Publications by authors named "Can Y F Yuen"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of two-year treatment outcomes between subthreshold micropulse (577 nm) laser and aflibercept for diabetic macular edema.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong Street, Sham Shui Po, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To compare two-year treatment outcomes of subthreshold micropulse (577 nm) laser and aflibercept for diabetic macular edema (DME).

Study Design: Retrospective case-control study.

Methods: A total 164 eyes in 164 DME patients treated with either micropulse laser (86 eyes) or intravitreal aflibercept monotherapy (78 eyes) were recruited. Main outcome measures included at least five Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters' improvement from baseline at 6, 12 and 24 months.

Results: Rescue aflibercept was initiated in 24% of eyes in micropulse laser group. At 6-month visit the aflibercept group achieved a higher percentage of eyes with at least 5-letter visual acuity improvement than micropulse laser group (56% vs 38%, P = 0.044), however, this was not the case at 12-month (45% vs 49%, P = 0.584) and 24-month visits (49% vs 57%, P = 0.227). At 6-month visit the aflibercept group achieved a higher percentage of eyes with at least 10% improvement of central macular thickness (73% vs 49%, P = 0.005), but this was not the case at 12-month (73% vs 70%, P = 0.995) and 24-month visits (85% vs 84%, P = 0.872).

Conclusion: Aflibercept achieved faster and higher rates of anatomical and functional improvement than micropulse laser in DME patients. Long term efficacy of treatment did not result in significant differences between aflibercept monotherapy and micropulse laser in DME patients. Primary treatment of micropulse laser with deferred rescue aflibercept might be the treatment option without reducing the chance of visual improvement in DME eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-021-00846-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Preliminary results of CO2 laser-assisted sclerectomy surgery (CLASS) in the treatment of advanced glaucoma in a Chinese population.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Nov;95(45):e5294

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre Dennis Lam & Partners Eye Center Yeung Yat Ming, Barry Clinic, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CO2 laser-assisted sclerectomy surgery (CLASS) in Chinese patients with advanced glaucoma.Patients with advanced glaucoma who were candidates for glaucoma filtration surgery were included. The intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of antiglaucoma medications were documented before surgery and at all postoperative clinic visits. All intra- and postoperative complications were documented. The primary outcome measures were the changes in IOP and medication use before and after the procedure as well as complications from the procedure. The secondary outcome measure included the CLASS success rate.Twenty patients (23 eyes) underwent CLASS between November 2014 and September 2015. Nineteen eyes had primary open-angle glaucoma, 2 eyes had primary angle-closure glaucoma, and 2 eyes had uveitic glaucoma. One patient was lost to follow-up. The mean age of subjects was 68.1 ± 11.9 years. IOP was significantly reduced at 1 day and 1 week after CLASS. At 6 months, the IOP and number of medications were significantly reduced by 19.0% and 38.2%, respectively (both P < 0.0001). One patient had intraoperative trabeculo-Descemet membrane perforation. Two patients required laser goniopuncture and 2 required needling between 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The overall success rate was 81.8% at 6 months.CLASS achieved a modest IOP reduction in the early postoperative period and was overall a safe procedure for advanced glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5106055PMC
November 2016

Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity From 2 Neonatal Intensive Care Units in a Hong Kong Chinese Population.

Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2016 May;5(3):185-91

From the *Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre; †Department of Applied Mathematics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University; and ‡Centre of Health Behaviours Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To determine the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm Chinese infants.

Design: Retrospective review.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed for all neonates screened for ROP between January 2007 and December 2012 in Hong Kong. Screening was offered to VLBW (≤1500 g) and/or preterm (gestation, ≤32 weeks) neonates using the Royal College of Ophthalmologists ROP guideline and the International Classification of ROP by 3 pediatric ophthalmologists. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses for both ROP and type 1 ROP.

