Publications by authors named "Cappello Sandra"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A lipophilic nitric oxide donor and a lipophilic antioxidant compound protect rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury if given as hybrid molecule but not as a mixture.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2012 Mar;59(3):241-8

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Orbassano, Italy.

Low concentrations of a hydrophilic nitric oxide donor (NOD) are reported to reduce myocardial reperfusion injury only when combined with a lipophilic antioxidant (AOX) to form a hybrid molecule (HYB). Here we tested whether liposoluble NOD requires to be combined with AOX to be protective. Isolated rat hearts underwent 30 minutes of ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. To induce postconditioning, 1 μM solutions of the following liposoluble compounds were given during the first 20 minutes of reperfusion: NOD with weak (w-NOD) or strong NO-releasing potency (s-NOD); weak HYB built up with w-NOD and a per se ineffective AOX lead; strong HYB built up with s-NOD and the same AOX; mixtures of w-NOD plus AOX or s-NOD plus AOX. A significant reduction of infarct size with improved recovery of cardiac function was obtained only with weak HYB. We suggest that w-NOD requires the synergy with a per se ineffective AOX to protect. The synergy is possible only if the 2 moieties enter the cell simultaneously as a hybrid, but not as a mixture. It seems that strong HYB was ineffective because an excessive intracellular NO release produces a large amount of reactive species, as shown from the increased nitrotyrosine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e31823d2dcaDOI Listing
March 2012

Apelin-13 limits infarct size and improves cardiac postischemic mechanical recovery only if given after ischemia.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2011 Jun 4;300(6):H2308-15. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia "S. Luigi Gonzaga", Regione Gonzole 10, 10043 Orbassano (TO) Italy.

We studied whether apelin-13 is cardioprotective against ischemia/reperfusion injury if given as either a pre- or postconditioning mimetic and whether the improved postischemic mechanical recovery induced by apelin-13 depends only on the reduced infarct size or also on a recovery of function of the viable myocardium. We also studied whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in apelin-induced protection and whether the reported ischemia-induced overexpression of the apelin receptor (APJ) plays a role in cardioprotection. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts underwent 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Left ventricular pressure was recorded. Infarct size and lactate dehydrogenase release were determined to evaluate the severity of myocardial injury. Apelin-13 was infused at 0.5 μM concentration for 20 min either before ischemia or in early reperfusion, without and with NO synthase inhibition by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA). In additional experiments, before ischemia also 1 μM apelin-13 was tested. APJ protein level was measured before and after ischemia. Whereas before ischemia apelin-13 (0.5 and 1.0 μM) was ineffective, after ischemia it reduced infarct size from 54 ± 2% to 26 ± 4% of risk area (P < 0.001) and limited the postischemic myocardial contracture (P < 0.001). l-NNA alone increased postischemic myocardial contracture. This increase was attenuated by apelin-13, which, however, was unable to reduce infarct size. Ischemia increased APJ protein level after 15-min perfusion, i.e., after most of reperfusion injury has occurred. Apelin-13 protects the heart only if given after ischemia. In this protection NO plays an important role. Apelin-13 efficiency as postconditioning mimetic cannot be explained by the increased APJ level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01177.2010DOI Listing
June 2011

Effect of apelin-apelin receptor system in postischaemic myocardial protection: a pharmacological postconditioning tool?

Antioxid Redox Signal 2011 Mar 30;14(5):909-22. Epub 2010 Nov 30.

Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca Cardiovascolare, Bologna, Italy.

