Publications by authors named "Cao Yi"

732 Publications

Potential roles of Kruppel-like factors in mediating adverse vascular effects of nanomaterials: A review.

Authors:
Yi Cao

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Typical Environmental Pollution and Health Hazards, School of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

The development of nanotechnology leads to the exposure of human beings to nanomaterials (NMs), and there is a health concern about the adverse vascular effects of NMs. Current data from epidemiology, controlled human exposure, and animal studies suggested that exposure to NMs could induce cardiopulmonary effects. In support of in vivo findings, in vitro studies showed that direct contact of vascular cells with NMs could induce endothelial cell (EC) activation and promote macrophage foam cell formation, although only limited studies showed that NMs could damage vascular smooth muscle cells and promote their phenotypic switch. It has been proposed that NMs induced adverse vascular effects via different mechanisms, but it is still necessary to understand the upstream events. Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) are a set of C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) that can regulate various aspects of vascular biology, but currently, the roles of KLF2 in mediating the adverse vascular effects of NMs have gained little attention by toxicologists. This review summarized current knowledge about the adverse vascular effects of NMs and proposed the potential roles of KLFs in mediating these effects based on available data from toxicological studies as well as the current understanding about KLFs in vascular biology. Finally, the challenges in investigating the role of KLFs in vascular toxicology were also summarized. Considering the important roles of KLFs in vascular biology, further studies are needed to understand the influence of NMs on KLFs and the downstream events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.4172DOI Listing
April 2021

Understanding and Regulating Cell-Matrix Interactions Using Hydrogels of Designable Mechanical Properties.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Feb;17(2):149-168

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Optical Sensing and Integration, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure, and Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Similar to natural tissues, hydrogels contain abundant water, so they are considered as promising biomaterials for studying the influence of the mechanical properties of extracellular matrices (ECM) on various cell functions. In recent years, the growing research on cellular mechanical response has revealed that many cell functions, including cell spreading, migration, tumorigenesis and differentiation, are related to the mechanical properties of ECM. Therefore, how cells sense and respond to the extracellular mechanical environment has gained considerable attention. In these studies, hydrogels are widely used as the model system. Hydrogels of tunable stiffness, viscoelasticity, degradability, plasticity, and dynamical properties have been engineered to reveal how cells respond to specific mechanical features. In this review, we summarize recent process in this research direction and specifically focus on the influence of the mechanical properties of the ECM on cell functions, how cells sense and respond to the extracellular mechanical environment, and approaches to adjusting the stiffness of hydrogels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2021.3026DOI Listing
February 2021

Analysis of Antidepressant Activity of Huang-Lian Jie-Du Decoction Through Network Pharmacology and Metabolomics.

Front Pharmacol 2021 4;12:619288. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High Technology Research of TCM Formulae, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Depressive disorder is a common mental disorder characterized by depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure. As the Herbal medicines are mainly used as complementary and alternative therapy for depression. This study aimed at exploring antidepressant activity of Huang-lian Jie-du Decoction (HLJDD), and evaluating active components and potential depression-associated targets. HLJDD was administered on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced (CUMS) depressive mice. Behavior evaluation was performed through force swimming test (FST), novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSF), and open field test (OFT). Active components of HLJDD, potential targets, and metabolic pathways involved in depression were explored through systemic biology-based network pharmacology assay, molecular docking and metabonomics. FST assay showed that CUMS mice administered with HLJDD had significantly shorter immobility time compared with control mice. Further, HLJDD alleviated feeding latency of CUMS mice in NSFand increased moving distance and duration in OFT. In the following network pharmacology assay, thirty-eight active compounds in HLJDD were identified based on drug-like characteristics, and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics profiles. Moreover, forty-eight molecular targets and ten biochemical pathways were uncovered through molecular docking and metabonomics. GRIN2B, DRD, PRKCA, HTR, MAOA, SLC6A4, GRIN2A, and CACNA1A are implicated in inhibition of depressive symptoms through modulating tryptophan metabolism, serotonergic and dopaminergic synaptic activities, cAMP signaling pathway, and calcium signaling pathway. Further network pharmacology-based analysis showed a correlation between HLJDD and tryptophan metabolism. A total of thirty-seven active compounds, seventy-six targets, and sixteen biochemical pathways were involved in tryptophan metabolism. These findings show that HLJDD acts on potential targets such as SLC6A4, HTR, INS, MAO, CAT, and FoxO, PI3K/Akt, calcium, HIF-1, and mTOR signaling pathways, and modulates serotoninergic and dopaminergic synaptic functions. In addition, metabonomics showed that tryptophan metabolism is the primary target for HLJDD in CUMS mice. The findings of the study show that HLJDD exhibited antidepressant effects. SLC6A4 and MAOA in tryptophan metabolism were modulated by berberine, baicalein, tetrahydroberberine, candicine and may be the main antidepressant targets for HLJDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.619288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970346PMC
March 2021

Hydrogels for Large-Scale Expansion of Stem Cells.

