Publications by authors named "Carina Blomstrom-Lundqvist"

189 Publications

Use of healthcare claims to validate the Prevention of Arrhythmia Device Infection Trial cardiac implantable electronic device infection risk score.

Europace 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, BC, Canada.

Aim: The Prevention of Arrhythmia Device Infection Trial (PADIT) infection risk score, developed based on a large prospectively collected data set, identified five independent predictors of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection. We performed an independent validation of the risk score in a data set extracted from U.S. healthcare claims.

Methods And Results: Retrospective identification of index CIED procedures among patients aged ≥18 years with at least one record of a CIED procedure between January 2011 and September 2014 in a U.S health claims database. PADIT risk factors and major CIED infections (with system removal, invasive procedure without system removal, or infection-attributable death) were identified through diagnosis and procedure codes. The data set was randomized by PADIT score into Data Set A (60%) and Data Set B (40%). A frailty model allowing multiple procedures per patient was fit using Data Set A, with PADIT score as the only predictor, excluding patients with prior CIED infection. A data set of 54 042 index procedures among 51 623 patients with 574 infections was extracted. Among patients with no history of prior CIED infection, a 1 unit increase in the PADIT score was associated with a relative 28% increase in infection risk. Prior CIED infection was associated with significant incremental predictive value (HR 5.66, P < 0.0001) after adjusting for PADIT score. A Harrell's C-statistic for the PADIT score and history of prior CIED infection was 0.76.

Conclusion: The PADIT risk score predicts increased CIED infection risk, identifying higher risk patients that could potentially benefit from targeted interventions to reduce the risk of CIED infection. Prior CIED infection confers incremental predictive value to the PADIT score.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab028DOI Listing
March 2021

Risk stratification of patients undergoing transvenous lead extraction with the ELECTRa Registry Outcome Score (EROS): an ESC EHRA EORP European lead extraction ConTRolled ELECTRa registry analysis.

Europace 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, UK.

Aims: Transvenous lead extraction is associated with a significant risk of complications and identifying patients at highest risk pre-procedurally will enable interventions to be planned accordingly. We developed the ELECTRa Registry Outcome Score (EROS) and applied it to the ELECTRa registry to determine if it could appropriately risk-stratify patients.

Methods And Results: EROS was devised to risk-stratify patients into low risk (EROS 1), intermediate risk (EROS 2), and high risk (EROS 3). This was applied to the ESC EORP European Lead Extraction ConTRolled ELECTRa registry; 57.5% EROS 1, 31.8% EROS 2, and 10.7% EROS 3. Patients with EROS 3 or 2 were significantly more likely to require powered sheaths and a femoral approach to complete procedures. Patients with EROS 3 were more likely to suffer procedure-related major complications including deaths (5.1 vs. 1.3%; P < 0.0001), both intra-procedural (3.5 vs. 0.8%; P = 0.0001) and post-procedural (1.6 vs. 0.5%; P = 0.0192). They were more likely to suffer post-procedural deaths (0.8 vs. 0.2%; P 0.0449), cardiac avulsion or tear (3.8 vs. 0.5%; P < 0.0001), and cardiovascular lesions requiring pericardiocentesis, chest tube, or surgical repair (4.6 vs. 1.0%; P < 0.0001). EROS 3 was associated with procedure-related major complications including deaths [odds ratio (OR) 3.333, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.879-5.914; P < 0.0001] and all-cause in-hospital major complications including deaths (OR 2.339, 95% CI 1.439-3.803; P = 0.0006).

Conclusion: EROS successfully identified patients who were at increased risk of significant procedural complications that require urgent surgical intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab037DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of centre volume on atrial fibrillation ablation outcomes in Europe: a report from the ESC EHRA EORP Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term (AFA LT) Registry.

Europace 2021 Jan;23(1):49-58

Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institut, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Aims : The aim of the study was to investigate differences in clinical outcomes and complication rates among European atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation centres related to the volume of AF ablations performed.

Methods And Results : Data for this analysis were extracted from the ESC EHRA EORP European AF Ablation Long-Term Study Registry. Based on 33rd and 67th percentiles of number of AF ablations performed, the participating centres were classified into high volume (HV) (≥ 180 procedures/year), medium volume (MV) (<180 and ≥74/year), and low volume (LV) (<74/year). A total of 91 centres in 26 European countries enrolled in 3368 patients. There was a significantly higher reporting of cardiovascular complications and stroke incidence in LV centres compared with HV and MV (P = 0.039 and 0.008, respectively) and a lower success rate after AF ablation (55.3% in HV vs. 57.2% in LV vs. 67.4% in MV centres, P < 0.001), despite lower CHA2DS2-VASc score of patients, enrolled in LVs and less complex ablation techniques used. Adjustments of confounding factors (including type of AF ablation) led to elimination of these differences.

Conclusion : Low-volume centres tended to present slightly higher cardiovascular complications' and stroke incidence and a lower unadjusted success rate after AF ablation, despite the fact that ablation procedures and patients were of lower risk compared with MV and HV centres. On the other hand, adjusted overall complication and recurrence rates were non-significantly different among different volume centres, a fact reflecting the heterogeneity of patient and procedural profiles, and a counterbalance between expertise and risk level among participating centres.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa236DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy and safety of dronedarone by atrial fibrillation history duration: Insights from the ATHENA study.

