Publications by authors named "Carl Birks"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Generation of a high-affinity Fcgamma receptor by Ig-domain swapping between human CD64A and CD16A.

Protein Eng Des Sel 2010 Apr 11;23(4):299-309. Epub 2010 Feb 11.

Department of Immunology, ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA 98102, USA.

A recombinant soluble version of the human high-affinity receptor for IgG, rh-FcgammaRIA or CD64A, was expressed in mammalian cells and purified from their conditioned media. As assessed by circular dichroism, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering, incubation of rh-FcgammaRIA at 37 degrees C resulted in time-dependent formation of soluble aggregates caused by protein unfolding and loss of native structure. Aggregate formation was irreversible, temperature-dependent and was independent of rh-FcgammaRIA concentration. Aggregated rh-FcgammaRIA lost its ability to inhibit immune complex precipitation and failed to bind to IgG-Sepharose. Addition of human IgG1 to rh-FcgammaRIA prior to incubation at 37 degrees C blocked the formation of rh-FcgammaRIA aggregates. Production of soluble monomeric rh-FcgammaRIA was limited by aggregate formation during cell culture. Substitution of the membrane distal D1 Ig domain of FcgammaRIA with the D1 Ig domain of FcgammaRIIIA or CD16A resulted in a chimeric receptor, FcgammaR3A1A, with enhanced temperature stability. Relative to native rh-FcgammaRIA, FcgammaR3A1A exhibited less aggregation in Chinese hamster ovary cell-conditioned media or when purified receptor was incubated for up to 24 h at 37 degrees C. Both receptors bound to immobilized human IgG1 with high affinity and were equipotent at blockade of immune complex-mediated cytokine production from cultured mast cells. Equivalent dose-dependent reductions in edema and neutrophil infiltration in the cutaneous Arthus reaction in mice were noted for rh-FcgammaRIA and FcgammaR3A1A. These data demonstrate that the D1 Ig domains of FcgammaRIA and FcgammaRIIIA are functionally interchangeable and further suggest that the chimeric receptor FcgammaR3A1A is an effective inhibitor of type III hypersensitivity in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/protein/gzq007DOI Listing
April 2010

Interleukin-29 uses a type 1 interferon-like program to promote antiviral responses in human hepatocytes.

Hepatology 2006 Oct;44(4):896-906

ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA 98102, USA.

Interleukin-28A (IL-28A), IL-28B and IL-29 are a family of class II cytokines that stimulate antiviral responses through a heterodimeric receptor that is distinct from the type I interferon (IFN) receptor. To better understand how this newly described family of cytokines regulates the antiviral state, we compared various cellular responses elicited by IL-29 and IFN-alpha. Here we show that these cytokines stimulate similar patterns of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1), -2, -3, and -5 phosphorylation and nearly identical patterns of gene expression when analyzed in two distinct cell types by microarray analysis. Interestingly, the IL-29 receptor is preferentially expressed on primary hepatocytes within normal liver and pegylated forms of IL-29 and IFN-alpha induced equivalent 2'5' oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and MX1 gene expression in this cell type. Pegylated IL-29 also produced a significant reduction in human hepatitis B and hepatitis C viral load in vitro and reduced the cytopathic effect caused by the fully replicating flavivirus, West Nile virus. In conclusion, IL-29 and IFN-alpha stimulate identical antiviral responses despite their utilization of different receptors. This fact, combined with significant receptor expression in hepatitis virus-infected livers, suggests that IL-29 may have therapeutic value against chronic viral hepatitis in human patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.21312DOI Listing
October 2006

IL-28, IL-29 and their class II cytokine receptor IL-28R.

Nat Immunol 2003 Jan 2;4(1):63-8. Epub 2002 Dec 2.

ZymoGenetics, Inc., 1201 Eastlake Avenue E., Seattle, WA 98102, USA.

Cytokines play a critical role in modulating the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here, we have identified from the human genomic sequence a family of three cytokines, designated interleukin 28A (IL-28A), IL-28B and IL-29, that are distantly related to type I interferons (IFNs) and the IL-10 family. We found that like type I IFNs, IL-28 and IL-29 were induced by viral infection and showed antiviral activity. However, IL-28 and IL-29 interacted with a heterodimeric class II cytokine receptor that consisted of IL-10 receptor beta (IL-10Rbeta) and an orphan class II receptor chain, designated IL-28Ralpha. This newly described cytokine family may serve as an alternative to type I IFNs in providing immunity to viral infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni873DOI Listing
January 2003