Authors:
Sheng Yin Yi Cao

Acta Biomater 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China; Chemistry and Biomedicine innovation center, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China; Institute for Brain Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China; Shenzhen Research Institute of Nanjing University, Shenzhen, China, 518057. Electronic address:

Stem cells demonstrate considerable promise for various preclinical and clinical applications, including drug screening, disease treatments, and regenerative medicine. Producing high-quality and large amounts of stem cells is in demand for these applications. Despite challenges, as hydrogel-based cell culture technology has developed, tremendous progress has been made in stem cell expansion and directed differentiation. Hydrogels are soft materials with abundant water. Many hydrogel properties, including biodegradability, mechanical strength, and porosity, have been shown to play essential roles in regulating stem cell proliferation and differentiation. The biochemical and physical properties of hydrogels can be specifically tailored to mimic the native microenvironment that various stem cells reside in vivo. A few hydrogel-based systems have been developed for successful stem cell cultures and expansion in vitro. In this review, we summarize various types of hydrogels that have been designed to effectively enhance the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), respectively. According to each stem cell type's preference, we also discuss strategies for fabricating hydrogels with biochemical and mechanical cues and other characteristics representing microenvironments of stem cells in vivo. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this review article we summary current progress on the construction of hydrogel systems for the culture and expansion of various stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The Significance includes: (1) Provide detailed discussion on the stem cell niches that should be considered for stem cell in vitro expansion. (2) Summarize various strategies to construct hydrogels that can largely recapture the microenvironment of native stem cells. (3) Suggest a few future directions that can be implemented to improve current in vitro stem cell expansion systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.03.026DOI Listing
March 2021

Introduction to special issue endothelial cells in toxicology: Current status and future perspectives.

Authors:
Yi Cao

J Appl Toxicol 2021 May 8;41(5):656-658. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Typical Environmental Pollution and Health Hazards, School of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.4163DOI Listing
May 2021

Culture, Thinking Styles and Investment Decision.

Psychol Rep 2021 Mar 5:33294121997778. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, China.

Past research suggests that people with different thinking styles show different cognitive processes. Accordingly, we test how thinking style and advice jointly affect investment decision. We conduct three experiments with 530 participants. In Study 1, coin, card and stamp investors who had high levels of holistic thinking and made decisions on their own obtained the lowest returns. In Study 2, participants who used analytic thinking to make decisions on their own in the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) earned the most. In Study 3, Westerners who made decisions on their own using analytic thinking had the highest incomes, while Easterners using holistic thinking and listening to others also had positive returns. The results support the framing effect in investment decisions, and the two simulation paradigms are presented for future studies and to confirm the impacts of thinking styles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033294121997778DOI Listing
March 2021

NIR-laser-triggered gadolinium-doped carbon dots for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and combined photothermal chemotherapy for triple negative breast cancer.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Mar 2;19(1):64. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory of Non-Food Biomass and Enzyme Technology, Guangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanning, 530007, China.

Background: Owing to high genetic diversities of tumor cells and low response rate of standard chemotherapy, patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have short progression-free survivals and poor outcomes, which need to explore an effective approach to improve therapeutic efficacy.

Methods: Novel gadolinium doped carbon dots (Gd@CDs) have been designed and prepared through hydrothermal method with 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) and gadolinium chloride. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized. Taking advantage of good biocompatibility of Gd@CDs, a nanoplatform based on Gd@CDs has been developed to co-deliver chemotherapy drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) and a near-infrared (NIR) photothermal agent, IR825 for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided photothermal chemotherapy for TNBC.

Results: The as-synthesized Dox@IR825@Gd@CDs displayed favorable MRI ability in vivo. Upon NIR laser irradiation, Dox@IR825@Gd@CDs could convert the NIR light to heat and efficiently inhibit tumor growth through photothermal chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the impact of photothermal chemotherapy on the murine motor coordination was assessed by rotarod test. Dox@IR825@Gd@CDs presented low toxicity and high photothermal chemotherapy efficiency.