Results: Of the 513 screened infants, the mean gestational age (GA) was 30.0 ± 2.5 weeks and the mean birth weight (BW) was 1232.6 ± 325.2 g. The incidence of ROP and type 1 ROP was 18.5% and 3.7%, respectively. In univariate analysis, a lighter BW, lower GA, blood transfusion, patent ductus arteriosus, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, postnatal hypotension, inotropes usage, low Apgar scores, sepsis, mechanical ventilation, supplementary oxygen use, respiratory distress syndrome, anemia, surfactant use, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were found to be associated with the development of both ROP and type 1 ROP (P < 0.05). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, BW, GA, and intraventricular hemorrhage were significant risk factors for ROP. Preeclampsia and eclampsia were the only protective factors for ROP development on multivariable logistic regression analysis (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: In VLBW preterm Chinese infants, lower GA, lighter BW, and intraventricular hemorrhage were significant risk factors for ROP, whereas preeclampsia and eclampsia were protective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/APO.0000000000000167DOI Listing
May 2016

Efficacy and Safety of Trabectome Surgery in Chinese Open-Angle Glaucoma.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Apr;95(15):e3212

From the Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre (JWYL, DWFY, ST, CYFY); Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong (JSML, JWYL); and Dennis Lam & Partners Eye Center, Hong Kong, SAR, China (JWYL).

To investigate the clinical outcome of the Trabectome in Chinese open-angle glaucoma (OAG). This prospective case series recruited pseudophakic glaucoma subjects with open-angle configuration. Trabeculectomy ab interno was performed using the Trabectome to 120° of the trabecular meshwork. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and medications were recorded preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively. Visual acuity was measured preoperatively and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. One-way ANOVA with Tukey Multiple Comparison Test were used to measure the pre and postoperative parameters. In 19 eyes of 19 Chinese subjects, 26.3% were uveitic, 68.4% were primary open-angle glaucoma, and 5.3% had a history of chronic angle-closure glaucoma with open-angles after cataract extraction. The subjects' mean age was 67.5 ± 14.4 years, with 4 females and 15 males. Two patients required secondary filtration procedure. At 6 months, the IOP reduced by 34.8% (24.4 ± 4.4 mm Hg to 15.9 ± 5.1 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). The number of types of antiglaucoma medications was reduced by 28.2% (3.9 ± 0.8-2.8 ± 1.6, P < 0.0001). The visual acuity was static at 1 and 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.4). There were no intraoperative complications. 26.3% of subjects had a transient IOP spike > 21 mm Hg, 1 had hyphema requiring washout, and 1 had reactivation of herpetic keratitis. The success rate at 6 months was 89.5%. Trabectome achieved a modest reduction in IOP and medications in the majority of pseudophakic Chinese OAG eyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000003212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4839803PMC
April 2016

MicroPulse Laser Trabeculoplasty for the Treatment of Open-Angle Glaucoma.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Dec;94(49):e2075

From the Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre (JWYL, GSKY, DWFY, CYFY); and Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (JWYL).

The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MLT in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma (OAG).This prospective cohort included subjects ≥18 years of age with OAG, defined as the open angle on gonioscopy with glaucomatous optic neuropathy evident from optical coherence tomography. Subjects with IOP < 21 mm Hg were classified as normal tension glaucoma and those with IOP ≥21 mm Hg were classified as primary open-angle glaucoma. Those with angle closure, secondary glaucoma, prior laser trabeculoplasty, use of systemic IOP-lowering medications, corneal pathologies, follow-up <6 months, recent intraocular surgery, or only 1 functional eye were excluded. A single session of unilateral MLT treatment was delivered using a 577 nm diode laser to 360° of the trabecular meshwork to reduce IOP or medication load. Medications were titrated up or down at 1 month after laser to achieve a 25% IOP reduction from presentation or an IOP <18 mm Hg, whichever was lower. The following were compared using the Repeated Measures ANOVA with Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test: IOP (on presentation, pre-MLT, day 1, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after MLT) and the number of medications (pre-MLT, 3 months, and 6 months after MLT). After 6 months, responders with initial success to MLT (IOP reduction ≥20% at 1 month) received treatment in the fellow eye.In 48 subjects with OAG, the mean number of MLT shots applied was 120.5 ± 2.0 shots using a mean energy of 1000 mW per shot. Only 7.5% had a mild, self-limiting anterior uveitis postlaser with no change in the Snellen visual acuity at 6 months (P's > 0.5). The IOP and number of medications were significantly reduced at all time intervals following MLT compared to the pre-MLT level (P's < 0.0001). At 6 months, the IOP was reduced by 19.5% in addition to a 21.4% reduction in medication compared to pretreatment levels. The MLT success rate was 72.9%. During the first 6 months only 2.1% required a repeated laser trabeculoplasty.MLT was effective in reducing IOP and medications in OAG with minimal postlaser inflammation and low failure rate at 6 months following laser.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5008476PMC
December 2015

