Publications by authors named "Can Liu"

299 Publications

Quantification of cyclic DNA polymerization with lanthanide coordination nanomaterials for liquid biopsy.

Chem Sci 2020 Mar 13;11(14):3745-3751. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University Nanjing 210023 P. R. China +86-25-85891051 +86-25-85891051.

Quantification of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is of great importance in liquid biopsy but difficult due to its low amount in bodily fluids. To meet this high demand, a novel method for ctDNA detection is established by quantifying cyclic DNA polymerization using lanthanide coordination polymers (Ln-CPs). Relying on the coordination between the pyrophosphate ion (PPi) and trivalent cerium ion (Ce), organic ligand-free PPi-Ce coordination polymer networks (PPi-Ce CPNs) with enhanced fluorescence are prepared for the first time. By surveying the optical properties of PPi-Ce CPNs, it is found that PPi regulates electric-dipole transition of Ce to the lowest excited state, thus facilitating the emission of fluorescence. Therefore, fluorescence enhancement of PPi-Ce CPNs originates from the ligand field effect rather than the normal antenna effect. Moreover, a new strategy to quantify DNA polymerization is developed based on PPi-Ce CPNs. By introducing multifold cyclic DNA polymerization, a small amount of ctDNA triggers the exponential generation of PPi to form plenty of PPi-Ce CPNs. Accordingly, a biosensor is constructed for sensitive ctDNA detection by measuring the intense fluorescence of PPi-Ce CPNs. The biosensor is capable of sensing ctDNA at the sub-femtomolar level, which is far better than the analytical performances of commercial dyes. Besides, the analytical method is able to detect single nucleotide polymorphism and determine ctDNA in real samples. Considering that DNA polymerization is widely used in bio-recognition, bio-assembly and biomineralization, the work provides a versatile quantitative strategy of making relevant processes precise and controllable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sc06408gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152624PMC
March 2020

Controlled single-mode emission in quantum dot micro-lasers.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(9):13193-13203

In this paper, we demonstrate an efficient and easy fabrication method for whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) manipulation and report the first electrically driven single-mode quantum dot micro-ring (QDMR) lasers. Using self-assembled InAs/InAlGaAs QD active layers with deeply etched azimuthal gratings, continuous-wave (CW) lasing with controllable single-mode emission wavelengths covering 1300 nm to 1370 nm has been achieved. A record-high side-mode-suppression-ratio (SMSR) value of 49 dB is obtained. These QDMR lasers exhibit excellent single-mode lasing stabilities over the current and temperature tuning range with a thermal tunability of 0.092 nm/°C. The concept is applicable to other wavelength bands depending on the gain spectrum, demonstrating a feasible solution in realizing energy-efficient and densely integrated photonic building blocks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.421037DOI Listing
April 2021

Posterior subthalamic nucleus (PSTh) mediates innate fear-associated hypothermia in mice.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2648. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Institute of Biological Sciences (NIBS), Beijing, China.

The neural mechanisms of fear-associated thermoregulation remain unclear. Innate fear odor 2-methyl-2-thiazoline (2MT) elicits rapid hypothermia and elevated tail temperature, indicative of vasodilation-induced heat dissipation, in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking Trpa1-the chemosensor for 2MT. Here we report that Trpa1 mice show diminished 2MT-evoked c-fos expression in the posterior subthalamic nucleus (PSTh), external lateral parabrachial subnucleus (PBel) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Whereas tetanus toxin light chain-mediated inactivation of NTS-projecting PSTh neurons suppress, optogenetic activation of direct PSTh-rostral NTS pathway induces hypothermia and tail vasodilation. Furthermore, selective opto-stimulation of 2MT-activated, PSTh-projecting PBel neurons by capturing activated neuronal ensembles (CANE) causes hypothermia. Conversely, chemogenetic suppression of vGlut2 neurons in PBel or PSTh, or PSTh-projecting PBel neurons attenuates 2MT-evoked hypothermia and tail vasodilation. These studies identify PSTh as a major thermoregulatory hub that connects PBel to NTS to mediate 2MT-evoked innate fear-associated hypothermia and tail vasodilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22914-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113537PMC
May 2021

Self-curling electroconductive nerve dressing for enhancing peripheral nerve regeneration in diabetic rats.

Bioact Mater 2021 Nov 14;6(11):3892-3903. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Spine Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, China.

Conductive scaffolds have been shown to exert a therapeutic effect on patients suffering from peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs). However, conventional conductive conduits are made of rigid structures and have limited applications for impaired diabetic patients due to their mechanical mismatch with neural tissues and poor plasticity. We propose the development of biocompatible electroconductive hydrogels (ECHs) that are identical to a surgical dressing in this study. Based on excellent adhesive and self-healing properties, the thin film-like dressing can be easily attached to the injured nerve fibers, automatically warps a tubular structure without requiring any invasive techniques. The ECH offers an intimate and stable electrical bridge coupling with the electrogenic nerve tissues. The in vitro experiments indicated that the ECH promoted the migration and adhesion of the Schwann cells. Furthermore, the ECH facilitated axonal regeneration and remyelination in vitro and in vivo through the MEK/ERK pathway, thus preventing muscle denervation atrophy while retaining functional recovery. The results of this study are likely to facilitate the development of non-invasive treatment techniques for PNIs in diabetic patients utilizing electroconductive hydrogels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076708PMC
November 2021

A Security Scheme Based on Intranal-Adding Links for Integrated Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China.