Conclusion: A noble theranostic nanoplatform (Dox@IR825@Gd@CDs) was developed that could be tailored to achieve loading of Dox and IR825, intracellular delivery, favorable MRI, excellent combination therapy with photothermal therapy and chemotherapy to enhance therapeutic effect against TNBC cells. This study will provide a promising strategy for the development of Gd-based nanomaterials for MRI and combinational therapy for TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00811-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923633PMC
March 2021

Neuroprotection of Chikusetsu saponin V on transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and the underlying mechanism.

Phytomedicine 2021 Apr 17;84:153516. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Pharmacy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Background: Oxidative stress and frequently unwanted alterations in mitochondrial structure and function are key aspects of the pathological cascade in transient focal cerebral ischemia. Chikusetsu saponin V (CHS V), a major component of saponins from Panax japonicas, can attenuate HO-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the possible underlying mechanism of CHS V on transient focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

Methods: Mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and cultured cortical neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were used as in vivo and in vitro models of cerebral ischemia, respectively. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, H&E staining and some antioxidant levels in the brain were evaluated. The occurrence of neuronal death was estimated. Total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as well as mitochondrial potential were measured using flow cytometry analysis. Mitochondrial structure and respiratory activity were also examined. Protein levels were investigated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry.

Results: CHS V effectively attenuated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury, including improving neurological deficits, shrinking infarct volume and reducing the number of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, CHS V treatment remarkably increased antioxidant levels and reduced ROS levels and mitochondrial damage by enhancing the expression and deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) by activating AMPK and SIRT-1, respectively.

Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that CHS V prevented CI/R injury by suppressing oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage through the modulation of PGC-1α with AMPK and SIRT-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153516DOI Listing
April 2021

Therapeutic effects of auricular point acupressure on the recovery of patients after pterygium surgery: A pilot study.

Authors:
Lusha Cen Cao Yi

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 Feb 20;43:101339. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Background: and purpose: Postoperative pain in the pterygium of the eye seriously affects patient recovery. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of auricular point acupressure treatment on post-operative recovery in patients after pterygium surgery.

Materials And Methods: This was a pilot, randomized controlled study. A total of 60 patients (60 eyes) were randomly assigned to two groups. After pterygium surgery, the auricular group was treated using ear acupressure (acupressure points with Cowherb seeds) and the control group was treated using sham auricular therapy (acupressure points without Cowherb seeds). Both groups were treated for one week. Outcome measures included pain score, corneal epithelial score, best-corrected visual acuity, and recurrence rate.

Results: Fifty-three patients completed the study. The mean pain scores and corneal epithelial scores were significantly reduced over time in the auricular group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05). The time-group interaction for both pain scores and corneal epithelial scores was significant between the two groups (p < 0.05). Simple main effect analysis showed the mean pain scores in the auricular group were significantly lower at each time point (the first 2-h, the first day, the third day and the first week, p < 0.05) than the control group. Mean corneal epithelial scores of the auricular group were significantly lower on the first day and third day respectively than the control group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the best-corrected visual acuity or recurrence rate between the two groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Auricular point acupressure accelerates corneal epithelium reconstruction and suppresses postoperative pain, making it an ideal adjunct treatment for postoperative pterygium recovery.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR2000032490 on http://www.chictr.org.cn/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101339DOI Listing
February 2021

Association between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and depression outpatient visits in cold seasons: a time-series analysis in northwestern China.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2021 May 24;84(9):389-398. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Preventive Medicine & Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing Medical and Pharmaceutical College, Chongqing, China.

Depression is known to be one of the most common mental disorders raising global concerns. However, evidence regarding the association between short-term air pollution exposure and risk of development of depression is limited. The aim of this was to assess the relationship between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and depression in outpatient visits in Xi'an, a northwestern Chinese metropolis. Data for air pollutants including particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO) levels from October 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013 and number of daily depression outpatient visits (92,387 in total) were collected. A time-series quasi-Poisson regression model was adopted to determine the association between short-term air pollutant concentrations and frequency of outpatient visits for depression with different lag models. Consequently, 10 μg/m increase of SO and NO levels corresponded to significant elevation in number of outpatient-visits for depression on concurrent days (lag 0), and this relationship appeared stronger in cool seasons (October to March). However, the association of PM was only significant in males aged 30-50 at lag 0. Evidence indicated that short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants especially in cool seasons might be associated with increased risk of outpatient visits for depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2021.1880507DOI Listing
May 2021

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in adult: case series and an integrated survival analysis.