Longitudinal Changes in Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness after an Isolated Unilateral Retrobulbar Optic Neuritis: 1-Year Results.

Neuroophthalmology 2015 Feb 22;39(1):22-25. Epub 2015 Jan 22.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region China.

The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness 1 year after an episode of unilateral acute optic neuritis. This prospective cohort study recruited consecutive patients with a first episode of isolated, unilateral acute optic neuritis from October 2010 to June 2013. RNFL thickness of the attack and normal fellow eyes was measured by optical coherence tomography on presentation and 3, 6, and 12 months post attack in both the treatment and non-treatment groups. The treatment group consisted of subjects that opted for systemic steroids to hasten recovery time. In 20 subjects, 11 received systemic steroids and 9 were treated conservatively. The baseline RNFL thickness was similar in the attack and fellow eyes ( ≥ 0.4). Progressive RNFL thinning was seen in the attack eye over the 12-month period, with significant differences for baseline versus 3 months; baseline versus 12 months; and 3 versus 12 months (all  < 0.0001). At 12 months, the attack eye had a thinner average RNFL than the fellow eye (100.9 ± 6.1 versus 107.3 ± 5.5 µm;  = 0.002). The 12-month RNFL was similar between the treatment and non-treatment groups ( ≥ 0.6). A single episode of optic neuritis triggered an accelerated, progressive RNFL thinning up to 6 months post attack. Initial treatment with systemic steroids did not seem to alter the degree of RNFL loss at 12 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01658107.2014.984230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5123179PMC
February 2015

The anterior chamber depth and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in children.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 9;2014:538283. Epub 2014 Nov 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To investigate the correlation of anterior chamber depth (ACD) with the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, age, axial length (AL), and spherical equivalent in children.

Subjects: Consecutive subjects aged 4 to 18 were recruited. Visually disabling eye conditions were excluded. Only the right eye was included for analysis. The ACD was correlated with RNFL thickness, age, spherical equivalent, and AL for all subjects. Subjects were then divided into 3 groups based on their postcycloplegic spherical equivalent: myopes (<-1.0 D), emmetropes (≥-1.0 to ≤+1.0 D), and hyperopes (>+1.0 D). The ACD was compared among the 3 groups before and after age adjustment.

Results: In 200 subjects (mean age 7.6 ± 3.3 years), a deeper ACD was correlated with thinner global RNFL (r = -0.2, r(2) = 0.06, P = 0.0007), older age (r = 0.4, r(2) = 0.1, P < 0.0001), myopic spherical equivalent (r = -0.3, r(2) = 0.09, P < 0.0001), and longer AL (r = 0.5, r(2) = 0.2, P < 0.0001). The ACD was deepest in myopes (3.5 ± 0.4 mm, n = 67), followed by emmetropes (3.4 ± 0.3, n = 60) and then hyperopes (3.3 ± 0.2, n = 73) (all P < 0.0001). After age adjustment, myopes had a deeper ACD than the other 2 groups (all P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: In children, a deeper ACD was associated with thinner RNFL thickness, older age, more myopic spherical equivalent, and longer AL. Myopes had a deeper ACD than emmetropes and hyperopes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/538283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241318PMC
November 2015

Differences in risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity development in paired twins: a Chinese population study.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 23;2014:212183. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To determine the differences in risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in paired twins.