With the advent of the Internet of Everything era, the Industrial Internet is increasingly showing mutual integration and development. Its core framework, the industrial CPS (Cyber-Physical Systems), has received more and more attention and in-depth research in recent years. These complex industrial CPS systems are usually composed of multiple interdependent sub-networks (such as physical networks and control networks, etc.). Minor faults or failure behaviors between sub-networks may cause serious cascading failure effects of the entire system. In this paper, we will propose a security scheme based on intranal-adding links in the face of the integrated and converged industrial CPS system environment. Firstly, by calculating the size of the largest connected component in the entire system, we can compare and analyze industrial CPS systems' security performance under random attacks. Secondly, we compare and analyze the risk of cascading failure between integrated industrial CPS systems under different intranal-adding link strategies. Finally, the simulation results verify the system security strategy's effectiveness under different strategies and show a relatively better exchange strategy to enhance the system's security. In addition, this paper's research work can help us design how to further optimize the interdependent industrial CPS system's topology to cope with the integrated and converged industrial CPS system environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21082794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071418PMC
April 2021

miR-151 Affects Low-Temperature Tolerance of by Modulating Autophagy Under Low-Temperature Stress.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:595108. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including autophagy. Autophagy is cellular in an emergency response mechanism of environment stress, but their complex molecular regulatory mechanism under low-temperature stress is largely unknown in shrimp, especially miRNA-mediated regulation of autophagy in low-temperature tolerance. In this article, a shrimp and miRNA pva-miR-151 cooperation in response to low-temperature stress has been reported. Pva-miR-151 showed expression patterns opposite to target under low-temperature stress. The pva-miR-151 targets the 3'-UTR region of , regulate the formation of autophagosome, which contribute to the degradation and recycling of damaged organelles. In addition, the low-temperature tolerance was correlated positively with autophagy in shrimp. Silenced pva-miR-151 increased sensitivity to low-temperature stress, whereas overexpression pva-miR-151 decreased the expression of PvTOR and p-TOR and increased tolerance to low-temperature stress by improving the formation of autophagosome and total hemocyte count. In addition, the TOR activator 3BDO can partially rescue autophagy induced by overexpression of pva-miR-151; these results indicate that miR-151 was necessary for the low-temperature tolerance in shrimp. Taken together, we provide a novel strategy and mechanism for shrimp breeding to improve shrimp low-temperature tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.595108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064728PMC
April 2021

Self-supporting Atmosphere-Assisted Synthesis of 1D Mo C-based Catalyst for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (P. R., China.

One-dimensional materials exhibit fascinating properties in electrocatalytic applications but their fabrication faces the challenge of tedious and complicated operations. We have developed a bottom-up strategy to construct a 1D metal carbide catalyst (Mo [email protected]) consisting of ultrafine Mo C nanoparticles embedded within nitrogen-doped carbon layers by simply calcining a mixture of ammonium molybdate, urea and melamine. Experimental results and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that the retainable pyrolysis-generated self-supporting atmosphere plays a crucial role in the crystalline phase and morphology of materials. When functioned as an electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), the achieved Mo [email protected] presents an excellent catalytic activity as well as outstanding stability. This work could shed fresh light onto the facile synthesis of effective HER catalysts with 1D nanostructure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202100646DOI Listing
April 2021

Lactoferrin is required for early B cell development in C57BL/6 mice.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 7;14(1):58. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Cancer Metabolism, Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Lactoferrin (Lf) is widely distributed in mammalian milk, various tissues, and their exocrine fluids and has many physiological functions, such as bacteriostasis, antivirus, and immunoregulation. Here, we provide evidence that lactoferrin is required for early stages of B cell development in mice. Lactoferrin-deficient (Lf) C57BL/6 mice showed systematic reduction in total B cells, which was attributed to the arrest of early B cell development from pre-pro-B to pro-B stage. Although the Lf B cell "seeds" generated greater pro-B cells comparing to wild type (WT) littermates, the Lf mice bone marrow had less stromal cells, and lower CXCL12 expression, produced a less favorable "microenvironment" for early B cell development. The underlying mechanism was mediated through ERK and AKT signalings and an abnormality in the transcription factors related to early differentiation of B cells. The Lf mice also displayed abnormal antibody production in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent immunization experiments. In a pristane-induced lupus model, Lf mice had more serious symptoms than WT mice, whereas lactoferrin treatment alleviated these symptoms. This study demonstrates a novel role of lactoferrin in early B cell development, suggesting a potential benefit for using lactoferrin in B cell-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01074-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028198PMC
April 2021

Exosomes derived from miR-26a-modified MSCs promote axonal regeneration via the PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway following spinal cord injury.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Apr 5;12(1):224. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Spine Surgery, The 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, Guangdong, China.

Background: Exosomes derived from the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) have shown great potential in spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment. This research was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of miR-26a-modified MSC-derived exosomes (Exos-26a) following SCI.

Methods: Bioinformatics and data mining were performed to explore the role of miR-26a in SCI. Exosomes were isolated from miR-26a-modified MSC culture medium by ultracentrifugation. A series of experiments, including assessment of Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale, histological evaluation, motor-evoked potential recording, diffusion tensor imaging, and western blotting, were performed to determine the therapeutic influence and the underlying molecular mechanisms of Exos-26a in SCI rats.

