Publications by authors named "Carl Blomqvist"

263 Publications

Association of germline variation with the survival of women with BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants and breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2020 Sep 10;6(1):44. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-00185-6DOI Listing
September 2020

Data Resource Profile: Breast Cancer Data Base Sweden (BCBaSe 2.0).

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences/Surgery, Umeå University, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab139DOI Listing
September 2021

A search for modifying genetic factors in CHEK2:c.1100delC breast cancer patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14763. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.

The risk of breast cancer associated with CHEK2:c.1100delC is 2-threefold but higher in carriers with a family history of breast cancer than without, suggesting that other genetic loci in combination with CHEK2:c.1100delC confer an increased risk in a polygenic model. Part of the excess familial risk has been associated with common low-penetrance variants. This study aimed to identify genetic loci that modify CHEK2:c.1100delC-associated breast cancer risk by searching for candidate risk alleles that are overrepresented in CHEK2:c.1100delC carriers with breast cancer compared with controls. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 28 breast cancer cases with germline CHEK2:c.1100delC, 28 familial breast cancer cases and 70 controls. Candidate alleles were selected for validation in larger cohorts. One recessive synonymous variant, rs16897117, was suggested, but no overrepresentation of homozygous CHEK2:c.1100delC carriers was found in the following validation. Furthermore, 11 non-synonymous candidate alleles were suggested for further testing, but no significant difference in allele frequency could be detected in the validation in CHEK2:c.1100delC cases compared with familial breast cancer, sporadic breast cancer and controls. With this method, we found no support for a CHEK2:c.1100delC-specific genetic modifier. Further studies of CHEK2:c.1100delC genetic modifiers are warranted to improve risk assessment in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93926-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292481PMC
July 2021

Expression of markers of stem cell characteristics, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, basal-like phenotype, proliferation, and androgen receptor in metaplastic breast cancer and their prognostic impact.

Acta Oncol 2021 Sep 20;60(9):1233-1239. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Metaplastic breast cancer (MpBC) is a heterogeneous subtype of invasive mammary carcinoma associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell characteristics. Data regarding prognostic markers and potentially actionable targets for therapy are still limited. The present study aimed to characterize the immunohistochemical landscape of this rare malignancy and to identify potential prognostic factors and targets for therapy.

Material And Methods: A total of 75 patients diagnosed with MpBC over a 15-year period were included in the study. We performed immunohistochemical analyses for Ki-67 (MIB-1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin 5/6, vimentin, CD44, and androgen receptor (AR) and correlated their expression with clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes. The -values for survival analyses were corrected for multiple testing (threshold 0.01).

Results: Most tumors expressed CK5/6 (73%), EGFR (59%), CD44 (81%), and vimentin (87%). Eighty-nine percent had a high Ki-67 index. Eighty-four percent were classified as basal-like (CK 5/6 or EGFR positive). AR was expressed in 21% of the tumors. The basal-like phenotype was significantly ( = 0.009) associated with inferior disease-free (DFS) and breast-cancer-specific overall survival (BCOS) with borderline significance ( = 0.01). In addition, a low Ki-67 index was associated with improved DFS ( = 0.033) and BCOS ( = 0.03).

Conclusion: Most MpBCs express basal markers (CK5/6, EGFR), epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker vimentin, and the stem cell marker CD44. Expression of basal-like markers was significantly related to inferior DFS. All the 11 patients with a lack of expression of basal markers survived without relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1950927DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term health-related quality of life of breast cancer survivors remains impaired compared to the age-matched general population especially in young women. Results from the prospective controlled BREX exercise study.

Breast 2021 Oct 26;59:110-116. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Helsinki University Hospital, Comprehensive Cancer Center, and University of Helsinki, Faculty of Medicine, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To investigate long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) changes over time in younger compared to older disease-free breast cancer survivors who participated in a prospective randomized exercise trial.

Methods: Survivors (aged 35-68 years) were randomized to a 12-month exercise trial after adjuvant treatment and followed up for ten years. HRQoL was assessed with the generic 15D instrument during follow-up and the younger (baseline age ≤ 50) and older (age >50) survivors' HRQoL was compared to that of the age-matched general female population (n = 892). The analysis included 342 survivors.

