Publications by authors named "Carlisle E W Topping"

8 Publications

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Association of Social Support With Overall Survival and Healthcare Utilization in Patients With Aggressive Hematologic Malignancies.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Oct 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

1Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital.

Background: Social support plays a crucial role for patients with aggressive hematologic malignancies as they navigate their illness course. The aim of this study was to examine associations of social support with overall survival (OS) and healthcare utilization in this population.

Methods: A cross-sectional secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 251 hospitalized patients with aggressive hematologic malignancies at Massachusetts General Hospital from 2014 through 2017. Natural Language Processing (NLP) was used to identify the extent of patients' social support (limited vs adequate as defined by NLP-aided chart review of the electronic health record). Multivariable regression models were used to examine associations of social support with (1) OS, (2) death or readmission within 90 days of discharge from index hospitalization, (3) time to readmission within 90 days, and (4) index hospitalization length of stay.

Results: Patients had a median age of 64 years (range, 19-93 years), and most were White (89.6%), male (68.9%), and married (65.3%). A plurality of patients had leukemia (42.2%) followed by lymphoma (37.9%) and myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (19.9%). Using NLP, we identified that 8.8% (n=22) of patients had limited social support. In multivariable analyses, limited social support was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio, 2.00; P=.042) and a higher likelihood of death or readmission within 90 days of discharge (odds ratio, 3.11; P=.043), but not with time to readmission within 90 days or with index hospitalization length of stay.

Conclusions: In this cohort of hospitalized patients with aggressive hematologic malignancies, we found associations of limited social support with lower OS and a higher likelihood of death or readmission within 90 days of hospital discharge. These findings underscore the utility of NLP for evaluating the extent of social support and the need for larger studies evaluating social support in patients with aggressive hematologic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.7033DOI Listing
October 2021

Distress in a Pandemic: Association of the Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic with Distress and Quality of Life in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has drastically disrupted cancer care, potentially exacerbating patients' distress levels. Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may be especially vulnerable to this pandemic stress. However, the associations of the COVID-19 pandemic with distress, fatigue, and quality of life (QoL) are not well understood in this population. In a cross-sectional analysis of data from 205 patients undergoing HSCT enrolled in a supportive care trial, we compared baseline pre-HSCT distress symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), fatigue, and QoL between enrollees before (ie, March 2019-January 2020) and during (ie, March 2020-January 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic. We used linear regression models adjusting for sociodemographics and cancer diagnosis to examine the associations between enrollment period and patient-reported outcomes. We used semistructured qualitative interviews in 20 allogeneic HSCT recipients who were ≥3-months post-HSCT to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their recovery post-HSCT. One hundred twenty-four participants enrolled before COVID-19, and 81 participants enrolled during the pandemic. The 2 cohorts had similar baseline demographics and disease risk factors. In multivariate regression models, enrollment during COVID-19 was not associated with pre-HSCT symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, fatigue, or QoL impairment. COVID-19-era participants reported themes of negative (eg, increased isolation) and positive (eg, engagement with meaningful activities) implications of the pandemic on HSCT recovery. We found no differences in pre-HSCT distress, fatigue, or QoL in patients undergoing HSCT before or during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, patients in early recovery post-HSCT report both negative and positive implications of the COVID-19 pandemic in their lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442257PMC
September 2021

Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04 16;27(4):341.e1-341.e6. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is an intensive and potentially curative therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients admitted for HCT experience a prolonged, isolating hospitalization and endure substantial physical and psychological symptoms. However, there is a paucity of research on the impact of HCT on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in transplant recipients. This secondary analysis of 250 patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic HCT examined PTSD using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian measured at 6 months after HCT. We used the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess quality of life (QOL) and depression and anxiety symptoms at the time of admission for HCT, week 2 during hospitalization, and 6 months after HCT. We used multivariate regression models to assess factors associated with PTSD symptoms. Given collinearity between QOL, depression, and anxiety symptoms, we modeled these separately. The rate of clinically significant PTSD symptoms at 6 months after HCT was 18.9% (39/206). Participants with clinically significant PTSD symptoms experienced hypervigilance (92.3%), avoidance (92.3%), and intrusion (76.9%) symptoms. Among patients without clinically significant PTSD symptoms, 24.5% had clinically significant hypervigilance symptoms and 13.7% had clinically significant avoidance symptoms. Lower QOL at time of HCT admission (B = -0.04, P = .004) and being single (B = -3.35, P = .027) were associated with higher PTSD symptoms at 6 months after HCT. Higher anxiety at time of HCT admission (B = 1.34, P <.001), change in anxiety during HCT hospitalization (B = 0.59, P =.006), and being single (B = -3.50, P = .017) were associated with higher PTSD symptoms at 6 months. In a separate model using depression, younger age (B = -0.13, P = .017), being single (B = -3.58, P = .018), and higher baseline depression symptoms were also associated with higher PTSD symptoms at 6 months (B = 0.97, P < .001). Approximately one fifth of patients undergoing HCT experience clinically significant PTSD symptoms at 6 months after transplantation. The prevalence of hypervigilance and avoidance symptoms are notable even among patients who do not have clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Interventions to prevent and treat PTSD symptoms in HCT recipients are clearly warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.011DOI Listing
April 2021