Results: Exos-26a was shown to promote axonal regeneration. Furthermore, we found that exosomes derived from miR-26a-modified MSC could improve neurogenesis and attenuate glial scarring through PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling cascades.

Conclusions: Exosomes derived from miR-26a-modified MSC could activate the PTEN-AKT-mTOR pathway to promote axonal regeneration and neurogenesis and attenuate glia scarring in SCI and thus present great potential for SCI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02282-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022427PMC
April 2021

Association of Gestational Age with Postpartum Hemorrhage: An International Cohort Study.

Anesthesiology 2021 Jun;134(6):874-886

Background: Risk factors for postpartum hemorrhage, such as chorioamnionitis and multiple gestation, have been identified in previous epidemiologic studies. However, existing data describing the association between gestational age at delivery and postpartum hemorrhage are conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the association between gestational age at delivery and postpartum hemorrhage.

Methods: The authors conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of women who underwent live birth delivery in Sweden between 2014 and 2017 and in California between 2011 and 2015. The primary exposure was gestational age at delivery. The primary outcome was postpartum hemorrhage, classified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification codes for California births and a blood loss greater than 1,000 ml for Swedish births. The authors accounted for demographic and obstetric factors as potential confounders in the analyses.

Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage in Sweden (23,323/328,729; 7.1%) and in California (66,583/2,079,637; 3.2%) were not comparable. In Sweden and California, the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage was highest for deliveries between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation (7,186/75,539 [9.5%] and 8,921/160,267 [5.6%], respectively). Compared to deliveries between 37 and 38 weeks, deliveries between 41 and 42 weeks had the highest adjusted odds of postpartum hemorrhage (1.62 [95% CI, 1.56 to 1.69] in Sweden and 2.04 [95% CI, 1.98 to 2.09] in California). In both cohorts, the authors observed a nonlinear (J-shaped) association between gestational age and postpartum hemorrhage risk, with 39 weeks as the nadir. In the sensitivity analyses, similar findings were observed among cesarean deliveries only, when postpartum hemorrhage was classified only by International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision-Clinical Modification codes, and after excluding women with abnormal placentation disorders.

Conclusions: The postpartum hemorrhage incidence in Sweden and California was not comparable. When assessing a woman's risk for postpartum hemorrhage, clinicians should be aware of the heightened odds in women who deliver between 41 and 42 weeks' gestation.

Editor’s Perspective:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003730DOI Listing
June 2021

Time-resolved systems immunology reveals a late juncture linked to fatal COVID-19.

Cell 2021 04 10;184(7):1836-1857.e22. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Multiscale Systems Biology Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA; NIH Center for Human Immunology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

COVID-19 exhibits extensive patient-to-patient heterogeneity. To link immune response variation to disease severity and outcome over time, we longitudinally assessed circulating proteins as well as 188 surface protein markers, transcriptome, and T cell receptor sequence simultaneously in single peripheral immune cells from COVID-19 patients. Conditional-independence network analysis revealed primary correlates of disease severity, including gene expression signatures of apoptosis in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and attenuated inflammation but increased fatty acid metabolism in CD56CD16 NK cells linked positively to circulating interleukin (IL)-15. CD8 T cell activation was apparent without signs of exhaustion. Although cellular inflammation was depressed in severe patients early after hospitalization, it became elevated by days 17-23 post symptom onset, suggestive of a late wave of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, circulating protein trajectories at this time were divergent between and predictive of recovery versus fatal outcomes. Our findings stress the importance of timing in the analysis, clinical monitoring, and therapeutic intervention of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874909PMC
April 2021

Risk factors for postpartum readmission among women after having a stillbirth.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Mar 9;3(4):100345. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Neonatal and Developmental Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (Drs Liu, Wall-Wieler, and Carmichael). Electronic address:

Background: Compared to women with a live birth, women with a stillbirth are more likely to have maternal complications during pregnancy and at birth, but risk factors related to their postpartum health are uncertain.

Objective: This study aimed to identify patient-level risk factors for postpartum hospital readmission among women after having a stillbirth.

Study Design: This was a population-based cohort study of 29,654 women with a stillbirth in California from 1997 to 2011. Using logistic regression models, we examined the association of maternal patient-level factors with postpartum readmission among women after a stillbirth within 6 weeks of hospital discharge and between 6 weeks and 9 months after delivery.

Results: Within 6 weeks after a stillbirth, 642 women (2.2%) had a postpartum readmission. Risk factors for postpartum readmission after a stillbirth were severe maternal morbidity excluding transfusion (adjusted odds ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval, 2.28-4.00), transfusion at delivery but no other indication of severe maternal morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.81), gestational hypertension or preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-2.42), prepregnancy hypertension (adjusted odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-2.37), diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.37), antenatal hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.21), cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.21), long length of stay in the hospital after delivery (>2 days for vaginal delivery and >4 days for cesarean delivery) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.89), non-Hispanic black race and ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.76), and having less than a high school education (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.80). From 6 weeks to 9 months, 1169 women (3.90%) had a postpartum readmission; significantly associated risk factors were largely similar to those for earlier readmission.

Conclusion: Women with comorbidities, with birth-related complications, of non-Hispanic black race and ethnicity, or with less education had increased odds of postpartum readmission after having a stillbirth, highlighting the importance of continued care for these women after discharge from the hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2021.100345DOI Listing
March 2021

Exosome-functionalized polyetheretherketone-based implant with immunomodulatory property for enhancing osseointegration.