Clin Cardiol 2020 Dec 20;43(12):1469-1477. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Cardiology, Division of Clinical Electrophysiology, J. W. Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (AF/AFL) burden increases with increasing duration of AF/AFL history.

Hypothesis: Outcomes with dronedarone may also be impacted by duration of AF/AFL history.

Methods: In this post hoc analysis of ATHENA, efficacy and safety of dronedarone vs placebo were assessed in groups categorized by time from first known AF/AFL episode to randomization (ie, duration of AF/AFL history): <3 months (short), 3 to <24 months (intermediate), and ≥ 24 months (long).

Results: Of 2859 patients with data on duration of AF/AFL history, 45.3%, 29.6%, and 25.1% had short, intermediate, and long histories, respectively. Patients in the long history group had the highest prevalence of structural heart disease and were more likely to be in AF/AFL at baseline. Placebo-treated patients in the long history group also had the highest incidence of AF/AFL recurrence and cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization during the study. The risk of first CV hospitalization/death from any cause was lower with dronedarone vs placebo in patients with short (hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.96]) and intermediate (0.72 [0.56-0.92]) histories; a trend favoring dronedarone was also observed in patients with long history (0.84 [0.66-1.07]). A similar pattern was observed for first AF/AFL recurrence. No new drug-related safety issues were identified.

Conclusions: Patients with long AF/AFL history had the highest burden of AF/AFL at baseline and during the study. Dronedarone significantly improved efficacy vs placebo in patients with short and intermediate AF/AFL histories. While exploratory, these results support the potential value in initiating rhythm control treatment early in patients with AF/AFL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724236PMC
December 2020

Atrial fibrillation ablation long-term ESC-EHRA EORP AFA LT registry: in-hospital and 1-year follow-up findings in Italy.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2020 Oct;21(10):740-748

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medical Sciences, 'Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino' Hospital, University of Turin, Turin.

Aim: To report the Italian data deriving from the European Society of Cardiology-EURObservational Research Program atrial fibrillation ablation long-term registry.

Methods And Results: Ten Italian centers enrolled up to 50 consecutive patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. Of the 318 patients included, 5 (1.6%) did not undergo catheter ablation, 1 had ablation partially done and 62 were lost at 1-year follow-up. Women were less represented (23.6%) and the median age was 60.0 years. A total of 195 patients (62.3%) suffered paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, whereas only 9 (2.9%) had long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. Most Italian patients (92.3%) were symptomatic but suffering fewer symptomatic events than patients enrolled in other countries (median of two events in the month preceding the ablation vs. three, respectively; P < 0.0001). The main finding of the study is that the success rate at 1 year, with and without antiarrhythmic drugs, was 76.4%, consistently with other participating countries (73.4%). This result was obtained however, with a significantly lower prevalence of 1-year adverse events (7.3 vs. 16.6%, P < 0.0001). Procedure duration and fluoroscopy total time resulted as being shorter in Italy (145 vs. 160, P = 0.0005 and 16.9 vs. 20.0 min, P = 0.0018, respectively); however, the radiation dose per BSA was greater (37.5 vs. 26.0 mGy/cm, P = 0.0022).

Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation are similar to those reported in other countries. The success rate in Italy is consistent with those in other countries, whereas the complications rate is lower.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000000999DOI Listing
October 2020

The 4S-AF Scheme (Stroke Risk; Symptoms; Severity of Burden; Substrate): A Novel Approach to In-Depth Characterization (Rather than Classification) of Atrial Fibrillation.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Mar 24;121(3):270-278. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

St. George's University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a complex condition requiring holistic management with multiple treatment decisions about optimal thromboprophylaxis, symptom control (and prevention of AF progression), and identification and management of concomitant cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidity. Sometimes the information needed for treatment decisions is incomplete, as available classifications of AF mostly address a single domain of AF (or patient)-related characteristics. The most widely used classification of AF based on AF episode duration and temporal patterns (that is, the classification to first-diagnosed, paroxysmal, persistent/long-standing persistent, and permanent AF) has contributed to a better understanding of AF prevention and treatment but its limitations and the need for a multidimensional AF classification have been recognized as more complex treatment options became available. We propose a paradigm shift from classification toward a structured of AF, addressing specific domains having treatment and prognostic implications to become a standard in clinical practice, thus aiming to streamline the assessment of AF patients at all health care levels facilitating communication among physicians, treatment decision-making, and optimal risk evaluation and management of AF patients. Specifically, we propose the 4S-AF structured pathophysiology-based (rather than classification) scheme that includes four AF- and patient-related domains-Stroke risk, Symptoms, Severity of AF burden, and Substrate severity-and provide a hypothetical model for the use of 4S-AF characterization scheme to aid treatment decision making concerning the management of patients with AF in clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1716408DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of centre volume and procedure location on major complications and mortality from transvenous lead extraction: an ESC EHRA EORP European Lead Extraction ConTRolled ELECTRa registry subanalysis.

Europace 2020 11;22(11):1718-1728

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

Aims: Transvenous lead extraction (TLE) should ideally be undertaken by experienced operators in a setting that allows urgent surgical intervention. In this analysis of the ELECTRa registry, we sought to determine whether there was a significant difference in procedure complications and mortality depending on centre volume and extraction location.

