Publications by authors named "Carla Mazar"

5 Publications

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Delivery of Internet-based cancer genetic counselling services to patients' homes: a feasibility study.

J Telemed Telecare 2011 19;17(1):36-40. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Lakeside 1200, Cleveland, OH 44106-5065, USA.

We examined the feasibility of home videoconferencing for providing cancer genetic education and risk information to people at risk. Adults with possible hereditary colon or breast and ovarian cancer syndromes were offered Internet-based counselling. Participants were sent web cameras and software to install on their home PCs. They watched a prerecorded educational video and then took part in a live counselling session with a genetic counsellor. A total of 31 participants took part in Internet counselling sessions. Satisfaction with counselling was high in all domains studied, including technical (mean 4.3 on a 1-5 scale), education (mean 4.7), communication (mean 4.8), psychosocial (mean 4.1) and overall (mean 4.2). Qualitative data identified technical aspects that could be improved. All participants reported that they would recommend Internet-based counselling to others. Internet-based genetic counselling is feasible and associated with a high level of satisfaction among participants.
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May 2011

Chronic sacral nerve stimulation prevents detrusor structural and functional changes associated with bladder outlet obstruction--a rat model.

Neurourol Urodyn 2010 Jun;29(5):783-8

Department of Urology, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, California, USA.

Aims: Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) can mediate structural and functional detrusor changes, which can lead to bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. We investigate if sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) can prevent these structural and functional changes in a rat model of BOO.

Methods: 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats (250 gm) were divided into 4 groups: control (CTRL), BOO, SNS, and both (BOO/SNS). BOO was achieved by partially occluding the proximal urethra. SNS involved stimulating the S1-S4 dorsal roots with a unipolar S1 lead, 8 hours daily. Urodynamics were performed at baseline and after 6 weeks. Bladders were harvested, stained, and scored for detrusor hypertrophy and fibrosis (scale = 1-5).

Results: BOO caused an increase in mean voiding pressure (P(det) = 35 +/- 2 mmHg vs. 23 +/- 1 mmHg, p = 0.02), an increase in mean bladder capacity (C = 1230 +/- 250 microl vs. 484 +/- 60 microl, p = 0.03), and a decrease in mean volume at first non-voiding contraction (67 +/- 16 microl vs. 110 +/- 24 microl, p = 0.02) compared to CTRL. Addition of SNS neither significantly affected P(det) (30 +/- 3 mm Hg vs. 35 +/- 2 mmHg, p = 0.2), nor C (630 +/- 90 microl vs. 1230 +/- 250 microl, p = 0.06) compared to BOO, but eliminated non-voiding contractions. Detrusor hypertrophy and fibrosis were both significantly greater in BOO vs. CTRL and vs. BOO/SNS.

Conclusions: Partial BOO caused functional and structural changes in the rat bladder. SNS in obstructed rats prevents these alterations, without adversely affecting detrusor contractility.
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June 2010

Cancer genetic risk assessment and referral patterns in primary care.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2009 Dec;13(6):735-41

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: This study was undertaken to describe cancer risk assessment practices among primary care providers (PCPs).

Methods: An electronic survey was sent to PCPs affiliated with a single insurance carrier. Demographic and practice characteristics associated with cancer genetic risk assessment and testing activities were described. Latent class analysis supported by likelihood ratio tests was used to define PCP profiles with respect to the level of engagement in genetic risk assessment and referral activity based on demographic and practice characteristics.

Results: 860 physicians responded to the survey (39% family practice, 29% internal medicine, 22% obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN), 10% other). Most respondents (83%) reported that they routinely assess hereditary cancer risk; however, only 33% reported that they take a full, three-generation pedigree for risk assessment. OB/GYN specialty, female gender, and physician access to a genetic counselor were independent predictors of referral to cancer genetics specialists. Three profiles of PCPs, based upon referral practice and extent of involvement in genetics evaluation, were defined.

Conclusion: Profiles of physician characteristics associated with varying levels of engagement with cancer genetic risk assessment and testing can be identified. These profiles may ultimately be useful in targeting decision support tools and services.
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December 2009

The effect of sildenafil citrate on bladder outlet obstruction: a mouse model.