In the heart, a great part of ischaemia and reperfusion injuries occurs mainly during the first minutes of reperfusion. The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores is the end point of the cascade to myocardial damage. Also, oxidative stress contributes to cell death. Postconditioning is a protective maneuver that can be selectively timed at the beginning of reperfusion. It is hypothesized that it acts via the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway, which includes nitric oxide-dependent and nitric oxide-independent cascades. Apelin is an endogenous peptide that can protect the heart from reperfusion injury if given at the beginning of reperfusion but not before ischaemia. It is hypothesized that it may trigger the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway via a specific apelin receptor. Apelin can also limit the oxidative stress by the activation of superoxide dismutase. Apelin and apelin receptor expression increase early after ischaemia and at the beginning of an ischaemic heart failure. These observations suggest that the endogenous release of the peptide can limit the severity of an infarction and ameliorate myocardial contractility compromised by the appearance of the failure. Due to its protective activities, apelin could be a therapeutic tool if administered with the same catheter used for angioplasty or after the maneuvers aimed at bypassing a coronary occlusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2010.3355DOI Listing
March 2011

Effects of nitric oxide donor antioxidants containing the phenol vitamin E substructure and a furoxan moiety on ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Arzneimittelforschung 2009 ;59(3):111-6

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Nitric oxide (NO) donor antioxidants are a class of polyvalent drugs which is the focus of great interest today. They are potentially useful for the treatment of many forms of cardiovascular diseases, including the myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage which seems to be due to both a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a reduced release of NO during reperfusion. In this paper the results of a study on the ability of new NO-donor antioxidants containing the phenol vitamin E substructure and furoxan moiety to attenuate I/R damage are reported. The compounds under study are obtained by combining the phenol moiety (6-hydroxy-2,2,5,7,8-pentamethylchroman) present in vitamin E with differently substituted furoxan substructures endowed with different capacity of NO-release. Their antioxidant and NO-dependent vasodilator activities are reported. The I/R experiments were performed on isolated rat heart preparations perfused at a constant flow. After 20 min of stabilization, global ischemia was obtained by interrupting the perfusion for 30 min. After ischemia the hearts were reperfused for 2 h. The compounds were added to the perfusion buffer during the first 20 min of reperfusion. At the end of each experiment, the infarct size was measured with nitro-blue tetrazolium. From the results it appears that the limitation of the infarct area is favoured by an appropriate balance between NO-donor and antioxidant properties and that these two actions are synergic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1296372DOI Listing
June 2009

Early homing of adult mesenchymal stem cells in normal and infarcted isolated beating hearts.

J Cell Mol Med 2008 Apr;12(2):507-21

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Italy.

Little is known on the early homing features of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We used the isolated rat heart model to study the homing of MSCs injected in the ventricular wall of a beating heart. In this model all types of cells and matrix elements with their interactions are represented, while external interferences by endothelial/neutrophil interaction and neurohormonal factors are excluded. We studied the morphology and marker expression of MSCs implanted in normal hearts and in the border-zone of infarcted myocardium. Early morphological adaptation of MSC homing differs between normal and infarcted hearts over the first 6 hrs after transplantation. In normal hearts, MSCs migrate very early through the interstitial milieu and begin to show morphological changes. Yet, in infarcted hearts MSCs remain in the site of injection forming clusters of round-shaped cells in the border-zone of the infarcted area. Both in normal and infarcted hearts, immuno-histochemistry and confocal imaging showed that, besides the proliferative marker proliferating cell nuclear agent (PCNA), some transplanted cells early express myoblastic maker GATA-4, and some of them show a VWF immunopositivity. Moreover, a few hours after injection connexin-43 is well evident between cardiomyocytes and injected cells. This study indicates for the first time that the isolated beating heart is a good model to study early features of MSC homing without external interferences. The results show (i) that MSCs start to change marker expression few hours after injection into a beating heart and (ii) that infarcted myocardium influences transplanted MSC morphology and mobility within the heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00121.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3822539PMC
April 2008

Human recombinant chromogranin A-derived vasostatin-1 mimics preconditioning via an adenosine/nitric oxide signaling mechanism.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007 Jul 6;293(1):H719-27. Epub 2007 Apr 6.

Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Fisiologia, Università di Torino, Corso Raffaello 30, 10125 Turin, Italy.