Methods And Results: Analysis of the ESC EORP European Lead Extraction ConTRolled ELECTRa registry was conducted. Low-volume (LoV) centres were defined as <30 procedures/year, and high-volume (HiV) centres as ≥30 procedures/year. Three thousand, two hundred, and forty-nine patients underwent TLE by a primary operator cardiologist; 17.1% in LoV centres and 82.9% in HiV centres. Procedures performed by primary operator cardiologists in LoV centres were less likely to be successful (93.5% vs. 97.1%; P < 0.0001) and more likely to be complicated by procedure-related deaths (1.1% vs. 0.4%; P = 0.0417). Transvenous lead extraction undertaken by primary operator cardiologists in LoV centres were associated with increased procedure-related major complications including death (odds ratio 1.858, 95% confidence interval 1.007-3.427; P = 0.0475). Transvenous lead extraction locations varied; 52.0% operating room, 9.5% hybrid theatre and 38.5% catheterization laboratory. Rates of procedure-related major complications, including death occurring in a high-risk environment (combining operating room and hybrid theatre), were similar to those undertaken in the catheterization laboratory (1.7% vs. 1.6%; P = 0.9297).

Conclusion: Primary operator cardiologists in LoV centres are more likely to have extractions complicated by procedure-related deaths. There was no significant difference in procedure complications between different extraction settings. These findings support the need for TLE to be performed in experienced centres with appropriate personnel present.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa131DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of COVID-19 lockdown strategies on management of atrial fibrillation.

Eur Heart J 2020 09;41(32):3080-3082

Department of Medical Science and Cardiology, Uppsala University, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528957PMC
September 2020

Adenosine usage during AF ablation in Europe and selected long-term findings from the ESC-EHRA EORP Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term registry.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Adenosine can be used to reveal dormant pulmonary vein (PV) conduction after PV isolation (PVI). This study presents a subanalysis of real-world 1-year follow-up data from the ESC-EHRA EORP Atrial Fibrillation (AF) Ablation Long-Term registry to analyze the usage of adenosine during PVI treatment in terms of rhythm outcome and safety.

Methods: The registry consists of 104 participating centers in 27 countries within the European Society of Cardiology. The registry data was split into an adenosine group (AG) and no-adenosine group (NAG). Procedure characteristics and patient outcome were compared.

Results: Adenosine was administered in 10.8% of the 3591 PVI patients included in the registry. Spain, the Netherlands, and Italy included the majority of adenosine cases (48.8%). Adenosine was applied more often in combination with open irrigation radiofrequency (RF) energy (74.7%) and less often in combination with nonirrigated RF energy (1.6%). After 1 year, a higher percentage of the AG was free from AF compared with the NAG (68.9% vs 59.1%, p < 0.001). Adenosine was associated with better rhythm outcome in RF ablation procedures, but not in cryo-ablation procedures (freedom from AF: RF: AG: 70.9%, NAG: 58.1%, p < 0.001, cryo: AG: 63.9%, NAG: 63.8%, p = 0.991).

Conclusions: The use of adenosine was associated with a better rhythm outcome after 1 year follow-up and seems more useful in patients treated with RF energy compared with patients treated with cryo energy. Given the improved rhythm outcome at 1-year follow-up, it seems reasonable to encourage the use of adenosine during RF AF ablation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-020-00744-8DOI Listing
April 2020

Adherence to ESC cardiac resynchronization therapy guidelines: findings from the ESC CRT Survey II.

Europace 2020 06;22(6):932-938

Cardiology Division, Stavanger University Hospital, Postboks 8100, 4068 Stavanger, Norway.

Aims: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and electrical dyssynchrony. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations indicating optimal patient selection for CRT implantation in both the 2013 European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the 2016 Heart Failure Association (HFA) Guidelines. We assessed the adherence to guidelines and identified factors associated with guideline adherence.

Methods And Results: In 2016, the HFA and EHRA conducted the CRT Survey II in 42 ESC countries. The data collected were sufficient to evaluate adherence to guidelines in 8021 patients. Of these, 67% had a Class I guideline indication for CRT implantation, which was significantly correlated with female gender (1.70, P < 0.0001), age <75 years (1.55, P < 0.0001), non-ischaemic HF aetiology (1.22, P < 0.0001), and elective admission (1.87, P < 0.0001). A further 26% of implants had a Class IIa indication, 5% IIb and only 2% a contraindication to CRT-a Class III indication. Patients implanted under Level IIa indications were much more likely to have more comorbidities than patients implanted under Level I indications. However, there were large variations in guideline adherence between ESC countries.

Conclusion: Implanters in ESC member states demonstrate a high degree of adherence to ESC guidelines with 98% of implants having a documented Class I, IIa or IIb indication. Cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation without a Class I indication was more likely in men, patients age ≥75 years, with HF of ischaemic origin and in patients admitted to hospital acutely.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa067DOI Listing
June 2020

European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) international consensus document on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cardiac implantable electronic device infections-endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS), International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCVID), and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS).

Eur Heart J 2020 06;41(21):2012-2032

Department of Cardiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, 300 Grattan St, Parkville VIC 3050, Melbourne, Australia.

Pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices are potentially lifesaving treatments for a number of cardiac conditions but are not without risk. Most concerning is the risk of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection, which is associated with significant morbidity, increased hospitalizations, reduced survival, and increased health care costs. Recommended preventive strategies such as administration of intravenous antibiotics before implantation are well-recognized. Uncertainties have remained about the role of various preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures such as skin antiseptics, pocket antibiotic solutions, antibacterial envelopes, prolonged antibiotics post-implantation, and others. When compared with previous guidelines or consensus statements, the present consensus document gives guidance on the use of novel device alternatives, novel oral anticoagulants, antibacterial envelopes, prolonged antibiotics post-implantation, as well as definitions on minimum quality requirements for centres and operators and volumes. The recognition that an international consensus document focused on management of CIED infections is lacking, the dissemination of results from new important randomized trials focusing on prevention of CIED infections, and observed divergences in managing device-related infections as found in an European Heart Rhythm Association worldwide survey, provided a strong incentive for a Novel 2019 International State-of-the-art Consensus document on risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CIED infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa010DOI Listing
June 2020

Which patients with atrial fibrillation undergo an ablation procedure today in Europe? A report from the ESC-EHRA-EORP Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term and Atrial Fibrillation General Pilot Registries.

Europace 2020 02;22(2):250-258

Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM Care&Research, Cotignola, Italy.

Aims: Rhythm control management in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be unequal across Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate how selective the patient cohort referred for AF ablation is, as compared to the general AF population in Europe, and to describe the governing mechanisms for such selection.

Methods And Results: Descriptive comparative statistical analyses of the baseline characteristics were performed between the cohorts of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term (ESC EORP AFA-LT) registry, designed to provide a picture of contemporary real-world AF ablation, and the AF population from the AF-General (ESC EORP AF-Gen) pilot registry. Data collection was performed using a web-based system. In the AFA and in the Atrial Fibrillation General (AFG) pilot registries, 3593 and 3049 patients were enrolled, respectively. Patients who underwent AF ablation were younger, more commonly male, and had significantly less comorbidities. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation patients often presented without comorbidities, resulting in a lower risk of stroke (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥5: 2.9% vs. 24.5%, all P < 0.001) and bleeding (HAS-BLED ≥2: 8.5% vs. 40.5%, P < 0.001) but with European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) scores >1 and more prevalent AF-related symptoms such as palpitations, fatigue, and weakness (all P < 0.001) as compared to the general AF patients. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation patients were significantly more often male, had higher left ventricular ejection fraction (59.5% vs. 52.4%) and smaller left atrial size on echocardiogram (P < 0.001 each).

Conclusion: The comparison of the patient cohorts in the AFA and AFG registries showed that AF ablation in European clinical practice is mostly performed in relatively young, symptomatic and relatively healthy patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz291DOI Listing
February 2020

European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) international consensus document on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cardiac implantable electronic device infections-endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS), International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCVID) and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS).

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 01;57(1):e1-e31

Department of Cardiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices are potentially life-saving treatments for a number of cardiac conditions, but are not without risk. Most concerning is the risk of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection, which is associated with significant morbidity, increased hospitalizations, reduced survival, and increased healthcare costs. Recommended preventive strategies such as administration of intravenous antibiotics before implantation are well recognized. Uncertainties have remained about the role of various preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures such as skin antiseptics, pocket antibiotic solutions, anti-bacterial envelopes, prolonged antibiotics post-implantation, and others. Guidance on whether to use novel device alternatives expected to be less prone to infections and novel oral anticoagulants is also limited, as are definitions on minimum quality requirements for centres and operators and volumes. Moreover, an international consensus document on management of CIED infections is lacking. The recognition of these issues, the dissemination of results from important randomized trials focusing on prevention of CIED infections, and observed divergences in managing device-related infections as found in an European Heart Rhythm Association worldwide survey, provided a strong incentive for a 2019 International State-of-the-art Consensus document on risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CIED infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezz296DOI Listing
January 2020

European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) international consensus document on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cardiac implantable electronic device infections-endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS), International Society for Cardiovascular Infectious Diseases (ISCVID) and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS).

Europace 2020 04;22(4):515-549

Department of Cardiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices are potentially life-saving treatments for a number of cardiac conditions, but are not without risk. Most concerning is the risk of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection, which is associated with significant morbidity, increased hospitalizations, reduced survival, and increased healthcare costs. Recommended preventive strategies such as administration of intravenous antibiotics before implantation are well recognized. Uncertainties have remained about the role of various preventive, diagnostic, and treatment measures such as skin antiseptics, pocket antibiotic solutions, anti-bacterial envelopes, prolonged antibiotics post-implantation, and others. Guidance on whether to use novel device alternatives expected to be less prone to infections and novel oral anticoagulants is also limited, as are definitions on minimum quality requirements for centres and operators and volumes. Moreover, an international consensus document on management of CIED infections is lacking. The recognition of these issues, the dissemination of results from important randomized trials focusing on prevention of CIED infections, and observed divergences in managing device-related infections as found in an European Heart Rhythm Association worldwide survey, provided a strong incentive for a 2019 International State-of-the-art Consensus document on risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CIED infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132545PMC
April 2020

Impact of monitoring on detection of arrhythmia recurrences in the ESC-EHRA EORP atrial fibrillation ablation long-term registry.