Br J Neurosurg 2021 Feb 17:1-16. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is well documented in children but less so in adults because of its rarity.

Method: We report a series of five cases, a literature review and quantitative analysis of the survival outcome of adult AT/RT patients.

Results: Seventy-four patients including our five cases (male: female = 16: 58) were evaluated, whose median age was 32.5 years (18-80 years). The commonest location was the sellar region. Median overall survival (OS) was 12.5 months (0.5-204.00 months). Chemotherapy was associated with OS (HR: 0.349, 95%CI: 0.176-0.694,  = 0.003), while other factors did not influence OS. From Kaplan-Meier analysis, surgery combining postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy was associated with better prognosis (Log Rank:  = 14.662,  = 0.001).

Conclusions: Adult AT/RT is commoner in females and tends to recur rapidly after surgical resection. Chemotherapy may provide a survival benefit. Surgery combined with postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy was associated with better prognosis for adult AT/RT patients, though the overall prognosis was still poor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2021.1885620DOI Listing
February 2021

Nanoscale flexible Ag grating/AuNPs self-assembly hybrid for ultra-sensitive sensors.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jan 29;32(15):155603. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

School of Electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an, 710121, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) are prepared using wet chemical reduction transfer of dense AuNPs film by self-assembly to the surface of Ag grating, which is inverted from the inner DVD after evaporation. The Ag grating/AuNPs self-assembly hybrid substrate commonly used in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) research is produced. The coupling effect between AuNP-AuNP and AuNPs-Ag slugs can evidently enhance the local electric field. Experimental results show that the hybrid SERS substrate can detect 10 M Rh6G, and the enhancement factor reaches 4.4 × 10. This small, cheap hybrid substrate has enormous potential in the field of SERS sensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abd7b2DOI Listing
January 2021

Redox-triggered aggregation of ESIONPs with switchable to contrast effect for -weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

J Mater Chem B 2021 02;9(7):1821-1832

CAS Key Laboratory of Nano-Bio Interface, Division of Nanobiomedicine, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123, China.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) have drawn increasing attention in cancer diagnosis. However, since the signals they generate are always "on" and may bring interfering background signals to the region of interest, their selectivity and sensitivity need further improvement. Herein, extremely small iron oxide nanoparticles (ESIONPs) conjugated through a disulfide bond with polyethylene glycol (PEG) that is terminally modified with folic acid (FA), namely ESIONPs-s-s-PEG-FA, were designed and synthesized to target tumor tissues and selectively activate the T2 MRI contrast effect in the reducing environment of tumor cells. Due to the breakage of disulfide bonds by the high glutathione (GSH) concentration in tumor cells, the hydrophilic PEG chains detached from the surface of ESIONPs, which led to the aggregation of ESIONPs and the activation of the T2 contrast effect. In vitro results showed that ESIONPs-s-s-PEG-FA could effectively target tumors to assemble in the reductive environment and switch from a T1 contrast agent (CA) to a T2 one. Furthermore, MRI in tumor-bearing mice also indicated the obvious targeting capacity and the "turn on" of the T2 contrast effect. In addition, the results of the biosafety assay suggest that the tumor-targeted T1/T2 switchable CA is equipped with favorable biocompatibility for cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02411bDOI Listing
February 2021

Can Organophosphates and Carbamates Cause Synergisms by Inhibiting Esterases Responsible for Biotransformation of Pyrethroids?

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Feb 20;55(3):1585-1593. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Hydrolysis catalyzed by general esterases (GEs) is the most efficient route for hydrolyzation of pyrethroid insecticides. Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides are known to inhibit GEs in addition to acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is their main target. We hypothesize that synergies can be induced by OPs and CBs when mixed with pyrethroids, due to their inhibition of GE-dependent detoxification of pyrethroids. To test this hypothesis, we conducted mixture toxicity experiments with using α-cypermethrin (α-cyp) in combination with the noninsecticidal OP tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide (-OMPA) and five AChE inhibitors diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenviphos, parathion, and aldicarb. In addition, the GE activity inhibition was measured for all compounds. Up to 10-fold synergy was found between α-cyp and -OMPA, and the degree of synergy correlated linearly with the inhibition of the GE activity. No synergy, however, was found in any of the insecticide mixtures nor was the GE activity inhibited within the nonlethal concentration range tested. It was concluded that the effect of the insecticides on AChE occurred at lower concentrations than their effect on GEs, making the daphnids become immobilized before any synergistic effects on mortality could be observed. The implications of the findings are discussed from a risk assessment perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04493DOI Listing
February 2021