Bioact Mater 2021 Sep 15;6(9):2754-2766. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Materials Science and Engineering & National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, China.

The host immune response effecting on biomaterials is critical to determine implant fates and bone regeneration property. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) derived exosomes (Exos) contain multiple biosignal molecules and have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory functions. Herein, we develop a BMSC-derived Exos-functionalized implant to accelerate bone integration by immunoregulation. BMSC-derived Exos were reversibly incorporated on tannic acid (TA) modified sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) via the strong interaction of TA with biomacromolecules. The slowly released Exos from SPEEK can be phagocytosed by co-cultured cells, which could efficiently improve the biocompatibilities of SPEEK. results showed the Exos loaded SPEEK promoted macrophage M2 polarization via the NF-κB pathway to enhance BMSCs osteogenic differentiation. Further rat air-pouch model and rat femoral drilling model assessment of Exos loaded SPEEK revealed efficient macrophage M2 polarization, desirable new bone formation, and satisfactory osseointegration. Thus, BMSC-derived Exos-functionalized implant exerted osteoimmunomodulation effect to promote osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897935PMC
September 2021

Preterm disparities between foreign and Swedish born mothers depend on the method used to estimate gestational age. A Swedish population-based register study.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(2):e0247138. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

This study aims to examine whether disparities in gestational age outcomes between foreign and Swedish-born mothers are contingent on the measure used to estimate gestational age and, if so, to identify which maternal factors are associated with the discrepancy. Using population register data, we studied all singleton live births in Sweden from 1992-2012 (n = 1,317,265). Multinomial logistic regression was performed to compare gestational age outcomes classified into very (<32 weeks) and late preterm (32-36 weeks), term and post-term derived from the last menstrual period (LMP) and ultrasound estimates in foreign- and Swedish-born women. Compared to Swedish-born women, foreign-born women had similar odds of very preterm birth (OR: 0.98 [95% CI: 0.98, 1.01]) and lower odds of moderately preterm birth (OR: 0.95 [95% CI: 0.92, 0.98]) based on ultrasound, while higher risks based on LMP (respectively, OR: 1.10 [95% CI: 1.07, 1.14] and 1.09 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.13]). Conclusions on disparities in gestational age-related outcomes by mother's country of origin depend on the method used to estimate gestational age. Except for very preterm, foreign-born women had a health advantage when gestational age is based on ultrasound, but a health disadvantage when based on LMP. Studies assessing disparities in very preterm birth by migration status are not affected by the estimation method but caution should be taken when interpreting disparities in moderately preterm and preterm birth rates.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247138PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899337PMC
February 2021

Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose as the Additive With Enzyme-Catalyzed Carboxylated Starch to Prepare the Film With Enhanced Mechanical and Hydrophobic Properties.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 2;9:638546. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

The Key Laboratory of State Forestry and Grassland Administration on Highly-Efficient Utilization of Forestry Biomass Resources in Southwest China, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China.

Carboxymethyl cellulose, a hydrophobic derivative from cellulose that can be prepared from different biomass, has been widely applied in food, medicine, chemical, and other industries. In this work, carboxymethyl cellulose was used as the additive to improve the hydrophobicity and strength of carboxylated starch film, which is prepared from starch catalyzed by bio-α-amylase. This study investigated the effects of different bio-α-amylase dosages (starch 0.5%, starch 1%) and different activation times (10, 30 min) on starch to prepare the carboxylated starch. The effects of different carboxymethyl cellulose content on the carboxylated starch film were investigated by analysis viscosity, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and contact angle. The results showed that preparing carboxylated starch using activated starch increased the carboxyl content, which could improve the effectiveness of the activated enzyme compared to prolonging the activation time. The carboxyl starch prepared by enzyme catalysis had a lower gelatinization temperature, and enzyme activation destroyed the crystallization area of the starch, thus facilitating the carboxylation reaction. The addition of 15% carboxymethyl cellulose improved the mechanical properties of the prepared film with maximum tensile strength of 44.8 MPa. Carboxymethyl cellulose effectively improved the hydrophobicity of the starch film with the addition amount of 10-30%, while hydrophobic property was stable at 66.8° when the addition amount was exceeded to 35%. In this work, it can be found that carboxymethyl cellulose improve the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of starch film, laying the foundation for the application of carboxylated starch materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.638546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884610PMC
February 2021

TREM2 sustains macrophage-hepatocyte metabolic coordination in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and sepsis.