Europace 2019 12;21(12):1802-1808

Department of Electrophysiology, Heart Center Leipzig at University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Aims: Monitoring of patients after ablation had wide variations in the ESC-EHRA atrial fibrillation ablation long-term (AFA-LT) registry. We aimed to compare four different monitoring strategies after catheter AF ablation.

Methods And Results: The ESC-EHRA AFA-LT registry included 3593 patients who underwent ablation. Arrhythmia monitoring during follow-up was performed by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter ECG, trans-telephonic ECG monitoring (TTMON), or an implanted cardiac monitoring (ICM) system. Patients were selected to a given monitoring group according to the most extensive ECG tool used in each of them. Comparison of the probability of freedom from recurrences was performed by censored log-rank test and presented by Kaplan-Meier curves. The rhythm monitoring methods were used among 2658 patients: ECG (N = 578), Holter ECG (N = 1874), TTMON (N = 101), and ICM (N = 105). A total of 767 of 2658 patients (28.9%) had AF recurrences during follow-up. Censored log-rank test discovered a lower probability of freedom from relapses, which was detected with ICM compared to TTMON, ECG, and Holter ECG (P < 0.001). The rate of freedom from AF recurrences was 50.5% among patients using the ICM while it was 65.4%, 70.6%, and 72.8% using the TTMON, ECG, and Holter ECG, respectively.

Conclusion: Comparing all main electrocardiographic monitoring methods in a large patient sample, our results suggest that post-ablation recurrences of AF are significantly underreported by TTMON, ECG, and Holter ECG. The ICM estimates AF ablation recurrences most reliably and should be a preferred mode of monitoring for trials evaluating novel AF ablation techniques.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz216DOI Listing
December 2019

Transvenous lead extraction procedures in women based on ESC-EHRA EORP European Lead Extraction ConTRolled ELECTRa registry: is female sex a predictor of complications?

Europace 2019 12;21(12):1890-1899

Direttore UO Cardiologia 2 SSN, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy.

Aims: Female sex is considered an independent risk factor of transvenous leads extraction (TLE) procedure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of TLE in women compared with men.

Methods And Results: A post hoc analysis of risk factors and effectiveness of TLE in women and men included in the ESC-EHRA EORP ELECTRa registry was conducted. The rate of major complications was 1.96% in women vs. 0.71% in men; P = 0.0025. The number of leads was higher in men (mean 1.89 vs. 1.71; P < 0.0001) with higher number of abandoned leads in women (46.04% vs. 34.82%; P < 0.0001). Risk factors of TLE differed between the sexes, of which the major were: signs and symptoms of venous occlusion [odds ratio (OR) 3.730, confidence interval (CI) 1.401-9.934; P = 0.0084], cumulative leads dwell time (OR 1.044, CI 1.024-1.065; P < 0.001), number of generator replacements (OR 1.029, CI 1.005-1.054; P = 0.0184) in females and the number of leads (OR 6.053, CI 2.422-15.129; P = 0.0001), use of powered sheaths (OR 2.742, CI 1.404-5.355; P = 0.0031), and white blood cell count (OR 1.138, CI 1.069-1.212; P < 0.001) in males. Individual radiological and clinical success of TLE was 96.29% and 98.14% in women compared with 98.03% and 99.21% in men (P = 0.0046 and 0.0098).

Conclusion: The efficacy of TLE was lower in females than males, with a higher rate of periprocedural major complications. The reasons for this difference are probably related to disparities in risk factors in women, including more pronounced leads adherence to the walls of the veins and myocardium. Lead management may be key to the effectiveness of TLE in females.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz277DOI Listing
December 2019

Comparison of outcomes in infected cardiovascular implantable electronic devices between complete, partial, and failed lead removal: an ESC-EHRA-EORP ELECTRa (European Lead Extraction ConTrolled) registry.

Europace 2019 12;21(12):1876-1889

Integrated Heart Center, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Aims: The present study sought to determine predictors for success and outcomes of patients who underwent cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) extraction indicated for systemic or local CIED related infection in particular where complete lead removal could not be achieved.

Methods And Results: ESC-EORP ELECTRa (European Lead Extraction ConTRolled Registry) is a European prospective lead extraction registry. Out of the total cohort, 1865/3510 (52.5%) patients underwent removal due to CIED related infection. Predictors and outcomes of failure were analysed. Complete removal was achieved in 1743 (93.5%) patients, partial (<4 cm of lead left) in 88 (4.7%), and failed (>4 cm of lead left) in 32 (1.8%) patients. Removal success was unrelated to type of CIED infection (pocket or systemic). Predictors for failure were older leads and older patients [odds ratio (OR) 1.14 (1.08-1.19), P < 0.0001 and OR 2.68 (1.22-5.91), P = 0.0146, respectively]. In analysis by lead, predictors for failure were: pacemaker vs. defibrillator removal and failure to engage the locking stylet all the way to the tip [OR 0.20 (0.04-0.95), P = 0.03 and OR 0.32 (0.13-0.74), P = 0.008, respectively]. Significantly higher complication rates were noted in the failure group (40.6% vs. 15.9 for partial and 8.7% for success groups, P < 0.0001). Failure to remove a lead was a strong predictor for in hospital mortality [hazard ratio of 2.05 (1.01-4.16), P = 0.046].

