Publications by authors named "Carl M Cirino"

8 Publications

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Incidence and risk factors for pseudosubluxation of the humeral head following proximal humerus fracture.

JSES Int 2022 May 22;6(3):338-342. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Icahn School of Medicine - Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Humeral head pseudosubluxation (HHPS) in relation to the glenohumeral joint is a common finding following fractures of the proximal humerus. The temporary inferior subluxation of the humeral head may be secondary to a transient axillary nerve neuropraxia, pain inhibition of the deltoid, or hemarthrosis or capsular disruption that alters the physiologically negative pressure in the glenohumeral joint. Despite the frequency of this finding, it is not well described in the literature. This study sought to describe the incidence, risk factors, and rate of resolution of HHPS following proximal humerus fracture.

Methods: The practice of two fellowship-trained shoulder and elbow surgeons was queried for proximal humerus fractures. Patient radiographs were reviewed at the time of injury and all subsequent follow-ups through one year after injury. Data collection included the presence of HHPS, type of fracture based on the Neer classification, operative vs. nonoperative management, and resolution of HHPS. Exclusion criteria included skeletally immature patients, fracture-dislocations, patients treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty, inadequate follow-up, or those patients with incorrect International Classification of Diseases coding.

Results: The incidence of HHPS was 20.0% (103 out of 515 patients) overall. Patients who required surgical intervention were more likely to develop pseudosubluxation than those who were treated conservatively ( < .001). There was an increasing incidence of pseudosubluxation based on the Neer classification, with 0-part fractures demonstrating a 2.56% (2/78) rate, whereas 4-part fractures were found to have HHPS in 35.1% (20/57) of cases ( < .001). All patients were found to have resolution of their HHPS at the final follow-up or one year after injury. None of age, sex, obesity, or injury to the dominant arm was associated with the occurrence of HHPS. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in the body mass index of those who developed HHPS (28.4, ± 5.77) vs. those who did not (26.2, ± 5.32,  < .01).

Conclusion: This retrospective radiographic study is the largest to date investigating the incidence of HHPS following proximal humerus fracture and first to correlate with Neer classification and operative intervention. We found that HHPS occurs in one-fifth of acute proximal humerus fractures and resolves regardless of intervention. More complex fractures, including those with increasing Neer parts or requiring operative intervention, developed HHPS at higher rates than simpler fracture patterns. This study will help both general orthopedists as well as shoulder surgeons understand the epidemiology of HHPS and provide reassurance to patients that PS is a benign finding with expected spontaneous resolution by one year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2022.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091873PMC
May 2022

Surgical Management of Complex Adult Monteggia Fractures.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 11 7;46(11):1006-1015. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Orthopedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Monteggia fractures classically involve a proximal ulna fracture with an associated radial head dislocation. The presence of radial head/neck fracture and comminution of the proximal ulna with coronoid involvement elevates the complexity of surgical reconstruction considerably. The Jupiter classification captures this injury pattern as a subgroup of Bado posterior Monteggia lesions. Access to the critical coronoid fragment can be problematic from the posterior approach and may result in tenuous reduction and fixation, directly affecting the functional outcome. Multiple operative techniques have been described to address the broad spectrum of injuries seen in Monteggia fractures. This article will cover commonly used fixation techniques for Monteggia fractures with a comprehensive literature review, including technical tips, outcomes, and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.07.023DOI Listing
November 2021

Peripheral nerve block use in inpatient and outpatient shoulder arthroplasty: a population-based study evaluating utilization and outcomes.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2020 10 3;45(10):818-825. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Orthopedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Peripheral nerve block (PNB) is an effective pain management option after shoulder arthroplasty with increasing popularity over the past decade. Large-scale US data in shoulder arthroplasties are lacking, especially regarding impacts on opioid utilization. This population-based study aimed to evaluate PNB utilization patterns and their effect on outcomes after inpatient and outpatient shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the nationwide Premier Healthcare claims database (2006-2016). This study includes n=94 787 and n=3293 inpatient and outpatient (total, reverse and partial) shoulder arthroplasty procedures. Multivariable mixed-effects models estimated associations between PNB use and opioid utilization in oral morphine equivalents and cost of hospitalization/stay. For the inpatient group, additional outcome measures were length of stay (LOS), admission to a skilled nurse facility, 30-day readmission, combined complications and naloxone use (as a proxy for opioid-related complications). We report OR (or % change for continuous variables) and 95% CIs.