Methods: A retrospective medical record review was performed for all paired twins screened for ROP between 2007 and 2012. Screening was offered to very low birth weight (≤ 1500 grams) and preterm (≤ 32 weeks) neonates. Twins 1 and 2 were categorized based on the order of delivery. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP.

Results: In 34 pairs of Chinese twins, the mean gestational age (GA) was 30.2 ± 2.0 weeks. In Twin 1, smaller GA (OR = 0.44, P = 0.02), higher mean oxygen concentration (OR = 1.34, P = 0.03), presence of thrombocytopenia (OR = 1429.60, P < 0.0001), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR = 18.67, P = 0.03) were significant risk factors for ROP. For Twin 2, a smaller GA (OR = 0.45, P = 0.03) was the only risk factor. There were no significant risk factors for ROP in Twin 1 or Twin 2 on multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: In Chinese twin pairs, smaller GA was the only common risk factor for ROP while Twin 1 was more susceptible to the postnatal risks for ROP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/212183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4225848PMC
November 2015

A comparison of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for primary chalazion in children and adults.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 15;2014:413729. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To investigate outcome differences of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injection for primary chalazia in children versus adults.

Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive subjects with primary chalazion who received intralesional TA injection was conducted. A single investigator injected 0.05-0.15 mL of TA (40 mg/mL) intralesionally. Patients were stratified into the pediatric (<18 years old) and adult (≥ 18 years old) group. In both groups, the correlation of resolution time with chalazion size and TA dose was performed.

Results: 17 children and 24 adults were enrolled, with a mean age of 7.4 ± 5.5 and 39.3 ± 16.7 years, respectively. Both groups had statistically similar baseline characteristics. There was no significant difference between the resolution time in the pediatric (18.2 ± 11.4 days) and adult (16.5 ± 11.0 days) group (P = 0.7). There were no significant complications from the TA injection. There was no significant correlation of resolution time to chalazion size (P = 0.7) nor TA dose (P = 0.3) in both groups.

Conclusion: TA for the treatment of primary chalazion was equally effective in children and adults, without any significant complications, and the rate of clinical response did not appear to be dose-dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/413729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4214096PMC
July 2015

Retrospective review on the use of topical cyclosporin a 0.05% for paediatric allergic conjunctivitis in Hong Kong Chinese.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 15;2014:396987. Epub 2014 Oct 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Center, 111 Wing Hong Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of using topical cyclosporin A 0.05% (Restasis) for the treatment of paediatric allergic conjunctivitis.

Methods: This retrospective study included consecutive cases of paediatric allergic conjunctivitis treated with Restasis between 2010 and 2013. Subjects with follow-up time less than 3 months after using Restasis were excluded. Itch severity score, symptom score, and sign score were compared before (baseline) and 3 months after using Restasis.

Results: In 27 eyes of 14 patients (mean age 10.8 ± 3.2 years), 44.4% had allergic conjunctivitis, 33.3% had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 22.2% had atopic keratoconjunctivitis. The mean duration of ocular symptoms was 20.4 ± 13.2 months. 92.6% of subjects were using steroid eye drop before Restasis. After 3 months of topical Restasis, there were statistically significant reductions in the symptom, sign, and itch severity scores compared with baseline (all P ≤ 0.001) and 78.6% of subjects were able to be tapered off steroid eye drops.

Conclusion: Topical Restasis was effective and safe in significantly reducing ocular itchiness, sign, and symptom scores at 3 months after use in paediatric allergic ocular conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/396987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4214101PMC
July 2015

Incidence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity in extreme low birth weight Chinese infants.