Conclusion: A total of 6.5% of infected CIED patients failed attempted extraction. Only were >4 cm of lead remained resulted in higher procedural complications and mortality rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz269DOI Listing
December 2019

Sex-Related Procedural Aspects and Complications in CRT Survey II: A Multicenter European Experience in 11,088 Patients.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2019 09 31;5(9):1048-1058. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Cardiology, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway; Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Objectives: This study sought to compare sex difference for procedural aspects and complications in the European Society of Cardiology CRT Survey II, exploring whether adverse events were related to the type of CRT device implanted.

Background: Sex-related differences in procedural aspects and complications in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantation has not been explored in a real-life population.

Methods: A post-hoc analysis of procedural data and complications in different sexes and factors associated with events was performed from data collected in the European Society of Cardiology CRT Survey II.

Results: Of all patients (n = 11,088) included, 24.3% were women. The mean age (70 years of age) of male and female recipients was similar. Female patients more frequently had an idiopathic cardiomyopathy (67.4% vs. 44.1%) and fewer comorbidities, including atrial fibrillation (34.8% vs. 42.8%), diabetes (29.1% vs. 32.1%), chronic obstructive lung disease (10.3% vs. 12.6%), and renal failure (28.7% vs. 31.9%), compared with men. More women compared with men had a pacemaker (56.6% vs. 46.3%) and much less often an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) (19.0% vs. 34.7%) implant. Periprocedural event rate was the highest in women with CRT with defibrillator (7.1% vs. 4.8% in men), followed by women with a CRT with pacing (5.5% vs. 4.4% in men). The higher periprocedural event rate in CRT-D women was attributable primarily to the occurrence of pneumothorax (1.4%), coronary sinus dissection (2.1%), and pericardial tamponade (0.3%). The rate of in-hospital major adverse events (6.0%) and complications necessitating reoperation (4.0%) was not different among sex and device type.

Conclusions: Women are more likely to experience adverse procedure-related events during CRT implantation. Thus, preventive strategies should be employed to minimize complication rate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2019.06.003DOI Listing
September 2019

Clinical impact of antithrombotic therapy in transvenous lead extraction complications: a sub-analysis from the ESC-EORP EHRA ELECTRa (European Lead Extraction ConTRolled) Registry.

Europace 2019 Jul;21(7):1096-1105

Second Division of Cardiology, Department of Cardiac-Thoracic & Vascular, Azienda Ospedaliera Pisana, Via Paradisa 2, Pisa, Italy.

Aims: A sub-analysis of the ESC-EHRA European Lead Extraction ConTRolled (ELECTRa) Registry to evaluate the clinical impact of antithrombotic (AT) on transvenous lead extraction (TLE) safety and efficacy.

Methods And Results: ELECTRa outcomes were compared between patients without AT therapy (No AT Group) and with different pre-operative AT regimens, including antiplatelets (AP), anticoagulants (AC), or both (AP + AC). Out of 3510 pts, 2398 (68%) were under AT pre-operatively. AT patients were older with more comorbidities (P < 0.0001). AT subgroups, defined as AP, AC, or AP + AC, were 1096 (31.2%), 985 (28%), and 317 (9%), respectively. Regarding AP patients, 1413 (40%) were under AP, 1292 (91%) with a single AP, interrupted in 26% about 3.8 ± 3.7 days before TLE. In total, 1302 (37%) patients were under AC, 881 vitamin K antagonist (68%), 221 (17%) direct oral anticoagulants, 155 (12%) low weight molecular heparin, and 45 (3.5%) unfractionated heparin. AC was 'interrupted without bridging' in 696 (54%) and 'interrupted with bridging' in 504 (39%) about 3.3 ± 2.3 days before TLE, and 'continued' in 87 (7%). TLE success rate was high in all subgroups. Only overall in-hospital death (1.4%), but not the procedure-related one, was higher in the AT subgroups (P = 0.0500). Age >65 years and New York Heart Association Class III/IV, but not AT regimens, were independent predictors of death for any cause. Haematomas were more frequent in AT subgroups, especially in AC 'continued' (P = 0.025), whereas pulmonary embolism in the No-AT (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: AT minimization is safe in patients undergoing TLE. AT does not seem to predict death but identifies a subset of fragile patients with a worse in-hospital TLE outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz062DOI Listing
July 2019

In-hospital and 12-month follow-up outcome from the ESC-EORP EHRA Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term registry: sex differences.

Europace 2020 01;22(1):66-73

Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute, Hospital Clínic Pediatric Arrhythmia Unit, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu University of Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona, Spain.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare sex differences of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation (CA) and to analyse the opportunities for improved outcomes.