Results: Overall, PNB was used in 19.1% (n=18 144) and 20.8% (n=685) of inpatient and outpatient shoulder arthroplasties, respectively, with an increasing trend for inpatient procedures. PNB utilization was consistently associated with lower (up to -14.0%, 95% CI -15.4% to -12.5% decrease, with median 100 and 90 oral morphine equivalents for inpatient and outpatient procedures) opioid utilization on the day of surgery with more potent effects seen for inpatient shoulder arthroplasties. Other outcomes were minimally impacted.

Discussion: In this first national study on PNB use in shoulder arthroplasty, we found increasing PNB use among specifically, inpatient procedures, resulting in particularly reduced opioid use on the day of surgery. While our findings may support PNB use in shoulder arthroplasty, its current low utilization and trends towards more outpatient procedures necessitate continuous monitoring of more extensive benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rapm-2020-101522DOI Listing
October 2020

Opioid Consumption and Time to Return to Work After Percutaneous Osteotomy in Foot Surgery.

Orthopedics 2020 Jul 7;43(4):e334-e337. Epub 2020 May 7.

Surgeries involving the foot and ankle are painful procedures, with many patients unwilling to discontinue prescribed narcotics at 3 months postoperatively. Percutaneous techniques allow for smaller incisions and minimal soft tissue disruption. Fifty consecutive patients underwent outpatient percutaneous foot surgery. Data were collected on pain medication taken and time to return to work. A mean of 3.3 tablets of oxycodone were consumed during the first 2 weeks. No patient was taking narcotics after 2 weeks. Mean time to return to work was 18.9 days. Percutaneous foot and ankle surgery led to a significant reduction in narcotic consumption. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(4):e334-e337.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200428-01DOI Listing
July 2020

Risk factors for heterotopic ossification in operatively treated proximal humeral fractures.

Bone Joint J 2020 Apr;102-B(4):539-544

Leni and Peter W. May Departmentof Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a potentially devastating complication of the surgical treatment of a proximal humeral fracture. The literature on the rate and risk factors for the development of HO under these circumstances is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for the development of HO in these patients.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 170 patients who underwent operative treatment for a proximal humeral fracture between 2005 and 2016, in a single institution, was undertaken. The mean follow-up was 18.2 months (1.5 to 140). The presence of HO was identified on follow-up radiographs.

Results: The incidence of HO was 15% (n = 26). Our multivariate model revealed that male sex (odds ratio (OR) 3.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 to 9.80 compared to female) and dislocation as the initial injury (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.31 to 19.22) were significantly associated with the formation of HO (p < 0.05) while no significant associations were seen for the age of the patient, the characteristics of the injury, or the type of operative treatment.

Conclusion: This retrospective radiological study is the first to investigate the association between the method of surgical treatment for a proximal humeral fracture and the formation of HO postoperatively. We found that male sex and dislocation as the initial injury were risk factors for HO formation, whereas the method of surgical treatment, the age of the patient, and the pattern of the fracture were not predictive of HO formation. While additional studies are needed, these findings can help to identify those at an increased risk for HO formation under these circumstances. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(4):539-544.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B4.BJJ-2019-1510.R1DOI Listing
April 2020

Second physician review of radiographs after wrist and ankle reductions offers limited utility to clinical management.

Emerg Radiol 2020 Apr 13;27(2):191-193. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave Levy Pl, Box 1188, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical utility of second-physician review of radiographs obtained after reduction of distal radius and ankle fractures.

Methods: Fifty consecutive ankle and distal radius fractures requiring reduction were reviewed. The time from post-reduction radiograph to second-physician interpretation was obtained. The second-physicians' interpretation was evaluated for clinically influential information. Patients requiring a repeat reduction were identified, and the timing of the repeat reduction radiograph was compared with the timing of the second-physician interpretation of the initial post-reduction radiograph.

Results: The mean time of second-physician interpretation for post reduction ankle radiographs was 6 h and 47 min (range 4 min to 43 h and 3 min). Eleven of 50 (22%) interpretations of post reduction ankle radiographs commented on acceptability of reduction. The mean time of second-physician interpretation for post reduction distal radius radiographs was 5 h and 34 min (range 8 min to 22 h and 59 min). Seven of 50 (14%) interpretations of post reduction distal radius radiographs commented on acceptability of reduction. Three distal radius (6%) and 8 ankle fractures (16%) required repeat reduction. Repeat reductions were completed in 10/11 cases (91%) before the second-physician review of the initial post reduction radiograph was obtained. In only 1 case of repeat reduction was the second-physician review of the post reduction radiograph available before repeat reduction was attempted.