Results: The decline of HRQoL compared to the population was steeper and recovery slower in the younger survivors (p for interaction < 0.001). The impairment was also larger among the younger survivors (p = 0.027) whose mean HRQoL deteriorated for three years after treatment and started to slowly improve thereafter but still remained below the population level after ten years (difference -0.017, 95% CI: -0.031 to -0.004). The older survivors' mean HRQoL gradually approached the population level during the first five years but also remained below it at ten years (difference -0.019, 95% CI: -0.031 to -0.007). The largest differences were on the dimensions of sleeping and sexual activity, on which both age groups remained below the population level throughout the follow-up.

Conclusions: HRQoL developed differently in younger and older survivors both regarding the most affected dimensions of HRQoL and the timing of the changes during follow-up. HRQoL of both age groups remained below the population level even ten years after treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.06.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264211PMC
October 2021

High miR-30 Expression Associates with Improved Breast Cancer Patient Survival and Treatment Outcome.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 10;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00029 Helsinki, Finland.

Deregulated miRNA expression has been suggested in several stages of breast cancer pathogenesis. We have studied the miR-30 family, in particular miR-30d, in relation to breast cancer patient survival and treatment outcomes. With tumor specimens from 1238 breast cancer patients, we analyzed the association of miR-30d expression with tumor characteristics with the 5-year occurrence of breast cancer-specific death or distant metastasis (BDDM), and with 10-year breast cancer survival (BCS). We conducted a two-stage drug-screen to investigate the impact of miR-30 family members (miR-30a-30e) on sensitivity to doxorubicin and lapatinib in six breast cancer cell lines HCC1937, HCC1954, MDA-MB-361, MCF7, MDA-MB-436 and CAL-120, using drug sensitivity scores (DSS) to compare the miR-30 family mimics to their specific inhibitors. The study was complemented with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) with the METABRIC data. We found that while high miR-30d expression is typical for aggressive tumors, it predicts better metastasis-free ( = 0.035, HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9) and breast cancer-specific survival ( = 0.018, HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9), especially in HER2-positive ( = 0.0009), ER-negative ( = 0.003), p53-positive ( = 0.011), and highly proliferating ( = 0.0004) subgroups, and after adjuvant chemotherapy ( = 0.035). MiR-30d predicted survival independently of standard prognostic markers ( = 0.0004). In the drug-screening test, the miR-30 family sensitized the HER2-positive HCC1954 cell line to lapatinib ( < 10) and HCC1937, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-436 and CAL120 to doxorubicin ( < 10) with an opposite impact on MCF7. According to the pathway analysis, the miR-30 family has a suppressive effect on cell motility and metastasis in breast cancer. Our results suggest prognostic and predictive potential for the miR-30 family, which warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13122907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230388PMC
June 2021

Risk of primary lung cancer after adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer-a large population-based study.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Jun 1;7(1):71. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer (BC) has been associated with an increased risk of later radiation-induced lung cancer (LC). We examined the risk of primary LC in a population-based cohort of 52300 women treated for BC during 1992 to 2012, and 253796 age-matched women without BC. Cumulative incidence of LC was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the risk of LC after BC treatment was estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Women with BC receiving RT had a higher cumulative incidence of LC compared to women with BC not receiving RT and women without BC. This became apparent 5 years after RT and increased with longer follow-up. Women with BC receiving RT had a Hazard ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.37-1.84) for LC compared to women without BC. RT techniques that lower the incidental lung doses, e.g breathing adaption techniques, may lower this risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00280-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169889PMC
June 2021

Gene-Environment Interactions Relevant to Estrogen and Risk of Breast Cancer: Can Gene-Environment Interactions Be Detected Only among Candidate SNPs from Genome-Wide Association Studies?

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 14;13(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2730 Herlev, Denmark.

In this study we aim to examine gene-environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.2 × 10). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (-2df = 1.1 × 10). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156547PMC
May 2021

Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Lower Extremity: Functional Outcome and Quality of Life.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Few studies have focused on patient-related factors in analyzing long-term functional outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with postoperative lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS).

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with postoperative functional outcome and HRQoL in patients with lower extremity STS.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in a tertiary referral center using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS), Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-C30 and 15 Dimension (15D) measures. Functional outcome and HRQoL data were collected prospectively. All patients were treated by a multidisciplinary team according to a written treatment protocol.

Results: A total of 141 patients who had undergone limb-salvage surgery were included. Depending on the outcome measure used, 19-51% of patients were completely asymptomatic and 13-14% of patients had an unimpaired HRQoL. The mean score for TESS, 15D mobility score, and QLQ-C30 Physical Functioning scale were 86, 0.83, and 75, respectively, while the mean score for 15D was 0.88, and 73 for QLQ-C30 QoL. Lower functional outcome was statistically significantly associated with higher age, higher body mass index (BMI), and the need for reconstructive surgery and radiotherapy, while lower HRQoL was statistically significantly associated with higher age, higher BMI, and reconstructive surgery.