Methods And Results: All data were collected from the Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Long-Term registry, a prospective, multinational study conducted by the ESC-EORP European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) under the EURObservational Research Programme (ESC-EORP). A total of 104 centres in 27 European countries participated. Of 3593 included patients, 1146 (31.9%) were female. Female patients were older (61.0 vs. 56.4 years; P < 0.001), had more comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and obesity), more episodes of arrhythmias per month (6.9 vs. 6.2; P < 0.001), and a higher average EHRA score (2.6 vs. 2.4; P < 0.001). The duration of the procedure was shorter in females (160.1 min vs. 167.9 min; P < 0.001), irrespective of additional ablation lesions added to pulmonary vein isolation. Overall cardiovascular complications were more frequent in women than in men (5.7% vs. 3.4%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, cardiac perforations (3.8% vs. 1.3%; P = 0.011) and neurological complications (2.2% vs. 0.3%; P = 0.004) were found in females in less experienced centres than in experienced ones. On a final note, at 12 months, AF recurrence rate was similar in females and males (34.4% vs. 34.2%; P = 0.897), but more females were still on antiarrhythmic drugs (50.6% vs. 44.1%; P < 0.001) when compared with men.

Conclusion: Females underwent CA procedures for AF less frequently than males throughout Europe, despite more recurrent symptoms. With the same success rate, severe acute complications remained considerable in females, especially in less experienced centres.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz225DOI Listing
January 2020

Atrial high-rate episodes: prevalence, stroke risk, implications for management, and clinical gaps in evidence.

Europace 2019 Oct;21(10):1459-1467

Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET), Muenster, Germany.

Self-terminating atrial arrhythmias are commonly detected on continuous rhythm monitoring, e.g. by pacemakers or defibrillators. It is unclear whether the presence of these arrhythmias has therapeutic consequences. We sought to summarize evidence on the prevalence of atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) and their impact on risk of stroke. We performed a comprehensive, tabulated review of published literature on the prevalence of AHRE. In patients with AHRE, but without atrial fibrillation (AF), we reviewed the stroke risk and the potential risk/benefit of oral anticoagulation. Atrial high-rate episodes are found in 10-30% of AF-free patients. Presence of AHRE slightly increases stroke risk (0.8% to 1%/year) compared with patients without AHRE. Atrial high-rate episode of longer duration (e.g. those >24 h) could be associated with a higher stroke risk. Oral anticoagulation has the potential to reduce stroke risk in patients with AHRE but is associated with a rate of major bleeding of 2%/year. Oral anticoagulation is not effective in patients with heart failure or survivors of a stroke without AF. It remains unclear whether anticoagulation is effective and safe in patients with AHRE. Atrial high-rate episodes are common and confer a slight increase in stroke risk. There is true equipoise on the best way to reduce stroke risk in patients with AHRE. Two ongoing trials (NOAH-AFNET 6 and ARTESiA) will provide much-needed information on the effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulation using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with AHRE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6788209PMC
October 2019

Influence of risk factors in the ESC-EHRA EORP atrial fibrillation ablation long-term registry.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2019 10 30;42(10):1365-1373. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Cardiology, Department of Medical Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: The influence of risk factors on atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation recurrence is increasingly recognized. We present a sub-analysis of the European Society of Cardiology-European Heart Rhythm Association-European Society of Cardiology AF ablation long-term registry on the effect of traditional risk factors for AF on postablation recurrence, reablation, and complications using real-world data.

Methods: Risk factors for AF were defined as body mass index ≥27 kg/m², hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, alcohol ≥2 units/day, sleep apnea, smoking, no/occasional sports activity, moderate/severe mitral or aortic valve disease, any cardiomyopathy, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, coronary artery disease/infarction, and previous pacemaker/defibrillator implant. Patients were divided in two groups with ≥1 or without risk factors. Primary outcomes were arrhythmia recurrence after blanking period, reablation, and adverse events or death. Differences between the groups and the influence of individual risk factors were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression.

Results: Three thousand sixty nine patients were included; 217 patients were without risk factors. Risk factor patients were older (58.4 vs 54.1 years), more often female (32% vs 19.8%) and had more often persistent AF (27.2% vs 23.5%). In a multivariate analysis, patients without risk factors had a hazard ratio of 0.70 (95% CI 0.49-0.99) for recurrence compared to risk factor patients. The multivariate hazard ratios for reablation or adverse events/death were not different between the two groups. Hypertension and body mass index were univariate predictors of recurrence.

Conclusions: Patients with ≥1 risk factor had a 30% higher risk for arrhythmia recurrence after ablation, but no differences in risk for repeat ablations and adverse events or death.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.13763DOI Listing
October 2019

Cardiac arrhythmias in the emergency settings of acute coronary syndrome and revascularization: an European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus document, endorsed by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), and European Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA).

Europace 2019 Oct;21(10):1603-1604

Department of Cardiology, Fondazione C.N.R. Reg. Toscana G. Monasterio, Heart Hospital, Massa, Italy.

Despite major therapeutic advances over the last decades, complex supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs), particularly in the emergency setting or during revascularization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), remain an important clinical problem. Although the incidence of VAs has declined in the hospital phase of acute coronary syndromes (ACS), mainly due to prompt revascularization and optimal medical therapy, still up to 6% patients with ACS develop ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation within the first hours of ACS symptoms. Despite sustained VAs being perceived predictors of worse in-hospital outcomes, specific associations between the type of VAs, arrhythmia timing, applied treatment strategies and long-term prognosis in AMI are vague. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common supraventricular tachyarrhythmia that may be asymptomatic and/or may be associated with rapid haemodynamic deterioration requiring immediate treatment. It is estimated that over 20% AMI patients may have a history of AF, whereas the new-onset arrhythmia may occur in 5% patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction. Importantly, patients who were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI and developed AF have higher rates of adverse events and mortality compared with subjects free of arrhythmia. The scope of this position document is to cover the clinical implications and pharmacological/non-pharmacological management of arrhythmias in emergency presentations and during revascularization. Current evidence for clinical relevance of specific types of VAs complicating AMI in relation to arrhythmia timing has been discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz163DOI Listing
October 2019

Safety and efficacy of dronedarone from clinical trials to real-world evidence: implications for its use in atrial fibrillation.