MiR-216b inhibits gastric cancer proliferation and migration by targeting PARK7.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2021 Jan-Mar;64(1):52-57

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Objective: Postoperative recurrence and metastasis of gastric cancer is still a difficult problem in medical field. About 60% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die from peritoneal metastasis, which has become one of the main causes of death of gastric cancer patients. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer can help us better early diagnosis and improve treatment measures.

Methods: This project intends to validate the above hypothesis from three different levels of tissue, cell, and animal models by means of fluorescence quantitative PCR, Western blot, double Luciferase Report Analysis and immunohistochemical detection, and to further explore the molecular mechanism of peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer.

Results: Our previous studies have shown that PARK7 promotes peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, but its specific regulatory mechanism remains unclear.

Conclusion: Our preliminary study showed that the expression of microRNA-216b in gastric cancer tissues with peritoneal metastasis was significantly lower than that in patients without peritoneal metastasis, while the expression of PARK7 was the opposite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_777_19DOI Listing
January 2021

Active Femtoliter Droplet Generation in Microfluidics by Confined Interface Vibration.

Langmuir 2021 Jan 11;37(3):1297-1305. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580, China.

The precise and effective generation of micron-sized droplets is one of the most common and important issues for droplet-based microfluidics. Active droplet generation makes use of additional energy input in promoting interfacial instabilities for droplet generation. Here, we report a new technique for the active generation of femtoliter droplets in microfluidic systems using confined interfacial vibration (CIV). The CIV is formed at the orifice of a traditional inkjet nozzle first by pushing the liquid out and then pulling it back. Droplets are pinched off during the withdrawal process, and this is different from the current active droplet generation techniques, which only monodirectionally push the liquid out. Droplets with radius ranging from ca. 1 to 28 μm can be actively generated by CIV at an orifice with radius 30 μm, distinguishing from conventional active generation techniques in which the droplets are always comparable or slightly bigger than the orifice. Experimental results showed that the droplet volume can be customized by controlling the intensity of the CIV. The inherent digital nature of the inkjet technique enables easy and precise regulating of the droplet volume, making it seamlessly compatible with the digital microfluidic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c03368DOI Listing
January 2021

Therapeutics Development for Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum and Related Ectopic Mineralization Disorders: Update 2020.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 31;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College and the PXE International Center for Excellence in Research and Clinical Care, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), the prototype of heritable ectopic mineralization disorders, manifests with deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in the skin, eyes and arterial blood vessels. This autosomal recessive disorder, due to mutations in , is usually diagnosed around the second decade of life. In the spectrum of heritable ectopic mineralization disorders are also generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), with extremely severe arterial calcification diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound or perinatally, and arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency (ACDC) manifesting with arterial and juxta-articular mineralization in the elderly; the latter disorders are caused by mutations in and , respectively. The unifying pathomechanistic feature in these three conditions is reduced plasma levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a powerful endogenous inhibitor of ectopic mineralization. Several on-going attempts to develop treatments for these conditions, either with the goal to normalize PPi plasma levels or by means of preventing calcium hydroxyapatite deposition independent of PPi, are in advanced preclinical levels or in early clinical trials. This overview summarizes the prospects of treatment development for ectopic mineralization disorders, with PXE, GACI and ACDC as the target diseases, from the 2020 vantage point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795895PMC
December 2020

Long-term outcomes of various pediatric short bowel syndrome in China.

Pediatr Surg Int 2021 Apr 4;37(4):495-502. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: The goal of this study was to analyze long-term outcome of various pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS) at an intestinal rehabilitation center in China.

Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven children with SBS were enrolled in this study from October 1988 to July 2019. Their long-term follow-up outcome was analyzed according to the age of disease onset, parenteral nutrition (PN) duration, and anatomic types of short bowel, respectively. The clinical characteristics, which included demographics, the length of residual small bowel, PN duration, PN dependence, SBS-related complications such as IF-related liver disease (IFALD), catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBI), and mortality were compared among the groups.