Conclusion: Functional outcome and HRQoL were generally high in this cross-sectional study of patients with STS in the lower extremity. Both tumor- and treatment-related factors had an impact but patient-related factors such as age and BMI were the major determinants of both functional outcome and HRQoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-09774-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Monitoring serum estradiol levels in breast cancer patients during extended adjuvant letrozole treatment after five years of tamoxifen: a prospective trial.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jun 12;187(3):769-775. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helsinki University Hospital, PO Box 180, 00290, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To analyze whether monitoring serum estradiol (E2) levels using a highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method may identify patients with AI failure with E2 levels below the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) after schwitching from tamoxifen to letrozole.

Methods: In a prospective study of breast cancer patients switching to letrozole treatment after previous tamoxifen, plasma estrogen levels were measured at baseline and after 3- and 12-months using LC-MS/MS.

Results: Forty-six patients were classified postmenopausal and entered into the final analysis. Thirty-nine (85%) patients had three- and 12-month E2 concentrations below the LLOQ (5 pmol/L). In the seven patients classified as AI-failures during letrozole treatment, serum E2-MS level rose above 5 pmol/L at 3 months with a mean E2-MS 77.5 pmol/L or 12 months with a mean E2-MS 21 pmol/L. None of the baseline variables i.e., age at diagnosis, age at study entry, age at menarche, BMI, endometrial thickness, total ovarian volume, baseline FSH, E2-IA, or E2-MS were significantly associated with the risk of AI failure in logistic regression. E2 levels at baseline measured by E2-IA did not significantly correlate to the levels measured by E2-MS.

Conclusions: There is a relatively high risk of inadequate estrogen suppression in patients who switch from tamoxifen treatment to AIs. The use of sensitive and specific assays, such as LC-MS/MS methods, to monitor estrogen levels during AI treatment is essential to minimize the risk of a proceeding inefficient endocrine therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06168-wDOI Listing
June 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Survival by Tumor Subtype: Pooled Analyses from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 04 26;30(4):623-642. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype.

Methods: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype.

Results: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype ( > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking.

Conclusions: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype.

Impact: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026532PMC
April 2021

CYP3A7*1C allele: linking premenopausal oestrone and progesterone levels with risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.

Br J Cancer 2021 02 26;124(4):842-854. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry.

Results: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10).