Int Ophthalmol 2015 Jun 5;35(3):365-73. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China,

The objective of this study is to determine the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) Chinese infants. A retrospective medical record review of all ELBW (≤1,000 g) neonates screened for ROP from 2007 to 2012 was performed in Hong Kong. ROP screening was conducted at 2 neonatal intensive care units by 3 pediatric ophthalmologists using the Royal College of Ophthalmologists ROP guideline and the International Classification of ROP. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP. In 131 ELBW Chinese infants, the mean gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) were 27.3 ± 3.3 weeks and 806.9 ± 133.7 g, respectively. The incidence of ROP and Type 1 ROP was 53.4 and 14.5 %, respectively. For ROP, a lighter BW, smaller GA, vaginal delivery, postnatal hypotension, inotrope use, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, surfactant use, invasive mechanical ventilation, and supplementary oxygen were independent risk factors for ROP, while PET was protective (P ≤ 0.02). On multivariate analysis, a smaller GA was a risk factor, while PET and congenital heart disease were protective for ROP development (P ≤ 0.01). For Type 1 ROP, a lighter BW, smaller GA, surfactant use, and invasive mechanical ventilation were independent risk factors for ROP, while PET was protective (P ≤ 0.02). There were no significant covariates on multivariate analysis for Type 1 ROP. In ELBW, preterm Chinese infants, a smaller GA was a risk factor for ROP, while PET and congenital heart disease were protective for ROP development in multivariate analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-014-9956-2DOI Listing
June 2015

Optic neuritis in Hong Kong: a 1-year follow-up study.

Int Ophthalmol 2015 Jun 12;35(3):303-10. Epub 2014 Apr 12.

Department of Medicine and Geriatric, Caritas Medical Centre, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region China.

To investigate the etiology and prevalence of optic neuritis in a Chinese population. This was a single centre prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients with either a first or recurrent attack of optic neuritis from November 2010 to December 2011 were recruited from a district hospital in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. All patients underwent serology testing for NMO (neuromyelitis optica) IgG; oligoclonal bands from lumbar puncture; computer tomography and contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and orbit as well as visual field; and optical coherence tomography testing. Patients were followed up for 1 year after the initial attack. 30 optic neuritis subjects were recruited. 73.3 % (22/30) remain as clinical isolated syndrome (CIS) after 1-year follow-up. 10 % (3/30) patients developed multiple sclerosis. 10 % (3/30) were diagnosed with NMO and 6.7 % (2/30) with NMO-spectrum disorder. The majority of acute unilateral optic neuritis in Chinese was CIS in origin although a fraction does progress to develop MS or NMO-related disorders. Clinicians should be aware of the associations and offer appropriate systemic workups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-014-9945-5DOI Listing
June 2015

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder in a Chinese Woman with Ocular Myasthenia Gravis: First Reported Case in the Chinese Population.

Neuroophthalmology 2014 2;38(3):140-144. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre Kowloon Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Coexisting myasthenia gravis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder was reported as a rare association, with only 26 reported cases in the literature. The authors report the case of a middle-aged Chinese woman with bilateral recurrent optic neuritis and seropositive ocular myasthenia gravis who was subsequently diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum. She was tested seropositive for the neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) and had elevated antinuclear antibody titres, but workup for other autoimmune disorders were negative. She was subsequently prescribed with azathioprine and pyridostigmine, and showed good control of both autoimmune disorders. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature of a Chinese patient with seropositivity for both anti-acetylcholine receptor and NMO-IgG without a thymic disorder. Testing of NMO-IgG may be considered in patients with optic neuritis with underlying autoimmune disorders even in the absence of transverse myelitis for the detection of associated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01658107.2013.879903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5123045PMC
April 2014

Prospective study on retinal nerve fibre layer thickness changes in isolated unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis.

ScientificWorldJournal 2013 25;2013:694613. Epub 2013 Dec 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To investigate the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness after unilateral acute optic neuritis using optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Patients And Methods: This prospective cohort study recruited consecutive patients with a first episode of isolated, unilateral acute optic neuritis. RNFL thickness and visual acuity (VA) of the attack and normal fellow eye were measured at presentation and 3 months in both the treatment and nontreatment groups.