Conclusion: The timing and quality of second-physician review of post-reduction radiographs offers little utility to the clinical management of ankle and distal radius fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10140-019-01746-4DOI Listing
April 2020

Drain Use is Associated with Increased Odds of Blood Transfusion in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Population-Based Study.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 07;477(7):1700-1711

J. J. Chan, C. M. Cirino, B. O. Parsons, S. G. Anthony, L. M. Galatz, P. J. Cagle, Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA H.-H. Huang, J. Poeran, Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedics / Institute for Healthcare Delivery Science, Department of Population Health Science & Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA M. Mazumdar, Institute for Healthcare Delivery Science, Department of Population Health Science & Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: In the absence of evidence supporting its benefit, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) strongly recommends against closed wound drainage in TKA; however, drain usage remains common in other joints, including the shoulder. While an extensive body of research exists for drain use in lower extremity joint arthroplasty, large-scale data on drain use and its association with benefits and complications in shoulder arthroplasties is lacking. Such data may be particularly valuable given the rapidly increasing demand for shoulder arthroplasties.

Question/purpose: Using national claims data, we (1) evaluated the trends in frequency of drain usage in shoulder arthroplasty procedures over time, as well as the association between drain usage and (2) blood transfusion usage, (3) length of stay (LOS), and (4) readmission or early infection within 30 days.

Methods: This retrospective study used data from the nationwide Premier Healthcare claims database (2006-2016; n = 105,116, including total, reverse, and partial shoulder arthroplasties, in which drains were used in 20% [20,886] and no drain was used in 80% [84,230]). Included hospitals were mainly concentrated in the South (approximately 40%) with equal distributions among the Northeast, West, and Midwest (approximately 20% each). The Premier database contains detailed inpatient billing data on approximately 20% to 25% of US hospital discharges, which allows the creation of a variable indicating drain use by evaluating inpatient billing for drains. Baseline demographics differed minimally between patients receiving a drain compared with those who did not, with a median age of 70 years in both groups. The potential for selection bias was addressed by adjusting for measured confounders in mixed-effects models that estimated associations between drain use and blood transfusion usage, LOS, and readmission or (early) infection within 30 days. In addition, alternative statistical approaches were applied to address confounding, including propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis where a so-called "instrumental variable" is applied that mimics the treatment assignment process similar to a randomized study. We report odds ratios (OR; or % change for continuous variables) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: The usage of drains decreased over time, from 1106 of 4503 (25%) in 2006 to 2278 of 14,501 (16%) in 2016. After adjusting for relevant covariates, drain use was associated with an increased usage of blood transfusions (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.35-1.65; p < 0.001) while only associated with a small increase in LOS (+6%, 95% CI, +4% to +7%; p < 0.001). Drain use was not associated with increased odds for early postoperative infection or 30-day readmission. Propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis corroborated our main results.

Conclusions: Use of drains in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty is associated with an almost 50% increased odds for blood transfusions. Given that our findings parallel close to what is known in patients undergoing lower extremity joint arthroplasty, we believe that our results from a large national database are sufficient to discourage the routine use of drains in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999960PMC
July 2019

No safe zone: The anatomy of the saphenous nerve and its posteromedial branches.

Knee 2019 Jun 20;26(3):660-665. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Following a case of medial meniscal repair via an inside-out repair, a patient developed acute postoperative electric shock-like paresthesias of the proximal medial calf with any knee flexion beyond 80°. Open saphenous nerve exploration revealed entrapment by suture material of an unnamed branch off the sartorial branch of the saphenous nerve. Symptoms resolved immediately with release. The objective of the study was to perform a cadaveric study to examine the existence and frequency of these previously under-reported branches of the sartorial branch of the saphenous nerve.

Methods: In 16 knees from eight fresh, matched whole cadavers, the medial structures of the knee were exposed, reproducible anatomical structures were identified, and previously under-described posteromedial branches of the sartorial nerve were identified and measured in relation to surrounding structures and the joint line.

Results: The saphenous nerve, its sartorial and infrapatellar branches, and its posteromedial branches were identified in all specimens. The sartorial nerve divided from the saphenous nerve an average of 4.8 cm proximal to the medial femoral epicondyle. Between one and four further posteromedial branches off the sartorial nerve were identified. These branches formed at a range of 5.3 cm proximal to 3.0 cm distal to the joint line.

Conclusions: This cadaveric study establishes the consistent presence of a posteromedial branch off the sartorial nerve. It was consistently located near the posteromedial joint line. These branches are at risk for injury during medial meniscus repairs due to entrapment by suture materials, or during other surgical procedures near the posteromedial aspect of the knee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2019.02.010DOI Listing
June 2019
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