Conclusions: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01185-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884683PMC
February 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Genes - Association Analysis in More than 113,000 Women.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):428-439. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The authors' affiliations are as follows: the Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Departments of Public Health and Primary Care (L.D., S. Carvalho, J.A., K.A.P., Q.W., M.K.B., J.D., B.D., N. Mavaddat, K. Michailidou, A.C.A., P.D.P.P., D.F.E.) and Oncology (C.L., P.A.H., C. Baynes, D.M.C., L.F., V.R., M. Shah, P.D.P.P., A.M.D., D.F.E.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (A. Campbell, D.J.P.), and the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology (D.J.P.), University of Edinburgh, the Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre (D.A.C., J.F.), and the Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh Medical School (A. Campbell, J.F.), Edinburgh, the Divisions of Informatics, Imaging, and Data Sciences (E.F.H.), Cancer Sciences (A. Howell), Population Health, Health Services Research, and Primary Care (A. Lophatananon, K. Muir), and Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), University of Manchester, the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Unit (E.F.H.) and the Nightingale Breast Screening Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital (E.F.H., H.I.), Academic Health Science Centre and North West Genomics Laboratory Hub, and the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), Manchester, the School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London (E.J.S.), the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (I.T.), and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford (I.T.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Human Genotyping-CEGEN Unit, Human Cancer Genetic Program (A.G.-N., M.R.A., N.Á., B.H., R.N.-T.), and the Human Genetics Group (V.F., A.O., J.B.), Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras (A.O., J.B.), Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital Universitario La Paz (M.P.Z.), and Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (M. de la Hoya), Madrid, the Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (A. Carracedo, M.G.-D.), and Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras y Centro Nacional de Genotipado, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (A. Carracedo), Santiago de Compostela, the Oncology and Genetics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Xerencia de Xestion Integrada de Vigo-Servizo Galeo de Saúde, Vigo (J.E.C.), and Servicio de Cirugía General y Especialidades, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo (J.I.A.P.) - all in Spain; the Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund (C. Wahlström, J.V., M.L., T. Törngren, Å.B., A.K.), the Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (C. Blomqvist), and the Departments of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (K.C., M.E., M.G., P. Hall, W.H., K.H.), Oncology, Södersjukhuset (P. Hall, S. Margolin), Molecular Medicine and Surgery (A. Lindblom), and Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (S. Margolin, C. Wendt), Karolinska Institutet, and the Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital (A. Lindblom), Stockholm - all in Sweden; the Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD (M.T.P., C.F., G.C.-T., A.B.S.), the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), the Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), and the Department of Clinical Pathology (M.C.S.), University of Melbourne, Anatomical Pathology, Alfred Hospital (C.M.), and the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (M.C.S.), Melbourne, VIC, and Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (G.G.G., M.C.S., R.L.M.) - all in Australia; the Division of Molecular Pathology (R.K., S. Cornelissen, M.K.S.), Family Cancer Clinic (F.B.L.H., L.E.K.), Department of Epidemiology (M.A.R.), and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology (M.K.S.), the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Division Laboratories, Pharmacy and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center, Utrecht (M.G.E.M.A.), the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (J.M.C., A.M.W.O.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (B.A.M.H.-G., A. Hollestelle, M.J.H.), Rotterdam, the Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (E.B.G.G.), the Departments of Human Genetics (I.M.M.L., M.P.G.V., P.D.), Clinical Genetics (C.J.A.), and Pathology (P.D.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (A.R.M.), and the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (J.C.O.) - all in the Netherlands; the Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute (B.D.), and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (T.A., S.J.C., X.R.Y., M.G.-C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (B.D.), and the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (R.M.V.D.), Boston; the Departments of Clinical Genetics (K.A.), Oncology (C. Blomqvist), and Obstetrics and Gynecology (H.N., M. Suvanto), Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, and the Unit of Clinical Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (P. Auvinen), the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oncology (P. Auvinen), the Translational Cancer Research Area (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology, and Forensic Medicine (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), University of Eastern Finland, and the Biobank of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital (V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), Kuopio - both in Finland; the N.N. Alexandrov Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Minsk, Belarus (N.N.A., N.V.B.); the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel (N.A.), the Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology (H. Becher) and Cancer Epidemiology Group (T.M., J.C.-C.), University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (M.W.B., P.A.F., L.H.) and Institute of Human Genetics (A.B.E.), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, Erlangen, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology (S.B., A. Jung, P.M.K., J.C.-C.), Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080 (B. Burwinkel, H.S.), Division of Pediatric Neurooncology (A.F.), and Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer (U.H., M.M., M.U.R., D.T.), German Cancer Research Center, Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer, University Women's Clinic Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg (B. Burwinkel, A.S., H.S.), Hopp Children's Cancer Center (A.F.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg (P.M.K.), and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital and German Cancer Research Center (A.S., C.S.), Heidelberg, the Department of Radiation Oncology (N.V.B., M. Bremer, H.C.) and the Gynecology Research Unit (N.V.B., T.D., P. Hillemanns, T.-W.P.-S., P.S.), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Münster, Münster (N.B.-M.), Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart (H. Brauch, W.-Y.L.), iFIT-Cluster of Excellence, University of Tübingen, and the German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, Partner Site Tübingen (H. Brauch), and the University of Tübingen (W.-Y.L.), Tübingen, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum (T.B.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (C.E.), Center for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (E.H., R.K.S.) and Center for Integrated Oncology (E.H., R.K.S.), Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn (Y.-D.K.), the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Munich, Campus Großhadern, Munich (A. Meindl), and the Institute of Pathology, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (T.R.) - all in Germany; the Gynecological Cancer Registry, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (P. Arveux), and the Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Team Exposome and Heredity, INSERM, University Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (E.C.-D., P.G., T. Truong) - both in France; the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (M. Bermisheva, E.K.), the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University (E.K., D.P., Y.V.), and the Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology (Y.V.), Ufa, Russia; the Department of Genetics and Pathology (K.B., A. Jakubowska, J. Lubiński, K.P.) and the Independent Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Diagnostics (A. Jakubowska), Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (S.E.B., B.G.N.), and the Department of Breast Surgery (H.F.), Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (S.E.B., B.G.N.) - both in Denmark; the Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) (B. Bonanni), the Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano (S. Manoukian), the Genome Diagnostics Program, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (P.P.), and the Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (P.R.), Milan; the Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet (A.-L.B.-D., G.I.G.A., V.N.K.), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (A.-L.B.-D., V.N.K.), Oslo; Medical Faculty, Universidad de La Sabana (I.B.), and the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department (F.G.) and Institute of Human Genetics (D.T.), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia; the Department of Internal Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah (N.J.C., M.J.M., J.A.W.), and the Intermountain Healthcare Biorepository and Department of Pathology, Intermountain Healthcare (M.H.C.), Salt Lake City; the David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles (P.A.F.), and Moores Cancer Center (M.G.-D., M.E.M.) and the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (M.E.M.), University of California San Diego, La Jolla; the Departments of Medical Oncology (V.G., D.M.) and Pathology (M.T.), University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, and the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (E.S.) - both in Greece; the Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital (G.G., I.L.A.), the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (A.M.M.) and Molecular Genetics (I.L.A.), University of Toronto, and the Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network (A.M.M.), Toronto, and the Genomics Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Québec City, QC (J.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Electron Microscopy and Molecular Pathology (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L.), the Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L., K. Michailidou), and the Biostatistics Unit (K. Michailidou), Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus; the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health (M. Hartman, R.M.V.D.) and the Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (R.M.V.D.), National University of Singapore, the Department of Surgery, National University Health System (M. Hartman, J. Li), and the Human Genetics Division, Genome Institute of Singapore (J. Li), Singapore; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia (W.K.H.), and the Breast Cancer Research Programme, Cancer Research Malaysia (W.K.H., P.S.N., S.-Y.Y., S.H.T.), Selangor, and the Breast Cancer Research Unit, Cancer Research Institute (N.A.M.T.), and the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (N.A.M.T., P.S.N., S.H.T.), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur - both in Malaysia; Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (M.J.K., N. Miller); the Department of Surgery, Daerim Saint Mary's Hospital (S.-W.K.), the Department of Surgery, Ulsan University College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center (J.W.L.), the Department of Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine and Soonchunhyang University Hospital (M.H.L.), Integrated Major in Innovative Medical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.K.P.), and the Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University (S.K.P.), Seoul, South Korea; the Department of Basic Sciences, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan (M.U.R.); and the National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.T.).

