Publications by authors named "Cameron O Schmitz"

5 Publications

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Discovery and functional interrogation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-host protein interactions.

Cell 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of a pandemic with growing global mortality. Using comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS), we identified 309 host proteins that bind the SARS-CoV-2 RNA during active infection. Integration of this data with ChIRP-MS data from three other RNA viruses defined viral specificity of RNA-host protein interactions. Targeted CRISPR screens revealed that the majority of functional RNA-binding proteins protect the host from virus-induced cell death, and comparative CRISPR screens across seven RNA viruses revealed shared and SARS-specific antiviral factors. Finally, by combining the RNA-centric approach and functional CRISPR screens, we demonstrated a physical and functional connection between SARS-CoV-2 and mitochondria, highlighting this organelle as a general platform for antiviral activity. Altogether, these data provide a comprehensive catalog of functional SARS-CoV-2 RNA-host protein interactions, which may inform studies to understand the host-virus interface and nominate host pathways that could be targeted for therapeutic benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951565PMC
March 2021

CD300lf Conditional Knockout Mouse Reveals Strain-Specific Cellular Tropism of Murine Norovirus.

J Virol 2021 01 13;95(3). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Noroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans and mice. Understanding human norovirus (HuNoV) cell tropism has important implications for our understanding of viral pathogenesis. Murine norovirus (MNoV) is extensively used as a surrogate model for HuNoV. We previously identified CD300lf as the receptor for MNoV. Here, we generated a conditional knockout ( ) mouse to elucidate the cell tropism of persistent and nonpersistent strains of murine norovirus. Using this mouse model, we demonstrated that CD300lf expression on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), and on tuft cells in particular, is essential for transmission of the persistent MNoV strain CR6 (MNoV) In contrast, the nonpersistent MNoV strain CW3 (MNoV) does not require CD300lf expression on IECs for infection. However, deletion of CD300lf in myelomonocytic cells (+) partially reduces CW3 viral load in lymphoid and intestinal tissues. Disruption of CD300lf expression on B cells (), neutrophils (), and dendritic cells () did not affect MNoV viral RNA levels. Finally, we show that the transcription factor STAT1, which is critical for the innate immune response, partially restricts the cell tropism of MNoV to LysM+ cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that CD300lf expression on tuft cells is essential for MNoV; that myelomonocytic cells are a major, but not exclusive, target cell of MNoV; and that STAT1 signaling restricts the cellular tropism of MNoV This study provides the first genetic system for studying the cell type-specific role of CD300lf in norovirus pathogenesis. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis resulting in up to 200,000 deaths each year. The receptor and cell tropism of HuNoV in immunocompetent humans are unclear. We use murine norovirus (MNoV) as a model for HuNoV. We recently identified CD300lf as the sole physiologic receptor for MNoV. Here, we leverage this finding to generate a conditional knockout mouse to decipher the contributions of specific cell types to MNoV infection. We demonstrate that persistent MNoV requires CD300lf expression on tuft cells. In contrast, multiple CD300lf+ cell types, dominated by myelomonocytic cells, are sufficient for nonpersistent MNoV infection. CD300lf expression on epithelial cells, B cells, neutrophils, and dendritic cells is not critical for MNoV infection. Mortality associated with the MNoV strain in mice does not require CD300lf expression on LysM+ cells, highlighting that both CD300lf receptor expression and innate immunity regulate MNoV cell tropism .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01652-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925115PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide CRISPR Screens Reveal Host Factors Critical for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Cell 2021 01 20;184(1):76-91.e13. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Identification of host genes essential for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may reveal novel therapeutic targets and inform our understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Here we performed genome-wide CRISPR screens in Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), bat CoV HKU5 expressing the SARS-CoV-1 spike, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike. We identified known SARS-CoV-2 host factors, including the receptor ACE2 and protease Cathepsin L. We additionally discovered pro-viral genes and pathways, including HMGB1 and the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, that are SARS lineage and pan-coronavirus specific, respectively. We show that HMGB1 regulates ACE2 expression and is critical for entry of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and NL63. We also show that small-molecule antagonists of identified gene products inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection in monkey and human cells, demonstrating the conserved role of these genetic hits across species. This identifies potential therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and reveals SARS lineage-specific and pan-CoV host factors that regulate susceptibility to highly pathogenic CoVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574718PMC
January 2021

Systematic discovery and functional interrogation of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA-host protein interactions during infection.

bioRxiv 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a pandemic with growing global mortality. There is an urgent need to understand the molecular pathways required for host infection and anti-viral immunity. Using comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS), we identified 309 host proteins that bind the SARS-CoV-2 RNA during active infection. Integration of this data with viral ChIRP-MS data from three other positive-sense RNA viruses defined pan-viral and SARS-CoV-2-specific host interactions. Functional interrogation of these factors with a genome-wide CRISPR screen revealed that the vast majority of viral RNA-binding proteins protect the host from virus-induced cell death, and we identified known and novel anti-viral proteins that regulate SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Finally, our RNA-centric approach demonstrated a physical connection between SARS-CoV-2 RNA and host mitochondria, which we validated with functional and electron microscopy data, providing new insights into a more general virus-specific protein logic for mitochondrial interactions. Altogether, these data provide a comprehensive catalogue of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-host protein interactions, which may inform future studies to understand the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis, as well as nominate host pathways that could be targeted for therapeutic benefit.

Highlights: · ChIRP-MS of SARS-CoV-2 RNA identifies a comprehensive viral RNA-host protein interaction network during infection across two species· Comparison to RNA-protein interaction networks with Zika virus, dengue virus, and rhinovirus identify SARS-CoV-2-specific and pan-viral RNA protein complexes and highlights distinct intracellular trafficking pathways· Intersection of ChIRP-MS and genome-wide CRISPR screens identify novel SARS-CoV-2-binding proteins with pro- and anti-viral function· Viral RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions reveal specific SARS-CoV-2-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction during infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.06.327445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553159PMC
October 2020

Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals host genes that regulate SARS-CoV-2 infection.

bioRxiv 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Identification of host genes essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection may reveal novel therapeutic targets and inform our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis. Here we performed a genome-wide CRISPR screen with SARS-CoV-2 and identified known SARS-CoV-2 host factors including the receptor ACE2 and protease Cathepsin L. We additionally discovered novel pro-viral genes and pathways including the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and key components of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Small molecule inhibitors of these pathways prevented SARS-CoV-2-induced cell death. We also revealed that the alarmin HMGB1 is critical for SARS-CoV-2 replication. In contrast, loss of the histone H3.3 chaperone complex sensitized cells to virus-induced death. Together this study reveals potential therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 and highlights host genes that may regulate COVID-19 pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.16.155101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457610PMC
June 2020