Results: The main etiology for SBS were intestinal atresia, NEC, and volvulus. Five of 157 patients did not wean off PN. The incidence of IFALD and CRBI was 24.2 and 22.3%, respectively. Sixteen cases died because of infection and liver failure and eight patients lost to follow-up. The survival rate of the 157 patients was 84.7%. PN duration was longer in the infants and children group (284 ± 457 d vs. 110 ± 64 d, P = 0.021; R = 0.264, P = 0.001) and more patients did not wean off PN than in the neonates group (11.6% vs. 0, P = 0.001; R = 0.295, P < 0.001). Patients with PN with a duration of longer than 90 days had more CRBIs (30.6%, P = 0.025; R = 0.236, P = 0.003). Additionally, the rate of CRBI was higher in patients with stoma (30.0%, P = 0.032). There was no difference in mortality among the groups. In five PN dependence patients, none was SBS onset in neonates.

Conclusion: Pediatric patients with SBS could achieve favorable long-term survival and enteral autonomy. Different standards of SBS classification such as the age of disease onset, PN duration, and anatomic types of short bowel did not impact the overall mortality of pediatric SBS. Prolonged PN duration positively correlated with the age of disease onset and the incidence of CRBI. Patients with the complete continuity of intestinal tract suffered less from CRBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00383-020-04797-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Longitudinal clinical and radiographic evaluation reveals interleukin-6 as an indicator of persistent pulmonary injury in COVID-19.

Int J Med Sci 2021 1;18(1):29-41. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

: Previous studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were mainly focused on cross-sectional analysis. In this study, we sought to evaluate the dynamic changes of immunological and radiographic features, and the association with the outcome of pulmonary lesions in COVID-19 patients. : Peripheral blood samples and radiographic data were collected longitudinally for up to 8 weeks from 158 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. The chest computed tomography (CT) scans were scored based on a semi-quantification assessment according to the extent of pulmonary abnormalities; the temporal change of the immunological and radiographic features was analyzed. Compared with mild and moderate patients, severe patients had significantly decreased counts of lymphocytes, CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and CD19 B cells but dramatically elevated counts of neutrophils and levels of interleukin (IL)-6. Sequential monitoring showed a sustained increase in lymphocytes counts and significantly decreased levels of IL-6 in severe patients during the disease course. Notably, patients with persistent pulmonary lesions (CT score ≥ 5 in week 8) showed high levels of IL-6 during the follow-up period, compared with those with recovery lesions (CT score < 5 in week 8). More importantly, the peak expression of IL-6 prior to the aggravated lung injury was mainly found in patients with persistent lesions, and multivariate analysis showed that IL-6 level upon admission was an independent factor associated with the persistent pulmonary injury. Prolonged elevation of IL-6 is associated with persistent pulmonary lesions in COVID-19 patients. Sequential monitoring and timely intervention of IL-6 may favor the clinical management of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.49728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738960PMC
January 2021

Nanoscale flexible Ag grating/AuNPs self-assembly hybrid for ultra-sensitive sensor.

Nanotechnology 2020 Dec 31. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, xi'an, CHINA.

In this paper, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) are prepared using wet chemical reduction transfer of dense AuNPs film by self-assembly to the surface of Ag grating, which is inverted from the inner DVD after evaporation. The Ag grating/AuNPs self-assembly hybrid substrate commonly used in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) research is produced. The coupling effect between AuNP-AuNP and AuNPs-Ag slugs can evidently enhance the local electric field. Experimental results show that the hybrid SERS substrate can detect 10-9 M Rh6G, and the enhancement factor reaches 4.4×105. This small, cheap hybrid substrate has enormous potential in the field of SERS sensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abd7b2DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Cognition and Aggressive Behavior.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2021 Jan 23;24(1):5-10. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Faculty of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

In this study, we examined how playing a violent video game affected aggressive cognition and aggressive behavior. A total of 300 children ( = 6.38,  = 0.25) were randomly recruited to play a violent or a nonviolent video game. Results revealed that briefly exposing children to a violent video game increased aggressive cognition and aggressive behavior. In addition, a significant game × sex interaction showed that this effect was larger for boys than for girls. Mediational pathways were found such that aggressive cognition mediated the relationship between violent video games and aggressive behavior, especially for boys. Findings were interpreted within and supported the framework of the general aggression model. Violent video game effects remain a societal concern, and boys should be regarded as a special group for aggression intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2019.0676DOI Listing
January 2021