J Clin Invest 2021 Feb;131(4)

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Sepsis is a leading cause of death in critical illness, and its pathophysiology varies depending on preexisting medical conditions. Here we identified nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as an independent risk factor for sepsis in a large clinical cohort and showed a link between mortality in NAFLD-associated sepsis and hepatic mitochondrial and energetic metabolism dysfunction. Using in vivo and in vitro models of liver lipid overload, we discovered a metabolic coordination between hepatocyte mitochondria and liver macrophages that express triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2). Trem2-deficient macrophages released exosomes that impaired hepatocytic mitochondrial structure and energy supply because of their high content of miR-106b-5p, which blocks Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). In a mouse model of NAFLD-associated sepsis, TREM2 deficiency accelerated the initial progression of NAFLD and subsequent susceptibility to sepsis. Conversely, overexpression of TREM2 in liver macrophages improved hepatic energy supply and sepsis outcome. This study demonstrates that NAFLD is a risk factor for sepsis, providing a basis for precision treatment, and identifies hepatocyte-macrophage metabolic coordination and TREM2 as potential targets for future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI135197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880419PMC
February 2021

Interpregnancy Interval and Subsequent Severe Maternal Morbidity: A 16-Year Population-Based Study From California.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 Jun;190(6):1034-1046

Interpregnancy interval (IPI) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, but its contribution to severe maternal morbidity (SMM) remains unclear. We examined the association between IPI and SMM, using data linked across sequential pregnancies to women in California during 1997-2012. Adjusting for confounders measured in the index pregnancy (i.e., the first in a pair of consecutive pregnancies), we estimated adjusted risk ratios for SMM related to the subsequent pregnancy. We further conducted within-mother comparisons and analyses stratified by parity and maternal age at the index pregnancy. Compared with an IPI of 18-23 months, an IPI of <6 months had the same risk for SMM in between-mother comparisons (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.02) but lower risk in within-mother comparisons (aRR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.86). IPIs of 24-59 months and ≥60 months were associated with increased risk of SMM in both between-mother (aRR = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.23) and aRR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.68, 1.85), respectively) and within-mother (aRR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.34) and aRR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.66, 2.13), respectively) comparisons. The association between IPI and SMM did not vary substantially by maternal age or parity. In this study, longer IPI was associated with increased risk of SMM, which may be partly attributed to interpregnancy health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168254PMC
June 2021

The Beneficial Effects of Saffron Extract on Potential Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:6699821. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China.

Saffron is commonly used in traditional medicines and precious perfumes. It contains pharmacologically active compounds with notably potent antioxidant activity. Saffron has a variety of active components, including crocin, crocetin, and safranal. Oxidative stress plays an important role in many cardiovascular diseases, and its uncontrolled chain reaction is related to myocardial injury. Numerous studies have confirmed that saffron exact exhibits protective effects on the myocardium and might be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In view of the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease, people have shown considerable interest in the potential role of saffron extract as a treatment for a range of cardiovascular diseases. This review analyzed the use of saffron in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases through antioxidant stress from four aspects: antiatherosclerosis, antimyocardial ischemia, anti-ischemia reperfusion injury, and improvement in drug-induced cardiotoxicity, particularly anthracycline-induced. Although data is limited in humans with only two clinically relevant studies, the results of preclinical studies regarding the antioxidant stress effects of saffron are promising and warrant further research in clinical trials. This review summarized the protective effect of saffron in cardiovascular diseases and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. It will facilitate pharmacological research and development and promote utilization of saffron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6699821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840270PMC
January 2021

Identification of a small molecule as inducer of ferroptosis and apoptosis through ubiquitination of GPX4 in triple negative breast cancer cells.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 01 20;14(1):19. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Pharmacy and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Drug Research, Nankai University, Haihe Education Park, 38 Tongyan Road, Tianjin, 300353, People's Republic of China.

Background: TNBC is the most aggressive breast cancer with higher recurrence and mortality rate than other types of breast cancer. There is an urgent need for identification of therapeutic agents with unique mode of action for overcoming current challenges in TNBC treatment.

Methods: Different inhibitors were used to study the cell death manner of DMOCPTL. RNA silencing was used to evaluate the functions of GPX4 in ferroptosis and apoptosis of TNBC cells and functions of EGR1 in apoptosis. Immunohistochemical assay of tissue microarray were used for investigating correlation of GPX4 and EGR1 with TNBC. Computer-aided docking and small molecule probe were used for study the binding of DMOCPTL with GPX4.

Results: DMOCPTL, a derivative of natural product parthenolide, exhibited about 15-fold improvement comparing to that of the parent compound PTL for TNBC cells. The cell death manner assay showed that the anti-TNBC effect of DMOCPTL mainly by inducing ferroptosis and apoptosis through ubiquitination of GPX4. The probe of DMOCPTL assay indicated that DMOCPTL induced GPX4 ubiquitination by directly binding to GPX4 protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of inducing ferroptosis through ubiquitination of GPX4. Moreover, the mechanism of GPX4 regulation of apoptosis is still obscure. Here, we firstly reveal that GPX4 regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through regulation of EGR1 in TNBC cells. Compound 13, the prodrug of DMOCPTL, effectively inhibited the growth of breast tumor and prolonged the lifespan of mice in vivo, and no obvious toxicity was observed.

Conclusions: These findings firstly revealed novel manner to induce ferroptosis through ubiquitination of GPX4 and provided mechanism for GPX4 inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through up-regulation of EGR1 in TNBC cells. Moreover, compound 13 deserves further studies as a lead compound with novel mode of action for ultimate discovery of effective anti-TNBC drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-01016-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816340PMC
January 2021

RNA m A methylation regulates virus-host interaction and EBNA2 expression during Epstein-Barr virus infection.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Jun 12;9(2):351-362. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Hunan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Introduction: N -methyladenosine (m A) is the most prevalent modification that occurs in messenger RNA (mRNA), affecting mRNA splicing, translation, and stability. This modification is reversible, and its related biological functions are mediated by "writers," "erasers," and "readers." The field of viral epitranscriptomics and the role of m A modification in virus-host interaction have attracted much attention recently. When Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects a human B lymphocyte, it goes through three phases: the pre-latent phase, latent phase, and lytic phase. Little is known about the viral and cellular m A epitranscriptomes in EBV infection, especially in the pre-latent phase during de novo infection.