The acidic protein chromogranin A (CgA) is the precursor of several regulatory peptides generated by specific proteolytic processes. Human recombinant CgA NH(2)-terminal fragment STA-CgA(1-78) (hrSTA-CgA(1-78)), containing vasostatin-1 (CgA(1-76)) domain, exerts a negative inotropic effect and counteracts the beta-adrenergic positive inotropic effect on the rat heart. We hypothesized an involvement of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent pathway in both cardiodepression and cardioprotection by hrSTA-CgA(1-78). We also hypothesized an involvement of adenosine A(1) receptor and protein kinase C (PKC) in cardioprotection by hrSTA-CgA(1-78). Therefore, we evaluated whether 1) the cardioinhibition mediated by hrSTA-CgA(1-78) involves the G(i/o) proteins/NO-dependent signal transduction cascade, 2) hrSTA-CgA(1-78) induces ischemic preconditioning-like protective effects on the myocardium, and 3) inhibition of NO synthase (NOS), adenosine A(1) receptor, or PKC affects hrSTA-CgA(1-78) protection. Using the isolated rat heart, we found that the reduction of left ventricular pressure (LVP), rate-pressure product, and maximal values of the first derivative of LVP elicited by hrSTA-CgA(1-78) at 33 nM is abolished by blocking G(i/o) proteins with pertussis toxin, scavenging NO with hemoglobin, and blocking NOS activity with N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine or N(5)-(iminoethyl)-l-ornithine, soluble guanylate cyclase with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole-[4,4-a]quinoxalin-1-one, and protein kinase (PKG) with KT5823. Data suggest the involvement of the G(i/o) proteins/NO-cGMP-PKG pathway in the hrSTA-CgA(1-78)-dependent cardioinhibition. When given before 30 min of ischemia, hrSTA-CgA(1-78) significantly reduced the size of the infarct from 64 +/- 4 to 32 +/- 3% of the left ventricular mass. This protective effect was abolished by either NOS inhibition or PKC blockade and was attenuated, but not suppressed, by the blockade of A(1) receptors. These results suggest that hrSTA-CgA(1-78) activity triggers two different pathways: one of these pathways is mediated by A(1) receptors, and the other is mediated by NO release. As with repeated brief preconditioning ischemia, hrSTA-CgA(1-78) may be considered a stimulus strong enough to trigger both pathways, which may converge on PKC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01352.2006DOI Listing
July 2007

[Ischemic postconditioning: an effective strategy of myocardial protection?].

G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2006 Jul;7(7):464-73

Sezione di Fisiologia, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università degli Studi, Torino.

Post-ischemic reperfusion worsens myocardial injury. Ischemic preconditioning limits the damage by ischemia and reperfusion. Both adenosine and nitric oxide (NO) pathways are involved in protection. Preconditioning, however, is of little, if any, practical use as the onset of an infarction is usually unpredictable. Recently, it has been shown that the heart can be protected against the extension of reperfusion injuries if 3 or 4 brief (10-30 s) coronary occlusions are performed just at the beginning of the reperfusion. This procedure has been called post-conditioning. Post-conditioning reduces the oxidant-induced injury; moreover, it attenuates the local inflammatory response to reperfusion. Post-conditioning also activates triggers, signaling pathways and effectors implicated in other cardioprotective maneuvers, such as ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning. Post-conditioning seems to trigger the up-regulation of survival kinases principally known to attenuate the pathogenesis of apoptosis and possibly necrosis. As regards the possibility of pharmacological post-conditioning, several agents have been tested. We are testing NO donor(s), which can reduce infarct size in the rat in the absence of post-conditioning. Since during reperfusion there is a large production of reactive oxygen species, also the effect of administration of an antioxidant compound during reperfusion was studied. In the rat, such a procedure reduced the infarct size to a greater extent than post-conditioning. Moreover, an additive effect of NO donors and antioxidant compounds is possible.
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July 2006

Effect of endothelins on the cardiovascular system.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2006 Sep;7(9):645-52

