Publications by authors named "Carl Henderson"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Adapting to the Coronavirus Pandemic: Building and Incorporating a Diagnostic Pipeline in a Shared Resource Laboratory.

Cytometry A 2021 01 22;99(1):90-99. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

The Francis Crick Institute, Flow Cytometry Science and Technology Platform, London, UK.

In March 2020, with lockdown due to the coronavirus pandemic underway, the Francis Crick Institute (the Crick) regeared its research laboratories into clinical testing facilities. Two pipelines were established, one for polymerase chain reaction and the other for Serology. This article discusses the Cricks Flow Cytometry Science Technology Platform (Flow STP) role in setting up the Serology pipeline. Pipeline here referring to the overarching processes in place to facilitate the receipt of human sera through to a SARs-CoV-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result. We examine the challenges that had to be overcome by a research laboratory to incorporate clinical diagnostics and the processes by which this was achieved. It describes the governance required to run the service, the design of the standard operating procedures (SOPs) and pipeline, the setting up of the assay, the validation required to show the robustness of the pipeline and reporting the results of the assay. Finally, as the lockdown started to ease in June 2020, it examines how this new service affects the daily running of the Flow STP. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.24248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894326PMC
January 2021

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Outcomes in Immune Mediated Diseases: The Missing Link.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2016 10;22(10):2527-37

*IBD Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Virginia Tech-Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, Virginia; †Department of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences, University of Udine Medical School, Udine, Italy; and ‡Division of Rheumatology, Virginia Tech-Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, Virginia.

As the incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases and the number of patients treated with anti-TNF agents keep on increasing so are the phenomena of primary non response (PNR) and secondary loss of response (SLR) to these medications. Traditionally PNR and SLR have been managed empirically-that is, switching medications for PNR and increasing the anti-TNF dose for SNR. More recently an approach based on testing drug levels and antibodies to the drug (therapeutic drug monitoring) has gained increasing popularity in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, while this strategy might offer an insight into the mechanisms leading to PNR/SLR it often falls short of providing a simple, reproducible method to manage these issues in clinical practice. Here, we will review the currently recommended therapeutic strategies when using therapeutic drug monitoring; the evidence for and against such approach and the current standard strategies in Rheumatology (the specialty with the largest and longest experience with anti-TNF agents). We will then discuss the possible reasons of the shortcomings of therapeutic drug monitoring and the rationale and need to move the therapeutic target to the disease burden in inflammatory bowel diseases-along with the supporting preliminary evidence. Finally, we will focus on future crucial studies that need to be done to make approaches to PNR/SLR more rigorous and at the same time user-friendly for the practicing gastroenterologist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MIB.0000000000000867DOI Listing
October 2016

Unusual Presentation of Unilateral Isolated Probable Lyme Optic Neuritis.

Case Rep Neurol Med 2016 3;2016:7471842. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Internal Medicine, Rheumatology Department, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA 24016, USA.

Optic neuritis (ON) is one of the most common manifestations of central nervous system involvement caused by various etiologies. Lyme ON is an exceedingly rare ocular manifestation of Lyme disease (LD) and only a few cases have been published in the literature. Lyme ON is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis in unexplained cases, particularly in Lyme endemic areas. Careful and detailed examination and investigation are warranted to make the diagnosis. We report this case to increase awareness of clinicians to include Lyme disease in differential diagnosis of ON for unexplained cases of ON. Herein we present a unique case with a unilateral ON caused by LD along with pre- and posttreatment findings and literature review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7471842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756175PMC
March 2016

Size matters--nanotechnology and therapeutics in rheumatology and immunology.

Curr Rheumatol Rev 2014 ;10(1):11-21

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University, Durham, DUMC Box 3874, NC 27710, USA.

Nanotechnology, or the use of technology at the submicron scale, and its application to medicine (nanomedicine) draws from many ideas and technological advancements across myriad fields of materials technology and has improved biomedical understanding. Nanotechnology puts current materials science on the same physical scale as classic immune mediating substances, including viruses, moieties found on prokaryotic bacteria, and antigen presenting cells. Functionalized nanoparticles, fullerenes, liposomes, nanogels, and virus-like particles, are several examples of nanotechnology that are currently being applied to the treatment of oncologic and infectious diseases. However, the majority of the current commercial utilization of nanomedicine has been directed towards creating improved vaccines in order to prevent infectious diseases. These processes may have direct applications toward the creation of vaccines used to treat autoimmune disease as well. Current therapeutics utilizing nanotechnology, are gaining traction in treatments for gout and rheumatoid arthritis, and experimental animal models have demonstrated success in using the above technologies to improve the effectiveness and safety of current standard treatment of rheumatologic illnesses. Here we review many of the common forms of nanoparticles used in medical applications as well as where they have found a role in rheumatology. Continued technical feasibility, ongoing safety studies, and lingering questions on cost are all issues that have not yet been resolved in regards to widespread application in rheumatology and immunology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573403x10666140914155926DOI Listing
June 2015

A method for evaluating the use of fluorescent dyes to track proliferation in cell lines by dye dilution.

Cytometry A 2013 Dec 25;83(12):1085-95. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

FACS Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London, WC2A 3LY, United Kingdom.

Labeling nonquiescent cells with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-like dyes gives rise to a population width exceeding the threshold for resolving division peaks by flow cytometry. Width is a function of biological heterogeneity plus extrinsic and intrinsic error sources associated with the measurement process. Optimal cytometer performance minimizes extrinsic error, but reducing intrinsic error to the point of facilitating peak resolution requires careful fluorochrome selection and fluorescent cell sorting. In this study, we labeled the Jurkat and A549 cell lines with CFSE, CellTraceViolet (CTV), and eFluor 670 proliferation dye (EPD) to test if we could resolve division peaks in culture after reducing the labeled input widths by cell sorting. Reanalysis of the sorted populations to ascertain the level of reduction achieved always led to widths exceeding the gated limits due to the contribution of errors. Measuring detector-specific extrinsic error by sorting uniform fluorescent particles with similar spectral properties to the tracking dyes allowed us to determine the intrinsic error for each dye and cell type using a simple mathematical approach. We found that cell intrinsic error ultimately dictated whether we could resolve division peaks, and that as this increased, the required sort gate width to resolve any division peaks decreased to the point whereby issues with yield made A549 unsuitable for this approach. Finally, attempts to improve yields by setting two concurrent sort gates on the fluorescence distribution enriched for cells in different stages of the cell cycle that had nonequivalent proliferative properties in culture and thus should be practiced with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.22403DOI Listing
December 2013

The zebrafish reference genome sequence and its relationship to the human genome.

Nature 2013 Apr 17;496(7446):498-503. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.

Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703927PMC
April 2013
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