Methods: Methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) and MeRIP-RT-qPCR were used to determine the m A-modified transcripts during de novo EBV infection. RIP assay was used to confirm the binding of EBNA2 and m A readers. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis were performed to test the effect of m A on the host and viral gene expression.

Results: Here, we provided mechanistic insights by examining the viral and cellular m A epitranscriptomes during de novo EBV infection, which is in the pre-latent phase. EBV EBNA2 and BHRF1 were highly m A-modified upon EBV infection. Knockdown of METTL3 (a "writer") decreased EBNA2 expression levels. The emergent m A modifications induced by EBV infection preferentially distributed in 3' untranslated regions of cellular transcripts, while the lost m A modifications induced by EBV infection preferentially distributed in coding sequence regions of mRNAs. EBV infection could influence the host cellular m A epitranscriptome.

Conclusions: These results reveal the critical role of m A modification in the process of de novo EBV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127537PMC
June 2021

Taurocholic acid inhibits the response to interferon-α therapy in patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B by impairing CD8 T and NK cell function.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 Feb 11;18(2):461-471. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Gene Diagnosis Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Pegylated interferon-alpha (PegIFNα) therapy has limited effectiveness in hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. However, the mechanism underlying this failure is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the influence of bile acids (BAs), especially taurocholic acid (TCA), on the response to PegIFNα therapy in CHB patients. Here, we used mass spectrometry to determine serum BA profiles in 110 patients with chronic HBV infection and 20 healthy controls (HCs). We found that serum BAs, especially TCA, were significantly elevated in HBeAg-positive CHB patients compared with those in HCs and patients in other phases of chronic HBV infection. Moreover, serum BAs, particularly TCA, inhibited the response to PegIFNα therapy in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. Mechanistically, the expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, granzyme B, and perforin were measured using flow cytometry to assess the effector functions of immune cells in patients with low or high BA levels. We found that BAs reduced the number and proportion and impaired the effector functions of CD3CD8 T cells and natural killer (NK) cells in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. TCA in particular reduced the frequency and impaired the effector functions of CD3CD8 T and NK cells in vitro and in vivo and inhibited the immunoregulatory activity of IFN-α in vitro. Thus, our results show that BAs, especially TCA, inhibit the response to PegIFNα therapy by impairing the effector functions of CD3CD8 T and NK cells in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. Our findings suggest that targeting TCA could be a promising approach for restoring IFN-α responsiveness during CHB treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00601-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027018PMC
February 2021

Genomic Analyses Reveal Adaptation to Hot Arid and Harsh Environments in Native Chickens of China.

Front Genet 2020 21;11:582355. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Maxun Biotechnology Institute, Changsha, China.

The acute thermal response has been extensively studied in commercial chickens because of the adverse effects of heat stress on poultry production worldwide. Here, we performed whole-genome resequencing of autochthonous Niya chicken breed native to the Taklimakan Desert region as well as of 11 native chicken breeds that are widely distributed and reared under native humid and temperate areas. We used combined statistical analysis to search for putative genes that might be related to the adaptation of hot arid and harsh environment in Niya chickens. We obtained a list of intersected candidate genes with log2 θπ ratio, FST and XP-CLR (including 123 regions of 21 chromosomes with the average length of 54.4 kb) involved in different molecular processes and pathways implied complex genetic mechanisms of adaptation of native chickens to hot arid and harsh environments. We identified several selective regions containing genes that were associated with the circulatory system and blood vessel development (BVES, SMYD1, IL18, PDGFRA, NRP1, and CORIN), related to central nervous system development (SIM2 and NALCN), related to apoptosis (CLPTM1L, APP, CRADD, and PARK2) responded to stimuli (AHR, ESRRG FAS, and UBE4B) and involved in fatty acid metabolism (FABP1). Our findings provided the genomic evidence of the complex genetic mechanisms of adaptation to hot arid and harsh environments in chickens. These results may improve our understanding of thermal, drought, and harsh environment acclimation in chickens and may serve as a valuable resource for developing new biotechnological tools to breed stress-tolerant chicken lines and or breeds in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.582355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793703PMC
December 2020

Preparation of Acid- and Alkali-Modified Biochar for Removal of Methylene Blue Pigment.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 30;5(48):30906-30922. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Key Laboratory of State Forestry Administration for Highly-Efficient Utilization of Forestry Biomass Resources in Southwest China, College of Materials Science & Engineering, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, PR China.