Europace 2019 12;21(12):1764-1775

Cardiology Clinical Academic Group, Molecular and Clinical Sciences Institute, St George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK.

Efficacy and safety of dronedarone was shown in the ATHENA trial for paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Further trials revealed safety concerns in patients with heart failure and permanent AF. This review summarizes insights from recent real-world studies and meta-analyses, including reports on efficacy, with focus on liver safety, mortality risk in patients with paroxysmal/persistent AF, and interactions of dronedarone with direct oral anticoagulants. Reports of rapidly progressing liver failure in dronedarone-prescribed patients in 2011 led to regulatory cautions about potential liver toxicity. Recent real-world evidence suggests dronedarone liver safety profile is similar to other antiarrhythmics and liver toxicity could be equally common with many Class III antiarrhythmics. Dronedarone safety concerns (increased mortality in patients with permanent AF) were raised based on randomized controlled trials (RCT) (ANDROMEDA and PALLAS), but comedication with digoxin may have increased the mortality rates in PALLAS, considering the dronedarone-digoxin pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction. Real-world data on apixaban-dronedarone interactions and edoxaban RCT observations suggest no significant safety risks for these drug combinations. Median trough plasma concentrations of dabigatran 110 mg during concomitant use with dronedarone are at acceptable levels, while PK data on the rivaroxaban-dronedarone interaction are unavailable. In RCTs and real-world studies, dronedarone significantly reduces AF burden and cardiovascular hospitalizations, and demonstrates a low risk for proarrhythmia in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF. The concerns on liver safety must be balanced against the significant reduction in hospitalizations in patients with non-permanent AF and low risk for proarrhythmias following dronedarone treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz193DOI Listing
December 2019

Clinical practice and implementation of guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and management of cardiac implantable electronic device infections: results of a worldwide survey under the auspices of the European Heart Rhythm Association.

Europace 2019 Aug;21(8):1270-1279

Department of Medical Science and Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aims: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection rates are increasing. Worldwide compliance and disparities to published guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and management of these conditions are not well elucidated. The purpose of this survey, therefore, was to clarify these issues through an inquiry to arrhythmia-related associations and societies worldwide.

Methods And Results: A questionnaire comprising 15 questions related to CIED infections was distributed among members of seven arrhythmia societies worldwide. A total of 234 centres in 62 countries reported implantation rates of which 159 (68.0%) performed more than 200 device implantations per year and 14 (6.0%) performed fewer than 50 implantations per year. The reported rates of CIED infections for 2017 were ≤2% in 78.7% of the centres, while the infection rates exceeded 5% in 7.8% of the centres. Preventive measures for CIED infection differed from published recommendations and varied among different regions mainly in terms of pocket irrigation and administering post-operative antimicrobial therapy the use of which was reported by 39.9% and 44% of the respondents, respectively. Antibacterial envelopes were used by 37.7% of the respondents in selected circumstances. In terms of pocket infection management, 62% of the respondents applied complete system removal as an initial step. Diagnostic pocket needle aspiration and pocket surgical debridement were reported by 15.8% and 11.8% of centres, respectively.

Conclusion: Clinical practices for prevention and management of CIED do not fully comply with current recommendations and demonstrate considerable regional disparities. Further education and programmes for improved implementation of guidelines are mandatory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz137DOI Listing
August 2019

Cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator: what determines the choice?-findings from the ESC CRT Survey II.

Europace 2019 Jun;21(6):918-927

Cardiology Division, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway.

Aims: The decision to implant a cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker (CRT-P) or a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) may be challenging. There are no clear guideline recommendations as no randomized study of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been designed to compare the effects of CRT-P with those of CRT-D on patients' outcomes. In the CRT Survey II, we studied patient and implantation centre characteristics associated with the choice of CRT-P vs. CRT-D.

Methods And Results: Clinical practice data from 10 692 patients undergoing CRT implantation of whom 7467 (70%) patients received a CRT-D and 3225 (30%) received a CRT-P across 42 ESC countries were collected and analysed between October 2015 and January 2017. Factors favouring the selection of CRT-P implantation included age >75 years, female gender, non-ischaemic heart failure (HF) aetiology, New York Heart Association functional Class III/IV symptoms, left ventricular ejection fraction >25%, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular (AV) block II/III, and implantation in a university hospital.

Conclusion: In a large cohort from the CRT Survey II, we found that patients allocated to receive CRT-P exhibited particular phenotypes with more symptomatic HF, more frequent comorbidities, advanced age, female gender, non-ischaemic HF aetiology, atrial fibrillation, and evidence of AV block. There were substantial differences in the proportion of patients allocated to receive CRT-P vs. CRT-D between countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euz002DOI Listing
June 2019