Results: 11 subjects received systemic steroids and 9 were treated conservatively. The baseline RNFL thickness was similar in the attack and fellow eye (P ≥ 0.4). At 3 months, the attack eye had a thinner temporal (P = 0.02) and average (P = 0.05) RNFL compared to the fellow eye. At 3 months, the attack eye had significant RNFL thinning in the 4 quadrants and average thickness (P ≤ 0.0002) compared to baseline. The RNFL thickness between the treatment and nontreatment groups was similar at baseline and 3 months (P ≥ 0.1). Treatment offered better VA at 3 months (0.1 ± 0.2 versus 0.3 ± 0.2 LogMAR, P = 0.04).

Conclusion: Generalized RNFL thinning occurred at 3 months after a first episode of acute optic neuritis most significantly in the temporal quadrant and average thickness. Visual improvement with treatment was independent of RNFL thickness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/694613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3886364PMC
June 2014

Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for the treatment of primary chalazions.

Int Ophthalmol 2014 Oct 19;34(5):1049-53. Epub 2014 Jan 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong St., Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injection in the treatment of primary chalazions not responding to conservative treatment. Patient medical records were retrospectively reviewed for all consecutive patients that received intralesional TA injection by a single surgeon between January 2012 and March 2013 for the treatment of unresolved primary chalazions despite 1 month of conservative treatment. The dose of TA injection ranged from 2 to 6 mg (40 mg/mL) depending on the size of the chalazion. The main outcome measures included time to resolution, time to 50 % size reduction, and complications from the treatment. During the study period, 48 chalazions from 38 patients were treated by intralesional TA injection. A 50 % reduction in size was achieved in 81.3 % of chalazions in 4 weeks and 83 % achieved complete resolution in 6 weeks. The mean time to complete resolution was 15.7 ± 10.0 days. There were no complications noted from the injections; 14.6 % required subsequent incision and curettage and 2.1 % required a second TA injection for complete resolution. Intralesional TA injection is a safe, simple, and effective procedure for the management of primary chalazions and may be considered as an alternative to incision and curettage in cases not responding to conservative treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-014-9904-1DOI Listing
October 2014

Surgical outcome of involutional lower eyelid entropion correction using transcutaneous everting sutures in Chinese patients.

Int Ophthalmol 2014 Aug 31;34(4):865-8. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 111 Wing Hong St., Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

To evaluate the clinical efficacy of transcutaneous everting sutures for lower eyelid involutional entropion in Chinese patients. A retrospective, non-comparative, interventional case series. This retrospective study consecutively reviewed the medical records of all patients with involutional lower eyelid entropion who underwent transcutaneous everting suture for entropion correction at the Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, from 1st January 2010 to 31st October 2013. Exclusion criteria included concurrent eyelid pathologies such as malignant tumor, infection, cicatricial entropion, post-operative follow-up period of <3 months, significant horizontal lid laxity, and aged <60 years at the time of surgery. The primary outcome measures were recurrence rate and complications. Secondary outcome measures included patient demographic data, type and number of everting sutures, duration of operation, timing of stitch removal, duration of follow-up, as well as each patient's medical history and current medications. Thirty-four eyelids of 28 patients were included. The average age was 78.2 ± 7.3 years and the male to female ratio was 4:3. In this series, 26.5 and 2.9 % of eyelids underwent entropion correction whilst receiving aspirin and warfarin, respectively. The mean duration of post-operative follow-up was 13.2 ± 10.5 months. The recurrence rate was 11.8 % at a mean of 9.0 ± 6.0 months. There were no peri-operative or post-operative complications observed. A transcutaneous everting suture was found to be a quick and effective means to correct senile involutional lower lid entropion in Chinese patients with no complications despite the continued use of anti-coagulation therapy in >25 % of our cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-013-9893-5DOI Listing
August 2014

Primary acute angle closure: long-term clinical outcomes over a 10-year period in the Chinese population.

Int Ophthalmol 2014 Apr 4;34(2):165-9. Epub 2013 Jun 4.