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of (chlorellales: Chlorellaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Nov 12;4(2):4000-4001. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

belongs to the genus that are achloroplyllous algae with phylogenetic affinities to sp. Microalgae of the genus spp are associated with rare algal infections of invertebrates termed protothecosis. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of the circular mitochondrial (mt) DNA of the chlorophyte alga has been determined (80,023 base-pairs, A + T content 13.77%). The genes identified encode three subunits of the cytochrome oxidase and apocytochrome b, eight subunits of the NADH dehydrogenase complex (nad1-7, nad4L), four ATPase subunits (atp1, atp4, atp6, atp8), three ribosomal RNAs (5 S (rrn5), small subunit (srn) and large subunit (lrn) RNA), 27 tRNAs, two succinate dehydrogenase and 10 ribosome proteins. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence will provide new molecular biology information to further understand the genetic diversity of the sp. and to eliminate this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1688101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707720PMC
November 2019

Living materials fabricated via gradient mineralization of light-inducible biofilms.

Nat Chem Biol 2021 03 21;17(3):351-359. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Materials and Physical Biology Division, School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

Living organisms have evolved sophisticated cell-mediated biomineralization mechanisms to build structurally ordered, environmentally adaptive composite materials. Despite advances in biomimetic mineralization research, it remains difficult to produce mineralized composites that integrate the structural features and 'living' attributes of their natural counterparts. Here, inspired by natural graded materials, we developed living patterned and gradient composites by coupling light-inducible bacterial biofilm formation with biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization. We showed that both the location and the degree of mineralization could be regulated by tailoring functional biofilm growth with spatial and biomass density control. The cells in the composites remained viable and could sense and respond to environmental signals. Additionally, the composites exhibited a maximum 15-fold increase in Young's modulus after mineralization and could be applied to repair damage in a spatially controlled manner. Beyond insights into the mechanism of formation of natural graded composites, our study provides a viable means of fabricating living composites with dynamic responsiveness and environmental adaptability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-020-00697-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular Genetics and Modifier Genes in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum, a Heritable Multisystem Ectopic Mineralization Disorder.

J Invest Dermatol 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

The PXE International Center of Excellence in Research and Clinical Care, Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, The Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Jefferson Institute of Molecular Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

In the past two decades, there has been great progress in identifying the molecular basis and pathomechanistic details in pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a heritable multisystem ectopic mineralization disorder. Although the identification of pathogenic variants in ABCC6 has been critical for understanding the disease process, genetic modifiers have been disclosed that explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of PXE. Adding to the genetic complexity of PXE are PXE-like phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in other ectopic mineralization-associated genes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the genetics and candidate modifier genes in PXE, a multifactorial disease at the genome-environment interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2020.10.013DOI Listing
December 2020

Antifouling hydrogel-coated magnetic nanoparticles for selective isolation and recovery of circulating tumor cells.

J Mater Chem B 2021 01;9(3):677-682

CAS Key Laboratory for Nano-Bio Interface, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215123, China.

For reliable downstream molecular analysis, it is crucially important to recover circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from clinical blood samples with high purity and viability. Herein, magnetic nanoparticles coated with an antifouling hydrogel layer based on the polymerization method were developed to realize cell-friendly and efficient CTC capture and recovery. Particularly, the hydrogel layer was fabricated by zwitterionic sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) cross-linked with N,N-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BACy), which could not only resist nonspecific adhesion but also gently recover the captured cells by glutathione (GSH) responsiveness. Moreover, the anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM) antibody was modified onto the surface of the hydrogel to provide high specificity for CTC capture. As a result, 96% of target cells were captured in the mimic clinical blood samples with 5-100 CTCs per mL in 25 min of incubation time. After the GSH treatment, about 96% of the obtained cells were recovered with good viability. Notably, the hydrogel-coated magnetic nanoparticles were also usefully applied to isolate CTCs from the blood samples of cancer patients. The favorable results indicate that the hydrogel-modified magnetic nanoparticles may have a promising opportunity to capture and recover CTCs for subsequent research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02380aDOI Listing
January 2021

Corrigendum: Egg Consumption and Stroke Risk: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

Front Nutr 2020 23;7:618715. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2020.00153.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.618715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719772PMC
November 2020

A Novel Approach for Measuring the Thickness of Refractory of Metallurgical Vessels.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