Walnut shell biochar (WSC) and wood powder biochar (WPC) prepared using the limited oxygen pyrolysis process were used as raw materials, and ZnCl, KOH, HSO, and HPO were used to modify them. The evaluation of the liquid-phase adsorption performance using methylene blue (MB) as a pigment model showed that modified biochar prepared from both biomasses had a mesoporous structure, and the pore size of WSC was larger than that of WPC. However, the alkaline modified was more conducive to the formation of pores in the biomass-modified biochar materials; KOH treatment resulted in the highest modified biochar-specific surface area. The isothermal adsorption of MB by the two biomass pyrolysis charcoals conformed to the Freundlich equation, and the adsorption process conformed to the quasi-second-order kinetic equation, which is mainly physical adsorption. The large number of oxygen-containing functional groups on the particle surface provided more adsorption sites for MB adsorption, which was beneficial to the adsorption reactions. The adsorption effects of woody biomass were obviously higher than that of shell biomass, and the adsorption capacities of the two raw materials' pyrolysis charcoal were in the order of WPC > WSC. The adsorption effects of different treatment reagents on MB were in the order ZnCl > KOH > HPO > HSO. The maximum adsorption capacities of the two biomass treatments were 850.9 mg/g for WPC with ZnCl treatment and 701.3 mg/g for WSC with KOH treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726758PMC
December 2020

The mobilization of splenic reservoir myeloid-derived suppressor cells in sepsis-induced myocardial injury.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(11):7114-7126. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Cardiology, Yi Ji Shan Hospital Affiliated to Wan Nan Medical College Wuhu, Anhui, China.

Background: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play key roles in sepsis, but whether the bone marrow is considered the only source remains unclear. The current knowledge about the mechanism of MDSCs leading to myocardial injury in sepsis is poor.

Methods: In sepsis patients with cardiac dysfunction, the circulating percentage of CD14CD11b and serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1β were measured. A mouse sepsis model was established through caecum ligation and puncture (CLP). Animals were divided into four groups: control, sham, CLP and CLP+splenectomy (CLPS). Serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, TnI and NT-proBNP were measured. CD11bGr-1 cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR. Myocardial injury was detected by HE, Masson and TUNEL staining. The expression of mTOR, P53 and caspase-3 was measured by Western blot.

Results: In sepsis patients, circulating MDSCs were increased, and the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1β were elevated. The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1β were correlated with the ratio of circulating MDSCs. In the mouse sepsis model, the spleen was the major source of CD11bGr-1 cells that migrated into circulation and the heart in sepsis. The serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1β were also elevated. Echocardiography and serum biomarkers showed that cardiomyocyte damage and cardiac hypofunction in sepsis-induced myocardial injury. The expression of CD11b, Gr-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the heart was significantly higher in sepsis patients than that in controls. Pathological staining and TUNEL staining showed obvious myocardial damage and cell apoptosis. The Western blot analysis indicated that in the heart, the activation of mTOR was inhibited and that the expression of P53 and caspase-3 was elevated in sepsis-induced myocardial injury.

Conclusion: In sepsis-induced myocardial injury, splenic reservoir CD11bGr-1 cells rapidly migrated into circulation and the heart, further impairing heart function via the high expression of P53 through the inhibition of mTOR.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724347PMC
November 2020

l-Cysteine modified silver nanoparticles-based colorimetric sensing for the sensitive determination of Hg in aqueous solutions.

Luminescence 2021 May 17;36(3):698-704. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

College of Public Health, University of South China, Hengyang, People's Republic of China.

A simple and sensitive colorimetric sensing method was constructed for detection of Hg in aqueous solutions and based on silver nanoparticles functionalized with l-cysteine (l-Cys-Ag NPs). In this method, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induced aggregation of l-Cys-Ag NPs. Simultaneously, the solution colour changed from bright yellow to brown. In the presence of Hg , Hg chelated ATP to form a complex and reduce the degree of aggregation of l-Cys-Ag NPs and was accompanied by a colour change from brown to bright yellow. The changing values of absorbance at 390 nm were linearly correlated with concentration of Hg over the 4.00 × 10 to 1.04 × 10 mol·L range, with a detection limit of 8 nM. This method was used successfully for detection of Hg in real water samples and performed good selectivity and sensitivity. The recovery range was 91.5-109.1%, indicating that the method has vast application potential for determination of Hg in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.3990DOI Listing
May 2021

Dual pH-responsive-charge-reversal micelle platform for enhanced anticancer therapy.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jan 18;118:111527. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, United States. Electronic address:

A novel nanodrug delivery system (NDDS) based on block copolymers of Poly(DEA)-block-Poly(PgMA) (PDPP) was developed to enhance in vitro cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy. pH-responsive doxorubicin (DOX) based small molecule prodrug (DOX-hyd-N) and mPEG-N were co-conjugated onto PDPP via copper-catalyzed "Click chemistry" to give a dual pH-responsive polymeric prodrug (mPEG-g-PDPP-g-hyd-DOX), which could be self-assembled into core-shell polymeric micelles (M(DOX)) with particles size of 81 ± 1 nm in aqueous phase. Additionally, the pH-responsive charge-reversal, stability and drug release behaviour at different pHs were then evaluated. Moreover, the surface charge of M(DOX) could quickly convert from negative (-6.64 ± 3.37 mV) to positive (5.35 ± 1.33 mV) thanks to the protonation of Poly(DEA) moieties as the pH value decreased from 7.4 during blood circulation to 6.5 in extracellular of tumour tissues. Meanwhile, according to the cytotoxicity determined by CCK-8 assay, cellular uptake, flow-cytometric and apoptosis profiles of two human cancer cell lines (HeLa and SW480), we could draw the conclusion that the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy were significantly enhanced when cells were incubated with micelles at pH 6.5 due to the charge-reversal of micelles from negative to positive. With the protonation of Poly(DEA) moieties in acidic extracellular microenvironment and the pH-responsive DOX release with hydrazone linkage in endo/lysosome pH, this dual pH-responsive-charge-reversal micelle platform might become an encouraging strategy for more effective cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.111527DOI Listing
January 2021

IL-17 and IL-21 polymorphisms in relation to HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese Han population.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 01 21;87:104638. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms may influence the hepatic and extrahepatic HBV-related disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of IL-17, IL-21 gene and HBV related hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese Han population.