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Endothelins (ETs) exert a persistent constrictor effect on the vessels via an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration due to the activation of Na+/H+ and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers of the vascular smooth muscle fibres. They also produce a transient dilator effect via the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated by protein kinase B/Akt. ETA and ETB2 receptors are involved in vasoconstriction, whereas transient vasodilatation depends on the activation of ETB1 receptors. Depending on animal species and experimental conditions, ETs can also play a role in cardiac muscle contraction and induce either an increase or a decrease in contractility. It is likely that only ETA, and not ETB, receptors are involved in the ET-induced increase in myocardial contractility. As in the case of vasoconstriction, this inotropic effect depends on an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by Na+/H+ and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers. Activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger is stimulated by protein kinase C, which is activated by diacylglycerol released in response to ET activity. It has also been proposed that the positive inotropic effect can occur without the contribution of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, if the cell alkalinisation produced by the Na/H exchanger improves myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. A reduction in contractility has been attributed to the involvement of the Gi protein/protein kinase G pathway or to the activation of protein kinase C without an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration or in myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. The chronic effect of ETs on the myocardium results in hypertrophy and prevention of apoptosis, two processes that are together responsible for the contradictory effect of ETs in heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/01.JCM.0000242996.19077.baDOI Listing
September 2006

Post-conditioning induced cardioprotection requires signaling through a redox-sensitive mechanism, mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel and protein kinase C activation.

Basic Res Cardiol 2006 Mar 6;101(2):180-9. Epub 2006 Feb 6.

Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, Università di Torino, Ospedale S. Luigi, Regione Gonzole, 10043, Orbassano, TO, Italy.

Post-conditioning (Post-C) induced cardioprotection involves activation of guanylyl-cyclase. In the ischemic preconditioning scenario, the downstream targets of cGMP include mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) (mK(ATP)) channels and protein kinase C (PKC), which involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This study tests the hypothesis that mK(ATP), PKC and ROS are also involved in the Post-C protection. Isolated rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia (I) and 120 min reperfusion (R) with or without Post-C (i.e., 5 cycles of 10 s R/I immediately after the 30 min ischemia). In 6 groups (3 with and 3 without Post-C) either mK(ATP) channel blocker, 5- hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), or PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine (CHE) or ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), were given during the entire reperfusion (120 min). In other 6 groups (3 with and 3 without Post-C), 5-HD, CHE or NAC were infused for 117 min only starting after 3 min of reperfusion not to interfere with the early effects of Post-C and/or reperfusion. In an additional group NAC was given during Post-C maneuvers (i.e., 3 min only). Myocardial damage was evaluated using nitro-blue tetrazolium staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Post-C attenuated myocardial infarct size (21 +/- 3% vs. 64 +/- 5% in control; p < 0.01). Such an effect was abolished by 5-HD or CHE given during either the 120 or 117 min of reperfusion as well as by NAC given during the 120 min or the initial 3 min of reperfusion. However, delayed NAC (i.e., 117 min infusion) did not alter the protective effect of Post- C (infarct size 32 +/- 5%; p < 0.01 vs. control, NS vs. Post-C). CHE, 5-HD or NAC given in the absence of Post-C did not alter the effects of I/R. Similar results were obtained in terms of LDH release. Our data show that Post-C induced protection involves an early redox-sensitive mechanism as well as a persistent activation of mK(ATP) and PKC, suggesting that the mK(ATP)/ROS/PKC pathway is involved in post-conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-006-0584-5DOI Listing
March 2006

Post-conditioning reduces infarct size in the isolated rat heart: role of coronary flow and pressure and the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway.

Basic Res Cardiol 2006 Mar 19;101(2):168-79. Epub 2005 Aug 19.

Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche dell'Università di Torino, Orbassano, TO, Italy.