Background: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking.

Methods: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity.

Results: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (, , , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (, , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in and , odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in , , , , , and , odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in , , and were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For , , and , missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants.

Conclusions: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611105PMC
February 2021

Radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast: analysis of diagnostic tools in a registry-based population.

Acta Radiol 2020 Dec 21:284185120980142. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

HUH Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, Helsinki University Hospital (HUH) and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast (RAASB) is a serious late consequence caused by breast cancer treatment. Initial symptoms are often inconspicuous, thus contributing to diagnostic delay. Most previous studies of the diagnostic aspects of RAASB are case reports.

Purpose: To perform a complete review of the imaging findings and biopsy methods in a nationwide RAASB cohort.

Material And Methods: RAASB patients were identified from a national cancer registry and additional patients were included from our hospital. All available information from imaging (mammogram [MGR], ultrasound [US], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and computed tomography [CT]) and biopsies was reviewed. The sensitivity of imaging and biopsy methods for detection of RAASB was calculated.

Results: Fifty-eight patients with RAASB were found. Fourteen MGR, 30 US, 24 MRI, and 25 CT studies were available for evaluation. The sensitivity of MGR, US, MRI, and CT for detection of RAASB was 43%, 50%, 92%, and 84%, respectively. Superior sensitivity was demonstrated for punch biopsy (84%) and incisional biopsy (93%) compared to fine-needle aspiration cytology (0%) and core needle biopsy (18%).

Conclusion: MRI and CT have comparable sensitivity for detection of RAASB, while MGR and US are unreliable. However, negative findings in MRI or CT must be interpreted with caution. Punch biopsy and incisional biopsy are the preferred biopsy methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185120980142DOI Listing
December 2020

Association of germline variation with the survival of women with pathogenic variants and breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2020 10;6:44. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Toronto, ON Canada.

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in or genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30,  = 3.1 × 10). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-00185-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483417PMC
September 2020

Further validation of the Toronto extremity salvage score for lower extremity soft tissue sarcoma based on Finnish patients.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 01 12;74(1):71-78. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Surgery, Central Finland Central Hospital, Keskussairaalantie 19, FI-40620, Jyväskylä, Finland.

