: first, we compared the two methods (Westergren and VES Matic Cube 80) and second, we correlated the inflammatory state of 248 patients with their ESR values. Total protein, albumin, C-reactive protein, and other inflammatory proteins were detected in each sample. The results obtained using VES Matic Cube 80 demonstrated a good correlation with those obtained using the Westergren method (Ordinary linear regression: y=0.955x-0.205, r(2) =0.816, P<0.05; Passing-Bablock regression equation: y=0.9153x-0.5763; Bland-Altman analysis: bias 1.2; limits of agreement -17.4-19.9) and with the inflammatory protein levels (CRP: r=0.554 and r=0.498 and Fibrinogen: r=0.699 and r=0.663 for Ves Matic Cube 80 and Westergren, respectively), supporting the hypothesis that VES Matic Cube 80 offers a fast and safe ESR determination, ensuring precision and a very good correlation with the reference method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.20457DOI Listing
September 2011

Relationship between Hpt polymorphisms and serum protein electropherogram.

Electrophoresis 2009 Feb;30(3):525-31

Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Scienze Endocrino-Metaboliche e Biochimica, Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy.

Serum protein electrophoresis is routinely used to identify pathologies involving dysproteinemia. The electropherogram mainly represents the most abundant serum proteins, one of which is the polymorphic haptoglobin (Hpt), characterized by a molecular heterogeneity with three major phenotypes (Hpt 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2). To improve the interpretation of electropherogram and possibly to extend its applicability, we aimed to explore the relationship between Hpt phenotypes (determined by immunoblotting) and protein profiles. Serum samples were separated by CZE with PROTEIN 6 and high-resolution methods. The PROTEIN 6 analysis showed significant associations between alpha2 zone profiles and Hpt phenotypes (chi-square=154.06, p<0.0001). The high-resolution method indicated significant differences between Hpt 2-2 and Hpt 1-1 peak mobilities, evidenced by receiver operating characteristic analysis, (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.98, p<0.0001, standard error=0.01346, likelihood ratios=21.39), with 98.7% sensitivity, and 95.4% specificity. However, the structural heterogeneity of Hpt 2-1 made it difficult to relate with a particular profile. Thus, we developed an alternative approach that excluded the Hpt 1-1 or Hpt 2-2 phenotypes. This may prove to be a useful technique in clinical applications considering the involvement of Hpt 2-2 or Hpt 1-1 in various pathologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200800366DOI Listing
February 2009
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