The advancement of metallurgical vessels, such as blast furnaces, shaft furnaces, and torpedo ladles, can be better controlled and expanded for a greater lifespan if the thickness of the refractory lining wear is known and predicted. In the past, various methods including radioactive tracers, infrared (IR) thermography, electromagnetic waves, ultrasonic tomography, and temperature field have been tested to determine the thickness of the refractory wall. However, for various reasons, these methods have failed to be effective. This paper presents a novel method-electromotive force (EMF)-for predicting the thickness of refractory lining wear in vessels, including a small-scale vessel in the laboratory, an industrial torpedo ladle, and in the two refining hearths of blast furnaces. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the EMF signal increases with a decrease in wall thickness. Prediction values of the refractory wall thickness are consistent with measured ones. The relative error of EMF measurement for the torpedo ladle is around 6.8%. The EMF measurement of blast furnace hearths is quite accurate, and the relative error is less than 11%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13245645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763349PMC
December 2020

Smart Adhesive Peptide Nanofibers for Cell Capture and Release.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 12 30;6(12):6800-6807. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure, Key Laboratory of Intelligent Optical Sensing and Manipulation, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Efficient cell capture and release methods are important for single-cell analysis of pathological samples. It requires not only strong cell binding but also mild cell release to maximize the number of collected cells while maintaining their viability. Here, we report a smart cell capture and release system based on self-assembling adhesive peptide nanofibers. We installed a versatile surface binding motif, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine to the C-terminus of a self-assembling peptide. We show that the designed peptide can self-assemble at physiological pH to establish strong cell and substrate binding. The binding strength is dramatically reduced upon the dissembling of the peptide fibers triggered by raising the pH to slightly basic. We demonstrate the efficient capture of four different cells using this system. The capture rates are comparable to fibrin glue and the released cells retain higher viability than those released by enzymatic digestion approaches. Given that this method is highly efficient, biocompatible, and easy to implement, we anticipate that this approach can be widely applied to cell capture and release for single cell analysis and cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01485DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of violent video games on players' and observers' aggressive cognitions and aggressive behaviors.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Mar 30;203:105005. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Faculty of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; The Dawn and Innovation Kindergarten, Chongqing 400030, China.

Although previous research has shown that exposure to violent video games is related to aggression, little is known about the relationship between the player's perspective (player vs. observer) and aggression. In this experimental study, we tested the short-term effects of actively playing versus passively observing the same type of video games on aggressive cognitions and aggressive behaviors. A total of 192 12-year-old children (50% girls) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) violent game player (active violent players), (b) violent game observer (passive violent observers), (c) neutral game player (active neutral players), or (d) neutral game observer (passive neutral observers). After either playing or observing the designated games, each participant completed a lexical decision task and a competitive reaction time task to measure their aggressive cognitions and behaviors. Results showed that players displayed more aggressive cognitions and behaviors than observers. Boys displayed more aggressive cognitions and behaviors than girls, but this trend was observed only in the violent game play condition. Mediational analysis suggested that aggressive cognitions partially mediated the effect of violent video games on aggressive behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.105005DOI Listing
March 2021

Preparation of Y-Doped LaTiO Flexible Self-Supporting Films and Their Application in High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor Devices.

ACS Omega 2020 Nov 12;5(46):29722-29732. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

South China Advanced Institute for Soft Matter Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, P. R. China.

Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors have drawn more attention owing to the rapid growth of wearable electronic equipments. Herein, we have succeeded in synthesizing a series of Y-doped lanthanum titanate flexible self-supporting films (LSF-, 0.1 ≤ ≤ 0.5) and investigating the change of microstructures, morphological characteristics, and lattice structures of these films affected by different Y-doping contents. To further determine the optimum Y-doping content, we have explored the electrochemical properties of working electrodes prepared by LSF- (0.1 ≤ ≤ 0.5) samples as the main active material. As the LSF-0.2 electrode has the best areal capacitance of 1.3 F·cm at 2 mA·cm, we use the LSF-0.2 electrodes and PVA-NaSO gel to fabricate a flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor device. This device has a high areal capacitance of 255.9 mF·cm at a current density of 2 mA·cm with a high cell voltage of 2.1 V, while the corresponding energy density is 156.8 μWh·cm with a power density of 2.1 mW·cm. Moreover, it also shows a long cycling life and outstanding flexibility. Therefore, the LSF-0.2 sample can be used as an excellent energy-storage material for a wearable electronic device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689658PMC
November 2020