The most widely used patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure for soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients is the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS). The aim of the study was to validate and test the reliability of the TESS for patients with lower extremity STS based on Finnish population data. Patients were assessed using the TESS, the QLQ-C30 Function and Quality of life (QoL) modules, the 15D and the Musculoskeletal tumour Society (MSTS) score. The TESS was completed twice with a 2- to 4-week interval. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for test-retest reliability. Construct validity was tested for structural validity and convergent validity. Altogether 136 patients completed the TESS. A ceiling effect was noted as 21% of the patients scored maximum points. The ICC between first and second administration of the TESS was 0.96. The results of exploratory factor analysis together with high Cronbach's alpha (0.98) supported a unidimensional structure. The TESS correlated moderately with the MSTS score (rho = 0.59, p< 0.001) and strongly with the mobility dimension in the 15D HRQL instrument (rho = 0.76, p < 0.001) and the physical function in QLQ-C30 (rho = 0.83, p< 0.001). The TESS instrument is a comprehensive and reliable PRO measure. The TESS may be used as a validated single index score, for lower extremity STS patients for the measurement of a functional outcome. The TESS seems to reflect patients' HRQoL well after the treatment of lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2020.08.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Multidisciplinary Oncovascular Surgery is Safe and Effective in the Treatment of Intra-abdominal and Retroperitoneal Sarcomas: A Retrospective Single Centre Cohort Study and a Comprehensive Literature Review.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 Nov 31;60(5):752-763. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Vascular Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Meilahden tornisairaala, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: Radical excision of retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal soft tissue sarcomas may necessitate vessel resection and reconstruction. The aim of this study was to assess surgical results of retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas involving major blood vessels.

Methods: This was a retrospective single centre cohort study and a comprehensive review of literature. Patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas treated by the oncovascular team in Helsinki University Hospital from 2010 to 2018 were reviewed for vascular and oncological outcomes. A comprehensive literature review of vascular reconstructions in patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma was performed.

Results: Vascular reconstruction was performed in 17 patients, 11 of whom required arterial reconstructions. Sixteen of the operations were sarcoma resections; the post-operative diagnosis for one patient was thrombosis instead of the presumed recurrent leiomyosarcoma. Early graft thrombosis occurred in two venous and one arterial reconstruction. Late thrombosis was detected in three (18%). The median follow up was 27 (range 0-82) months. Of the patients with sarcoma resections 5 (31%) died of sarcoma and further 4 (25%) developed local recurrence or new distant metastases. The comprehensive review of literature identified 37 articles with 110 patients, 89 of whom had inferior vena cava reconstruction only. Eight arterial reconstructions were described. Late graft thrombosis occurred in 14%. The follow up was 0-181 months, during which 57% remained disease free and 7% died of sarcoma.

Conclusion: Vascular reconstructions enable radical resection of retroperitoneal and intra-abdominal sarcomas in patients with advanced disease. The complex operations are associated with an acceptable rate of serious peri-operative complications and symptomatic thrombosis of the repaired vessel is rare. However, further studies are needed to assess the performance of the vascular reconstructions in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.05.029DOI Listing
November 2020

SNPs in lncRNA Regions and Breast Cancer Risk.

Front Genet 2020 30;11:550. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in human physiology, and have been found to be associated with various cancers. Transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are a subgroup of lncRNAs conserved in several species, and are often located in cancer-related regions. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of female cancer deaths. We investigated the association of genetic variants in lncRNA and T-UCR regions with breast cancer risk to uncover candidate loci for further analysis. Our focus was on low-penetrance variants that can be discovered in a large dataset. We selected 565 regions of lncRNAs and T-UCRs that are expressed in breast or breast cancer tissue, or show expression correlation to major breast cancer associated genes. We studied the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these regions with breast cancer risk in the 122970 case samples and 105974 controls of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium's genome-wide data, and also by functional analyses using Integrated Expression Quantitative trait and prediction of GWAS targets (INQUISIT) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis. The eQTL analysis was carried out using the METABRIC dataset and analyses from GTEx and ncRNA eQTL databases. We found putative breast cancer risk variants ( < 1 × 10) targeting the lncRNA in INQUISIT and eQTL analysis. In addition, putative breast cancer risk associated SNPs ( < 1 × 10) in the region of two T-UCRs, uc.184 and uc.313, located in protein coding genes and , respectively, targeted these genes in INQUISIT and in eQTL analysis. Other non-coding regions containing SNPs with the defined p-value and highly significant false discovery rate (FDR) for breast cancer risk association were discovered that may warrant further studies. These results suggest candidate lncRNA loci for further research on breast cancer risk and the molecular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340126PMC
June 2020

Single centre 30-year experience in treating retroperitoneal liposarcomas.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Nov 15;122(6):1163-1172. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Oncology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background And Objectives: Liposarcomas form a diverse group of tumors that represent the majority of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas. Radical excision of these retroperitoneal liposarcomas is often challenging due to their large size and proximity to visceral organs and major vessels. Here we present the 30-year experience of our multidisciplinary sarcoma team in the treatment of these tumors and analysis of factors influencing survival.