Association Between Baseline Patient-Reported Outcomes and Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 06 25;27(6):496.e1-496.e5. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology & Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematologic malignancies, but it often results in significant toxicities and impaired quality of life (QOL). Although the value of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is increasingly recognized in HCT, data are limited regarding the relationship between PROs and HCT complications. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 250 patients who were hospitalized for autologous or allogeneic HCT at Massachusetts General Hospital from 2011 through 2016. We assessed QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General), mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and fatigue (FACT-Fatigue) at baseline. We abstracted from the Electronic Health Record (1) hospitalization during the first 100 days after HCT, (2) days alive and out of the hospital in the first 100 days after HCT, and (3) cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) among allogeneic HCT recipients. We assessed the association of baseline PROs with HCT complications using multivariable models adjusting for patient and transplant characteristics. Overall, 44.4% (111/250) of patients underwent an autologous HCT, 25.2% (63/250) received a myeloablative allogeneic HCT, and 30.4% (76/250) underwent a reduced-intensity allogeneic HCT. In multivariable logistic regression, higher anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, P = .004) was associated with higher likelihood of rehospitalization within 100 days after HCT. In multivariable Poisson regression, lower fatigue (β = 0.003, P = .015) was associated with increased days alive and out of the hospital in the first 100 days post-HCT. In multivariable logistic regression, lower baseline QOL (OR = 0.97, P = .034), higher fatigue (OR = 0.95, P = .004), and higher depression (OR = 1.15, P = .020) were associated with increased likelihood of acute GVHD. Baseline PROs are associated with health care utilization after HCT and risk of acute GVHD in allogeneic HCT recipients. These findings underscore the potential utility of pretransplantation PROs as important prognostic factors for HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.029DOI Listing
June 2021

Healthcare Utilization and End-of-Life Outcomes in Patients Receiving CAR T-Cell Therapy.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Mar 11;19(8):928-934. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

1Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology & Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center & Harvard Medical School.

Background: CAR T-cell therapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies, but it can result in prolonged hospitalizations and serious toxicities. However, data on the impact of CAR T-cell therapy on healthcare utilization and end-of-life (EoL) outcomes are lacking.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 236 patients who received CAR T-cell therapy at 2 tertiary care centers from February 2016 through December 2019. We abstracted healthcare utilization and EoL outcomes from the electronic health record, including hospitalizations, receipt of ICU care, hospitalization and receipt of systemic therapy in the last 30 days of life, palliative care, and hospice referrals.

Results: Most patients (81.4%; n=192) received axicabtagene ciloleucel. Overall, 28.1% of patients experienced a hospital readmission and 15.5% required admission to the ICU within 3 months of CAR T-cell therapy. Among the deceased cohort, 58.3% (49/84) were hospitalized and 32.5% (26/80) received systemic therapy in the last 30 days of life. Rates of palliative care and hospice referrals were 47.6% and 30.9%, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression, receipt of bridging therapy (odds ratio [OR], 3.15; P=.041), index CAR-T hospitalization length of stay >14 days (OR, 4.76; P=.009), hospital admission within 3 months of CAR T-cell infusion (OR, 4.29; P=.013), and indolent lymphoma transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR, 9.83; P=.012) were associated with likelihood of hospitalization in the last 30 days of life.

