Publications by authors named "Camilla Parzanini"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sterol Composition of Sponges, Cnidarians, Arthropods, Mollusks, and Echinoderms from the Deep Northwest Atlantic: A Comparison with Shallow Coastal Gulf of Mexico.

Mar Drugs 2020 Nov 27;18(12). Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Marine Lab Rd., St. John's, NL A1C 5S7, Canada.

Triterpenoid biosynthesis is generally anaerobic in bacteria and aerobic in Eukarya. The major class of triterpenoids in bacteria, the hopanoids, is different to that in Eukarya, the lanostanoids, and their 4,4,14-demethylated derivatives, sterols. In the deep sea, the prokaryotic contribution to primary productivity has been suggested to be higher because local environmental conditions prevent classic photosynthetic processes from occurring. Sterols have been used as trophic biomarkers because primary producers have different compositions, and they are incorporated in primary consumer tissues. In the present study, we inferred food supply to deep sea, sponges, cnidarians, mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms from euphotic zone production which is driven by phytoplankton eukaryotic autotrophy. Sterol composition was obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Moreover, we compared the sterol composition of three phyla (i.e., Porifera, Cnidaria, and Echinodermata) collected between a deep and cold-water region and a shallow tropical area. We hypothesized that the sterol composition of shallow tropical benthic organisms would better reflect their photoautotrophic sources independently of the taxonomy. Shallow tropical sponges and cnidarians from environments showed plant and zooxanthellae sterols in their tissues, while their deep-sea counterparts showed phytoplankton and zooplankton sterols. In contrast, echinoids, a class of echinoderms, the most complex phylum along with hemichordates and chordates (deuterostomes), did not show significant differences in their sterol profile, suggesting that cholesterol synthesis is present in deuterostomes other than chordates.
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November 2020

Functional diversity and nutritional content in a deep-sea faunal assemblage through total lipid, lipid class, and fatty acid analyses.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(11):e0207395. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University, St. John's, NL, Canada.

Lipids are key compounds in marine ecosystems being involved in organism growth, reproduction, and survival. Despite their biological significance and ease of measurement, the use of lipids in deep-sea studies is limited, as is our understanding of energy and nutrient flows in the deep ocean. Here, a comprehensive analysis of total lipid content, and lipid class and fatty acid composition, was used to explore functional diversity and nutritional content within a deep-sea faunal assemblage comprising 139 species from 8 phyla, including the Chordata, Arthropoda, and Cnidaria. A wide range of total lipid content and lipid class composition suggested a diversified set of energy allocation strategies across taxa. Overall, phospholipid was the dominant lipid class. While triacylglycerol was present in most taxa as the main form of energy storage, a few crustaceans, fish, jellyfishes, and corals had higher levels of wax esters/steryl esters instead. Type and amount of energy reserves may reflect dietary sources and environmental conditions for certain deep-sea taxa. Conversely, the composition of fatty acids was less diverse than that of lipid class composition, and large proportions of unsaturated fatty acids were detected, consistent with the growing literature on cold-water species. In addition, levels of unsaturation increased with depth, likely suggesting an adaptive strategy to maintain normal membrane structure and function in species found in deeper waters. Although proportions of n-3 fatty acids were high across all phyla, representatives of the Chordata and Arthropoda were the main reservoirs of these essential nutrients, thus suggesting health benefits to their consumers.
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April 2019