Methods: Patients with retroperitoneal liposarcomas treated in Helsinki University Hospital from 1987 to 2017 were reviewed. Local recurrence-free survival, metastases-free survival, and disease-specific survival were assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis, and factors influencing survival were evaluated with Cox regression.

Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. The median follow-up time was 5.4 years (interquartile range: 2.2-8.8 years). Local recurrence developed in 72% and metastases in 15% during follow-up. The 5-year disease-free survival was 31% and disease-specific survival was 66%. The multifactorial analysis revealed histological type and grade as predictors of disease-specific survival (P < .01) while multifocality carried a poor prognosis for local recurrence (P = .02) and higher histological grade for metastases (P < .01).

Conclusions: Retroperitoneal liposarcomas rarely metastasize but tend to recur locally. For tumors that have been resected with macroscopically clear margins, histological, type, and grade are significant predictors of survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26118DOI Listing
November 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

Leukocyte nadir as a predictive factor for efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Results from the prospective trial SBG 2000-1.

Acta Oncol 2020 Jul 29;59(7):825-832. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Oncology, Gävle Hospital, Sweden.

Retrospective studies have suggested that chemotherapy-induced leukopenia is associated with improved recurrence-free or overall survival. The SBG 2000-1 trial was designed to verify the favorable prognosis associated with chemotherapy-induced leukopenia in early breast cancer. Patients not experiencing chemotherapy-induced leukopenia were randomized into standard dosed or individually escalated chemotherapy doses based on the grade of leukopenia after a first standard dose. 1452 women in Sweden and Denmark with operable node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer aged 18-60 years were recruited to participate in this trial. Participants received a first FEC cycle at standard doses (600/60/600 mg/m). Patients ( = 1052) with nadir leukopenia grade 0-2 after the first cycle were randomized between either 6 standard FEC or 6 tailored FEC courses with doses of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide escalated during courses 2 and 3 and thereafter aimed at achieving grade 3 leukopenia. Patients with nadir leukopenia grade 3-4 after the first course continued treatment with standard FEC. Results of the randomized comparison has been published previously. The present study focuses on chemotherapy-induced leukopenia as a covariable with outcome in randomized and non-randomized patients. The prognostic value of leukopenia after course 3, was studied in a Cox model adjusted for cumulative doses of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide. The association of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia with prognosis was a preplanned secondary endpoint for this trial. The eight-year distant disease-free survival was 73%, 77%, 78% and 83% for patients with leucocyte nadir grade 0, 1, 2 and 3-4, respectively. Higher degree of leukopenia was highly significantly associated to improved distant disease-free survival (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96,  = .008) and overall survival (HR 0.87 (0.76-0.99,  = .032). This prospective study confirms that chemotherapy-induced leukopenia is a covariable with outcome in primary breast cancer, even after adjustment for chemotherapy doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1757149DOI Listing
July 2020

Prediction of contralateral breast cancer: external validation of risk calculators in 20 international cohorts.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jun 11;181(2):423-434. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC).

Methods: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope.

Results: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula.

Conclusions: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05611-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380991PMC
June 2020

Transcriptome-wide association study of breast cancer risk by estrogen-receptor status.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 07 1;44(5):442-468. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987299PMC
July 2020

Health-related Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Survivors Attending an Exercise Intervention Study: A Five-year Follow-up.

In Vivo 2020 Mar-Apr;34(2):667-674

Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helsinki University Hospital, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background/aim: As the number of breast cancer survivors is increasing, their long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become an important issue. The aim of the study is to follow up the HRQoL of breast cancer survivors (BCS) in a prospective randomized exercise intervention study and to compare HRQoL to that of the age-matched general female population.

Patients And Methods: Following adjuvant treatment, 537 patients aged 35-68 and capable of exercise training were randomized to a 12-month exercise trial. In 182 of those patients, HRQoL was measured by the generic 15D at baseline and followed up for five years. Furthermore, the HRQoL of all BCS answering the 15D at five-year follow-up (n=390) was compared to that of a representative sample of the general population.