We aimed to assess the role of the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in cardioprotection by brief intermittent ischemias at the onset of reperfusion (i.e., post-conditioning (Post-con)). We also evaluated the role of coronary flow and pressure in Post-con. Rat isolated hearts perfused at constant- flow or -pressure underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Post-con obtained with brief ischemias of different duration (modified, MPost-con) was compared with Post-con obtained with ischemias of identical duration (classical, C-Post-con) and with ischemic preconditioning (IP). Infarct size was evaluated using nitro-blue tetrazolium staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. In the groups, NO synthase (NOS) or guanylyl-cyclase (GC) was inhibited with LNAME and ODQ, respectively. In the subgroups, the enzyme immunoassay technique was used to quantify cGMP release. In the constant-flow model, M-Post-con and C-Post-con were equally effective, but more effective than IP in reducing infarct size. The cardioprotection by M-Post-con was only blunted by the NOS-inhibitor, but was abolished by the GC-antagonist. Post-ischemic cGMP release was enhanced by MPost-con. In the constant-pressure model IP, M-Post-con and C-Post-con were equally effective in reducing infarct size. Post-con protocols were more effective in the constant-flow than in the constant-pressure model. In all groups, LDH release during reperfusion was proportional to infarct size. In conclusion, Post-con depends upon GC activation, which can be achieved by NOS-dependent and NOS-independent pathways. The benefits of M- and CPost-con are similar. However, protection by Post-con is greater in the constant-flow than in the constant-pressure model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-005-0543-6DOI Listing
March 2006

[Activity of apelin and APJ receptors on myocardial contractility and vasomotor tone].

Ital Heart J Suppl 2005 May;6(5):272-8

Sezione di Fisiologia, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università degli Studi, Torino.

Apelin, an endogenous peptide, is the ligand of APJ receptors. Although initially it was identified in the gastrointestinal tract, later its presence was found in several organs and tissues. On the cardiovascular system apelin induces an increase in myocardial contractility and a reduction of vasomotor tone. While the increase in contractility seems to depend on an activation of Na+/H+ and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, vasodilation is attributed to a release of nitric oxide from the vascular endothelial cells. Apelin-induced vasodilation leads to a reduction of mean filling pressure which in turn causes a decrease of afterload and preload. When apelin is given acutely, the decrease in preload favors the reduction of stroke volume and cardiac output in spite of an increased contractility. On the contrary, when the peptide is administered for 2 weeks, cardiac output increases significantly without the occurrence of cardiac hypertrophy. It is not excluded that hypertrophy might occur after a longer administration.
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May 2005

Platelet-activating factor induces cardioprotection in isolated rat heart akin to ischemic preconditioning: role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C activation.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2005 May 6;288(5):H2512-20. Epub 2005 Jan 6.

Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, ASO S. Luigi, Orbassano, Italy.

Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is a cardioprotective mechanism against myocellular death and cardiac dysfunction resulting from reperfusion of the ischemic heart. At present, the precise list of mediators involved in IP and the pathways of their mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF), a phospholipid mediator that is known to be released by the ischemic-reperfused heart, as a possible endogenous agent involved in IP. Experiments were performed on Langendorff-perfused rat hearts undergoing 30 min of ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Treatment with a low concentration of PAF (2 x 10(-11) M) before ischemia reduced the extension of infarct size and improved the recovery of left ventricular developed pressure during reperfusion. The cardioprotective effect of PAF was comparable to that observed in hearts in which IP was induced by three brief (3 min) periods of ischemia separated by 5-min reperfusion intervals. The PAF receptor antagonist WEB-2170 (1 x 10(-9) M) abrogated the cardioprotective effect induced by both PAF and IP. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine (5 x 10(-6) M) or the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY-294002 (5 x 10(-5) M) also reduced the cardioprotective effect of PAF. Western blot analysis revealed that following IP treatment or PAF infusion, the phosphorylation of PKC-epsilon and Akt (the downstream target of PI3K) was higher than that in control hearts. The present data indicate that exogenous applications of low quantities of PAF induce a cardioprotective effect through PI3K and PKC activation, similar to that afforded by IP. Moreover, the study suggests that endogenous release of PAF, induced by brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion, may participate to the triggering of the IP of the heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00599.2004DOI Listing
May 2005