Methods: We performed a multi-center study comprised 866 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and 1086 unrelated patients with a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) as control to evaluate the effects of IL-17 (rs4711998), IL-21 SNPs (rs12508721, rs13143866 and rs2221903) and the susceptibility of HCC. MassARRAY technology was utilized to genotype. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the serum IL-17 and IL-21 level. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the serum viral loads.

Results: In logistic regression analysis, our results showed the frequency of rs4711998 allele G in CHB group was significantly higher than that in HCC group (P = 0.042, 0.859(0.743-0.994)), and it is present only among females. Compared to HCC group, rs13143866 A allele was more likely to appear in HCC group (P = 0.015, 1.268 (1.049-1.532)). The frequency of AA also showed different between HCC group and CHB groups (P = 0.011, 3.135 (1.292-7.603)), which showed strong sex-specific relationships. ELISA showed a higher serum IL-17 and IL-21 expression in HCC patients compared to CHB patients (P all <0.05). Haplotype rs12508721C/rs13143866A/rs2221903T in male HCC group was statistically higher than in male CHB group(P = 0.013) but not in females (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: We suggested rs4711998 allele A as risk factors for women to develop HBV related-HCC in Chinese Han population. rs13143866 allele A as risk factors to develop HBV related-HCC in Chinese male population. Male patients with haplotype rs12508721C/rs13143866A/rs2221903T may with 1.3-fold risk for HBV-related HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104638DOI Listing
January 2021

Study of Microscopic Structure of Ceramic Materials Prepared from Nonmetallic Mineral Group Associated with Skarn-Type Gold Deposits.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 01;21(1):584-590

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Safe Mining of Deep Metal Mines and School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, P. R. China.

The microscopic structure of ceramic bodies has an essential influence on their performance. In this study, a ceramic material was prepared by modifying a nonmetallic mineral group () associated with a skarn-type gold mine in Hubei. The nano and microsized structures of the fired ceramic bodies under different contents of nonmetallic mineral group () and varying temperature conditions were systematically observed and tested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Malvern laser particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The content affects the sintering and melt degree of the ceramic body, the contact mode of the particles inside the ceramic body and the pore structure. When the content of is less than 70%, the performance parameters of the sintered body can meet the requirements of Group AII in the International Standard of Ceramic Tiles. It is concluded that the microscopic structure of the ceramic body is affected by the complex phase transition process including the dehydration, oxidation, melting and recrystallization of nonmetallic minerals during the firing process and is closely related to the properties of the ceramic body. It is feasible to improving the properties of ceramic bodies by adusting the gradation parameters of and increasing the proportion of fine grains under the same dosage. Considering the features of the ceramic body and ' utilization ratio, the optimum content of nonmetallic minerals associated with the skarn-type gold deposit in Hubei Province is 68-43%, and the optimum sintering temperature is approximately 1150 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.18724DOI Listing
January 2021

Hierarchical Structures Advance Thermoelectric Properties of Porous n-type β-AgSe.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 4;12(46):51523-51529. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Centre for Future Materials, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield Central, Queensland 4300, Australia.

Owing to the intrinsically good near-room-temperature thermoelectric performance, β-AgSe has been considered as a promising alternative to n-type BiTe thermoelectric materials. Herein, we develop an energy- and time-efficient wet mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering method to prepare porous β-AgSe with hierarchical structures including high-density pores, a metastable phase, nanosized grains, semi-coherent grain boundaries, high-density dislocations, and localized strains, leading to an ultralow lattice thermal conductivity of ∼0.35 W m K at 300 K. A relatively high carrier mobility is obtained by adjusting the sintering temperature to obtain pores with an average size of ∼260 nm, therefore resulting in a figure of merit, zT, of ∼0.7 at 300 K and ∼0.9 at 390 K. The single parabolic band model predicts that zT of such porous β-AgSe can reach ∼1.1 at 300 K if the carrier concentration can be tuned to ∼1 × 10 cm, suggesting that β-AgSe can be a competitive candidate for room-temperature thermoelectric applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c15341DOI Listing
November 2020

Security Evaluation under Different Exchange Strategies Based on Heterogeneous CPS Model in Interdependent Sensor Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Oct 28;20(21). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China.

In the real Internet of Everything scenario, many large-scale information systems can be converted into interdependent sensor networks, such as smart grids, smart medical systems, and industrial Internet systems. These complex systems usually have multiple interdependent sensor networks. Small faults or failure behaviors between networks may cause serious cascading failure effects of the entire system. Therefore, in this paper, we will focus on the security of interdependent sensor networks. Firstly, by calculating the size of the largest functional component in the entire network, the impact of random attacks on the security of interdependent sensor networks is analyzed. Secondly, it compares and analyzes the impact of cascading failures between interdependent sensor networks under different switching edge strategies. Finally, the simulation results verify the effect of the security of the system under different strategies, and give a better exchange strategy to enhance the security of the system. In addition, the research work in this article can help design how to further optimize the topology of interdependent sensor networks by reducing the impact of cascading failures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20216123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662949PMC
October 2020