Results: After five years, the BCS' mean HRQoL demonstrated a statistically and clinically significant impairment compared to that of the general population (difference -0.023, p<0.001). The mean HRQoL of BCS followed up from baseline until five years did not improve significantly (change=0.007, p=0.27), whereas the dimensions of usual activities (0.043, p=0.004), depression (0.038, p=0.007), distress (0.030, p=0.036), and sexual activity (0.057, p=0.009) did.

Conclusion: The HRQoL of BCS was still impaired five years following treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.11821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157873PMC
November 2020

Comparison between CT and MRI in detection of metastasis of the retroperitoneum in testicular germ cell tumors: a prospective trial.

Acta Oncol 2020 Jun 12;59(6):660-665. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helsinki University Hospital (HUH) and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

To minimize the radiation exposure of mostly young testicular cancer patients, it is essential to find out whether CT could be replaced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the staging and follow-up of the patients. In this trial, we examined whether abdominal MRI is as effective as computed tomography (CT) in the detection of retroperitoneal metastases of testicular cancer. This prospective study included 50 patients, 46 cases of retroperitoneal metastases and 4 controls without abdominal metastases (mean age 33, 5 years, range 20-65 years). Imaging of the retroperitoneum was performed using CT and 1.5 T MRI with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). One experienced radiologist re-analyzed all of the examinations without knowledge of clinical information. All metastatic or suspicious lymph nodes were noted and measured two-dimensionally from axial images. Nodal detection and the size of detected nodes on CT and MRI were compared. There was no significant difference in the detection of retroperitoneal metastasis between CT and MRI. The sensitivity of MRI was 0.98. There was no statistically significant difference in the sizes of lymph nodes found in CT and MRI, and even very small lymph nodes could be detected in MRI as well as in CT. MRI with DWI is as good as CT in detection of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases regardless of lymph node size, and it can be used as part of follow-up of testicular cancer patients instead of ionizing radiation producing imaging methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1725243DOI Listing
June 2020

Long-term risk of ischemic heart disease after adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: results from a large population-based cohort.

Breast Cancer Res 2020 01 22;22(1):10. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer (BC) has been associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined the incidence of IHD in a large population-based cohort of women with BC.

Methods: The Breast Cancer DataBase Sweden (BCBaSe) includes all women diagnosed with BC from 1992 to 2012 (n = 60,217) and age-matched women without a history of BC (n = 300,791) in three Swedish health care regions. Information on comorbidity, educational level, and incidence of IHD was obtained through linkage with population-based registries. The risk of IHD was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression analyses and cumulative incidence by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Women with BC had a lower risk of IHD compared to women without BC with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.95). When women with left-sided BC were compared to right-sided BC, an increased HR for IHD of 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.17) was seen. In women receiving RT, a HR of 1.18 (95% CI 1.06-1.31) was seen in left-sided compared to right-sided BC, and the HRs increased with more extensive lymph node involvement and with the addition of systemic therapy. The cumulative IHD incidence was increased in women receiving left-sided RT compared to right-sided RT, starting from the first years after RT and sustained with longer follow-up.

Conclusions: Women given RT for left-sided BC during 1992 to 2012 had an increased risk of IHD compared to women treated for right-sided BC. These women were treated in the era of three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT), and the results emphasize the importance of further developing and implementing RT techniques that lower the cardiac doses, without compromising the beneficial effects of RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-020-1249-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977272PMC
January 2020

A network analysis to identify mediators of germline-driven differences in breast cancer prognosis.

Nat Commun 2020 01 16;11(1):312. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Identifying the underlying genetic drivers of the heritability of breast cancer prognosis remains elusive. We adapt a network-based approach to handle underpowered complex datasets to provide new insights into the potential function of germline variants in breast cancer prognosis. This network-based analysis studies ~7.3 million variants in 84,457 breast cancer patients in relation to breast cancer survival and confirms the results on 12,381 independent patients. Aggregating the prognostic effects of genetic variants across multiple genes, we identify four gene modules associated with survival in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and one in ER-positive disease. The modules show biological enrichment for cancer-related processes such as G-alpha signaling, circadian clock, angiogenesis, and Rho-GTPases in apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-14100-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965101PMC
January 2020

Fine-mapping of 150 breast cancer risk regions identifies 191 likely target genes.

Nat Genet 2020 01 7;52(1):56-73. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0537-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974400PMC
January 2020
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