Publications by authors named "Carlo Fiorini"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

VIP-2 -High-Sensitivity Tests on the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Oct 22;22(11). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 54, I-00044 Roma, Italy.

The VIP collaboration is performing high sensitivity tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons in the extremely low cosmic background environment of the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory INFN (Italy). In particular, the VIP-2 Open Systems experiment was conceived to put strong constraints on those Pauli Exclusion Principle violation models which respect the so-called Messiah-Greenberg superselection rule. The experimental technique consists of introducing a direct current in a copper conductor, and searching for the X-rays emission coming from a forbidden atomic transition from the L shell to the K shell of copper when the K shell is already occupied by two electrons. The analysis of the first three months of collected data (in 2018) is presented. The obtained result represents the best bound on the Pauli Exclusion Principle violation probability which fulfills the Messiah-Greenberg rule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22111195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711554PMC
October 2020

Challenges for Microelectronics in Non-Invasive Medical Diagnostics.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;20(13). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica Informazione e Bioingegneria, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Microelectronics is emerging, sometimes with changing fortunes, as a key enabling technology in diagnostics. This paper reviews some recent results and technical challenges which still need to be addressed in terms of the design of CMOS analog application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and their integration in the surrounding systems, in order to consolidate this technological paradigm. Open issues are discussed from two, apparently distant but complementary, points of view: micro-analytical devices, combining microfluidics with affinity bio-sensing, and gamma cameras for simultaneous multi-modal imaging, namely scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The role of integrated circuits is central in both application domains. In portable analytical platforms, ASICs offer miniaturization and tackle the noise/power dissipation trade-off. The integration of CMOS chips with microfluidics poses multiple open technological issues. In multi-modal imaging, now that the compatibility of the acquisition chains (thousands of Silicon Photo-Multipliers channels) of gamma detectors with Tesla-level magnetic fields has been demonstrated, other development directions, enabled by microelectronics, can be envisioned in particular for single-photon emission tomography (SPECT): a faster and simplified operation, for instance, to allow transportable applications (bed-side) and hardware pre-processing that reduces the number of output signals and the image reconstruction time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20133636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374509PMC
June 2020

Development of clinical simultaneous SPECT/MRI.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 7;91(1081):20160690. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

2 Dipartimento di Elettronica Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano and Instituto Nacionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milan, Italy.

There is increasing clinical use of combined positron emission tomography and MRI, but to date there has been no clinical system developed capable of simultaneous single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and MRI. There has been development of preclinical systems, but there are several challenges faced by researchers who are developing a clinical prototype including the need for the system to be compact and stationary with MRI-compatible components. The limited work in this area is described with specific reference to the Integrated SPECT/MRI for Enhanced stratification in Radio-chemo Therapy (INSERT) project, which is at an advanced stage of developing a clinical prototype. Issues of SPECT/MRI compatibility are outlined and the clinical appeal of such a system is discussed, especially in the management of brain tumour treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20160690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966197PMC
January 2018

Experimental Comparison of Knife-Edge and Multi-Parallel Slit Collimators for Prompt Gamma Imaging of Proton Pencil Beams.

Front Oncol 2016 27;6:156. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Ion Beam Applications SA , Louvain-la-Neuve , Belgium.

More and more camera concepts are being investigated to try and seize the opportunity of instantaneous range verification of proton therapy treatments offered by prompt gammas emitted along the proton tracks. Focusing on one-dimensional imaging with a passive collimator, the present study experimentally compared in combination with the first, clinically compatible, dedicated camera device the performances of instances of the two main options: a knife-edge slit (KES) and a multi-parallel slit (MPS) design. These two options were experimentally assessed in this specific context as they were previously demonstrated through analytical and numerical studies to allow similar performances in terms of Bragg peak retrieval precision and spatial resolution in a general context. Both collimators were prototyped according to the conclusions of Monte Carlo optimization studies under constraints of equal weight (40 mm tungsten alloy equivalent thickness) and of the specificities of the camera device under consideration (in particular 4 mm segmentation along beam axis and no time-of-flight discrimination, both of which less favorable to the MPS performance than to the KES one). Acquisitions of proton pencil beams of 100, 160, and 230 MeV in a PMMA target revealed that, in order to reach a given level of statistical precision on Bragg peak depth retrieval, the KES collimator requires only half the dose the present MPS collimator needs, making the KES collimator a preferred option for a compact camera device aimed at imaging only the Bragg peak position. On the other hand, the present MPS collimator proves more effective at retrieving the entrance of the beam in the target in the context of an extended camera device aimed at imaging the whole proton track within the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2016.00156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4921459PMC
July 2016

First clinical application of a prompt gamma based in vivo proton range verification system.

Radiother Oncol 2016 Feb 13;118(2):232-7. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Germany; Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden, Germany.

Background And Purpose: To improve precision of particle therapy, in vivo range verification is highly desirable. Methods based on prompt gamma rays emitted during treatment seem promising but have not yet been applied clinically. Here we report on the worldwide first clinical application of prompt gamma imaging (PGI) based range verification.

Material And Methods: A prototype of a knife-edge shaped slit camera was used to measure the prompt gamma ray depth distribution during a proton treatment of a head and neck tumor for seven consecutive fractions. Inter-fractional variations of the prompt gamma profile were evaluated. For three fractions, in-room control CTs were acquired and evaluated for dose relevant changes.

Results: The measurement of PGI profiles during proton treatment was successful. Based on the PGI information, inter-fractional global range variations were in the range of ±2 mm for all evaluated fractions. This is in agreement with the control CT evaluation showing negligible range variations of about 1.5mm.

Conclusions: For the first time, range verification based on prompt gamma imaging was applied for a clinical proton treatment. With the translation from basic physics experiments into clinical operation, the potential to improve the precision of particle therapy with this technique has increased considerably.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2016.01.004DOI Listing
February 2016

In vivo imaging of lymph node migration of MNP- and (111)In-labeled dendritic cells in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer (MMTV-Ras).

Mol Imaging Biol 2012 Apr;14(2):183-96

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Milan, via di Rudinì 8, 20142 Milan, Italy.

Purpose: The authors present a protocol for the in vivo evaluation, using different imaging techniques, of lymph node (LN) homing of tumor-specific dendritic cells (DCs) in a murine breast cancer model.

Procedures: Bone marrow DCs were labeled with paramagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) or (111)In-oxine. Antigen loading was performed using tumor lysate. Mature DCs were injected into the footpads of transgenic tumor-bearing mice (MMTV-Ras) and DC migration was tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ex vivo analyses were performed to validate the imaging data.

Results: DC labeling, both with MNPs and with (111)In-oxine, did not affect DC phenotype or functionality. MRI and SPECT allowed the detection of iron and (111)In in both axillary and popliteal LNs. Immunohistochemistry and γ-counting revealed the presence of DCs in LNs.

Conclusions: MRI and SPECT imaging, by allowing in vivo dynamic monitoring of DC migration, could further the development and optimization of efficient anti-cancer vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-011-0496-0DOI Listing
April 2012