The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, Room 301 Level 3 Block B, Cyberport 4, 100 Cyberport Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China,

To investigate long-term clinical outcomes after acute angle closure in the Chinese population. A 10-year retrospective review of primary acute angle closure in Hong Kong Chinese to document patient demographics, treatment, and pre- and post-acute angle closure intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual acuity (VA). The year of attack was correlated with the timing of laser, last VA and IOP, and the number of anti-glaucoma eye drops. In 210 eyes (200 patients), 10 % had a simultaneous bilateral acute angle closure. VA improvement was noted in 68.6 % of eyes whilst 11.4 % were blinded. At 3.7 ± 2.4 years of follow-up, 49.5 % had IOP <21 mmHg with medication or surgery, 41.9 % needed anti-glaucoma eye drops, and 13.8 % had undergone trabeculectomy. The older the year of attack, the poorer the VA (r = 0.2, p = 0.03) and the longer the laser wait time (r = 0.3, p < 0.0001). VA outcome and laser promptness in acute angle closure has improved over the years. At 4 years after the attack, 50 % had normal IOP, 69 % had improved VA but 11 % were blinded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-013-9806-7DOI Listing
April 2014

Prospective study on retinal nerve fibre layer changes after an acute episode of phacomorphic angle closure.

Int Ophthalmol 2012 Dec 31;32(6):577-82. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

The Eye Institute, The University of Hong Kong, Room 301, Level 3, Block B, Cyberport 4, 100 Cyberport Road, Hong Kong, SAR, People's Republic of China.

To investigate the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) changes after an acute attack of phacomorphic angle closure. This prospective study involved ten cases of phacomorphic angle closure that underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens insertion after intraocular pressure lowering. Apart from visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP), RNFL thickness and vertical cup disc ratio (VCDR) were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 3-9 months post attack. Humphrey visual field assessment was performed at 9 months post attack. All cases had mean phacomorphic duration of <5 days. Postoperatively, best correct Snellen visual acuity was 0.4 ± 0.2 and IOP at 9 months was 11.0 ± 3.1 mmHg. There was no difference in VCDR and RNFL between the attack and contralateral eye at 3 months post attack (both p = 0.4). At 9 months post attack, there was significant thinning in the average (p = 0.01), superior (p = 0.01), and inferior (p = 0.006) RNFL. There was no significant difference in the pattern standard deviation (PSD) between the two eyes on the Humphrey visual field nor was there any correlation between PSD severity and RNFL thinning (all p > 0.2. Patients with <5 days duration of phacomorphic angle closure are likely to have reasonable postoperative vision. An acute episode of phacomorphic angle closure can trigger an accelerated RNFL thinning despite normal IOP and open angles, most noticeable in the superior and inferior quadrants, occurring between 3 and 9 months post attack. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy in the attack eye was evident by OCT but not by visual field assessment at the same time interval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-012-9614-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3480582PMC
December 2012

Retinal redetachment after silicone oil removal in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a prognostic factor analysis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2008 Mar 11;145(3):527-533. Epub 2008 Jan 11.

Hong Kong Eye Hospital, and the Eye Institute, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To determine the prognostic factors associated with retinal redetachment after 1300-centistokes silicone oil removal in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RDs) associated with grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).

Design: Nonrandomized, retrospective, comparative interventional trial.

Methods: One hundred and forty-seven eyes with RD and grade C PVR treated with silicone oil tamponade, with subsequent silicone oil removal, in an institutional setting. Main outcome measures included anatomic success, defined as complete retinal attachment after silicone oil removal, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after silicone oil removal.

Results: Silicone oil was removed after a mean tamponade period of 12.4+/-9.8 months. The mean follow-up after silicone oil removal was 22.1+/-18.7 months (range, 6.0 to 71.0 months). The retina remained attached in 120 eyes after oil removal. The overall anatomic success rate was 81.6%+/-3.2%. Logistic regression showed that an increased number of previous unsuccessful RD surgeries (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.80; P=.010) and longer axial lengths (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.87; P=.032) were associated with a lower anatomic success rate. Previous vitrectomy, previous scleral buckling procedure, 12% perfluoropropane-air exchange immediately after silicone oil removal, and duration of silicone oil tamponade were not statistically associated with the anatomic success rate. Anatomic success was associated with a significantly better BCVA (1.169+/-0.475 vs 1.520+/-0.381 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; P<.001).