Conclusions: A substantial minority of patients receiving CAR T-cell therapy experienced hospital readmission or ICU utilization in the first 3 months after CAR T-cell therapy, and most deceased recipients of CAR T-cell therapy received intensive EoL care. These findings underscore the need for interventions to optimize healthcare delivery and EoL care for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7678DOI Listing
March 2021

Sharing and caring: The impact of social support on quality of life and health outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Cancer 2021 04 17;127(8):1260-1265. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Social support is crucial for successful recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and has the potential to affect patient quality of life (QOL) and health outcomes. However, there are limited data on the relationship between a patient's perception of his or her social support and these outcomes.

Methods: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of 250 autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients enrolled in 2 supportive care trials at Massachusetts General Hospital from April 2011 through February 2016. They assessed social support as a patient's perception of his or her social well-being via the social well-being subscale of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. The authors used multivariate regression analyses to examine the relationship between pretransplant social well-being and QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Treatment Outcome Index), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms (PTSD Checklist), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue), and health care utilization (hospitalizations and days alive and out of the hospital) 6 months after HSCT.

Results: Participants were on average 56.4 years old (SD, 13.3 years); 44% (n = 110) and 56% (n = 140) received autologous and allogeneic HSCT, respectively. Greater pre-HSCT social well-being was associated with higher QOL (B = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.06-0.13; P < .001), lower psychological distress (B = -0.21; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.12; P < .001), and lower PTSD symptoms (B = -0.12; 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.06; P < .001). Pre-HSCT social well-being was not significantly associated with fatigue or health care utilization 6 months after HSCT.

Conclusions: Patients with higher pre-HSCT perceptions of their social support reported better QOL and lower psychological distress 6 months after HSCT. These findings underscore the potential for social support as a modifiable target for future supportive care interventions to improve the QOL and care of HSCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33455DOI Listing
April 2021

Psychological Distress in Bereaved Caregivers of Patients With Advanced Cancer.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 03 31;61(3):488-494. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Division of Hematology & Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Context: Individuals caring for patients with advanced cancer (caregivers) experience psychological distress during the patient's illness course. However, data on the prevalence of bereaved caregivers' psychological distress and its relationship with the quality of patient's end of life (EOL) care are limited.

Objectives: To describe rates of depression and anxiety symptoms in bereaved caregivers of patients with advanced cancer and to understand the relationship between these outcomes and patient distress at the EOL.

Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of 168 caregivers enrolled in a supportive care trial for patients with incurable lung and gastrointestinal cancers and their caregivers. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to assess caregivers' depression and anxiety symptoms at three months after the patient's death. Caregivers also rated the patient's physical and psychological distress in the last week of life on a 10-point scale three months after the patient death. We used linear regression adjusting for caregiver age, sex, randomization, and cancer type to explore the relationship between bereaved caregivers' depression and anxiety symptoms and their ratings of physical and psychological distress in patients at the EOL.

Results: Of the 168 bereaved caregivers, 30.4% (n = 51) and 43.4% (n = 73) reported clinically significant depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Caregiver ratings of worse physical (B = 0.32; P = 0.009) and psychological (B = 0.50; P < 0.001) distress experienced by the patient at the EOL were associated with worse depression symptoms in bereaved caregivers. Only caregiver rating of worse psychological distress experienced by the patient at the EOL (B = 0.42; P < 0.001) was associated with worse bereaved caregivers' anxiety symptoms.

Conclusion: Many bereaved caregivers of patients with advanced cancer experience symptoms of depression and anxiety, which are associated with their perceptions of distress in their loved ones at the EOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.08.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914132PMC
March 2021

In situ measurement of cesium-137 contamination in fruits from the northern Marshall Islands.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 07 15;116(31):15414-15419. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027;

Radioactive contamination of fruits in the northern Marshall Islands, resulting from the US nuclear weapons testing program in the 1940s and 1950s, is still a human health concern, in particular pertaining to island population resettlement and the economic benefit from farming. Over 200 fruits, primarily coconuts and pandanus, were collected on 11 islands from four atolls in the northern Marshall Islands in 2017. The energy spectra from nuclear gamma decays were measured on a research vessel for each fruit in situ. From these recordings, the level of cesium-137 (Cs) contamination was determined for individual fruits. Comparisons of the results are made to past studies and international food safety standards. There is a broad distribution of values, ranging from below detectable radiation levels to relatively high levels; safety concerns are largest for Bikini Island. A noticeable fraction of fruits from Bikini have significantly higher levels of Cs contamination compared with those from all other measured islands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1903481116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681726PMC
July 2019
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