BJU Int 2009 Jul 19;104(2):252-6. Epub 2008 Dec 19.

Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Objective: To investigate if sildenafil citrate can inhibit the functional and structural changes of the detrusor in a murine model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors have recently been used for treating urinary symptoms associated with prostatic obstruction, but it is unclear whether PDE-5 inhibition acts on the prostatic urethra or the bladder.

Materials And Methods: In 18 male Balb/CAN mice, partial BOO was created and the mice allowed to survive for 6 weeks. Half of the mice (nine) were treated with oral sildenafil citrate daily (10 mg/kg) by oral lavage (BOO + V), and half (nine) were not (BOO). Six mice were used as sham-operated controls and received no sildenafil. The mice were assessed by urodynamics at baseline and after 6 weeks, with a measurement of volume at first uninhibited non-voiding contraction (V(DO1)), bladder capacity (BC), and detrusor pressure during void (Pdet). At 6 weeks, bladders were harvested, fixed and sectioned, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and trichrome stain. Detrusor muscle hypertrophy and fibrosis were evaluated on a scale of 1 (decreased) to 3 (increased), by two urologists and one pathologist unaware of the treatment group; the results were compared with those from normal controls.

Results: BOO mice had a significantly greater BC than control mice, with a mean (SD) of 153 (66) vs 58 (13) microL (P = 0.004). Treatment with sildenafil did not significantly alter BC. BOO caused an increase in Pdet compared to controls, with a mean (SD) of 25 (7) vs 12 (5) cm H2O. P(det) was not significantly different after treatment with sildenafil. The median V(DO1) as a percentage of BC was significantly lower in BOO than in control mice (20% vs 53%, P > 0.03) and increased significantly after sildenafil treatment (20% vs 44%, P = 0.04). BOO was associated with a greater bladder weight than in control mice, with a mean (SD) of 89 (32) vs 27 (6) mg (P = 0.001), which was decreased with sildenafil treatment, to 40 (14) vs 89 (32) mg (P = 0.013). BOO caused an increase in detrusor muscular hypertrophy vs control mice, with a median H&E score of 3 vs 2 (P = 0.01) and an increase in fibrosis vs control mice, with a median trichrome score of 3 vs 2 (P = 0.01). BOO + V mice had reduced muscular hypertrophy and fibrosis, with a median H&E score of 3 vs 2 (P = 0.01) and a median trichrome score of 3 vs 1 (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: BOO mediates both functional and structural changes in the mouse bladder. Six weeks of obstruction caused an increase in BC, detrusor overactivity and voiding pressure, and mediated an increase in bladder weight, detrusor muscle hypertrophy and collagen deposition in the lamina propria and smooth muscle. Treatment with 6 weeks of oral sildenafil beginning at the time of BOO prevented the increase in detrusor overactivity without affecting voiding pressures, and prevented the increase in detrusor muscle hypertrophy and collagen deposition that otherwise occurred with BOO. It appears therefore that sildenafil citrate acts on the bladder rather than on the outlet.
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July 2009

Method for tracking nanogel particles in vivo and in vitro.

Biotechnol J 2008 Jul;3(7):954-8

Harrington Department of Bioengineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Hydrogels made of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) can be synthesized in the form of highly monodispersed nanoparticles. After synthesis, NIPA hydrogel nanoparticles (nanogels) can be labeled by Alexa Fluor 488 carboxylic acid, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester through amine-terminated functional groups. This choice of dye is complementary to other biological labeling methods for in vivo studies. When the nanogel/dye nanoparticles are injected into rabbits, they can be imaged via tissue sectioning and confocal microscopy, while nanoparticle concentration can be determined by fluorescent microplate assays. Time-course persistence of nanoparticles in the circulatory system can be readily tracked by direct assay of plasma and urine samples using 485 nm excitation and 538 emission wavelengths to keep background fluorescence to nearly the same level as that found using an empty well. Depending upon how the nanoparticles are injected, circulatory system concentrations can reach high concentrations and diminish to low levels or gradually increase and gradually decrease over time. Injection in the femoral artery results in a rapid spike in circulating nanogel/dye concentration, while injection into the renal artery results in a more gradual increase.
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July 2008