Conclusions: The number of previous surgeries and axial length, rather than the nature of the previous surgical procedures, were significant prognostic factors for anatomic success after silicone oil removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2007.10.015DOI Listing
March 2008

Results of high-density silicone oil as a tamponade agent in macular hole retinal detachment in patients with high myopia.

Br J Ophthalmol 2007 Jun 17;91(6):719-21. Epub 2007 Jan 17.

Hong Kong Eye Hospital, 147K, Argyle Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Background: To evaluate the use of high-density silicone oil (HDSO) as a tamponade agent for retinal detachment secondary to myopic macular hole.

Methods: 12 eyes of 12 patients with macular hole retinal detachment underwent pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling and HDSO tamponade. No posturing was required postoperatively and HDSO was removed 3-4 months later. Outcome measures included macular hole closure and retinal attachment rates, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraoperative and postoperative complications.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 67.8 years and the mean spherical equivalent refractive error was -13.4 diopters. After the removal of HDSO, 10 (83%) eyes had macular hole closure with retinal reattachment without any tamponade. One eye had retinal reattachment after re-operation and the other refused further surgery. At the last follow-up, the median BCVA improved from 20/800 to 20/600 (p = 0.046). A transient increase in intraocular pressure was observed in 5 (42%) eyes and one eye each developed mild oil emulsification and transient peripheral choroidal detachment. None of the eyes was found to have severe intraocular inflammation postoperatively.

Conclusions: HDSO seemed to be an effective tamponade agent for myopic macular hole retinal detachment. Further prospective controlled studies seem warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2006.111526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955589PMC
June 2007

Pars plana vitrectomy and perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade for retinal detachment due to myopic macular hole: a prognostic factor analysis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2006 Dec 1;142(6):938-44. Epub 2006 Sep 1.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Vitreoretinal Service, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Hospital Authority Ophthalmic Services, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To determine the prognostic factors associated with anatomical success in the treatment of retinal detachment (RD) due to myopic macular hole by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas tamponade.

Design: Retrospective, interventional, comparative case series.

Methods: In an institutional setting, 57 eyes with myopic macular hole RDs treated by PPV and C3F8 tamponade, with or without concomitant internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, endolaser photocoagulation, and/or phacoemulsification, were analyzed. Outcome measures were anatomical success, defined as closure of macular hole with reattachment of the surrounding retina, and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA).

Results: The mean postoperative follow-up was 26.9 +/- 16.5 months. The anatomical success rate after primary PPV and C3F8 tamponade was 63.2%. Regression analysis showed that shorter axial lengths (odds ratio [OR] = 6.73, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.86 to 12.22, P = .010), concomitant ILM peeling (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.38, P = .013), and shorter duration of macular hole RD (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.98, P = .033) were associated with a higher anatomical success. The mean pre- and postoperative BCVAs were 1.430 +/- 0.273 (range, 0.523 to 1.700) and 1.403 +/- 0.271 (range, 0.699 to 1.800) logarithm of minimal angle of resolution units, respectively. The postoperative BCVA was significantly better in eyes with macular hole closure than in eyes without (P = .021).

Conclusions: Axial length, concomitant ILM peeling, and duration were important prognostic factors for PPV and C3F8 tamponade in the treatment of myopic macular hole RDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2006.07.056DOI Listing
December 2006

Sutureless vitrectomy surgery.

Ophthalmology 2003 Dec;110(12):2428-9; author reply 2429

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2003.09.006DOI Listing
December 2003

Combined phacoemulsification, pars plana vitrectomy, and foldable intraocular lens implantation.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2003 Jun;29(6):1064-9

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

We describe a technique for combined cataract and vitreoretinal surgery using sutureless sclerocorneal and sclerotomy incisions and a foldable intraocular lens. This technique, with its variations for cases with and without gas-fluid exchange, was successfully performed in 40 consecutive cases over a 5-month period. No significant complications related to the surgical procedures were encountered. The rationale and advantages of this technique are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0886-3350(02)01809-6DOI Listing
June 2003
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