Publications by authors named "Cameron Goldbeck"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association of Lower Socioeconomic Status and SARS-CoV-2 Positivity in Los Angeles, California.

J Prev Med Public Health 2021 May 13;54(3):161-165. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads heterogeneously, disproportionately impacting poor and minority communities. The relationship between poverty and race is complex, with a diverse set of structural and systemic factors driving higher rates of poverty among minority populations. The factors that specifically contribute to the disproportionate rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, are not clearly understood.

Methods: We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 test results from community-based testing sites in Los Angeles, California, between June and December, 2020. We used tester zip code data to link those results with United States Census report data on average annual household income, rates of healthcare coverage, and employment status by zip code.

Results: We analyzed 2 141 127 SARS-CoV-2 test results, of which 245 154 (11.4%) were positive. Multivariable modeling showed a higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity among Hispanic communities than among other races. We found an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 positivity among individuals from zip codes with an average annual household income
Conclusions: Residence in zip codes with lower average annual household income, lower rates of employment, or lower rates of health insurance was associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Further research is needed into how those factors increase the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection among populations of lower socioeconomic status in order to develop targeted public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.126DOI Listing
May 2021

Using Machine Learning to Predict Young People's Internet Health and Social Service Information Seeking.

Prev Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of California, UCLA Center for Community Health, 10920 Wilshire Blvd Suite 350, Los AngelesLos Angeles, CA, 90024, USA.

Machine learning creates new opportunities to design digital health interventions for youth at risk for acquiring HIV (YARH), capitalizing on YARH's health information seeking on the internet. To date, researchers have focused on descriptive analyses that associate individual factors with health-seeking behaviors, without estimating of the strength of these predictive models. We developed predictive models by applying machine learning methods (i.e., elastic net and lasso regression models) to YARH's self-reports of internet use. The YARH were aged 14-24 years old (N = 1287) from Los Angeles and New Orleans. Models were fit to three binary indicators of YARH's lifetime internet searches for general health, sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and social service information. YARH responses regarding internet health information seeking were fed into machine learning models with potential predictor variables based on findings from previous research, including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and gender minority identity, healthcare access and engagement, sexual behavior, substance use, and mental health. About half of the YARH reported seeking general health and SRH information and 26% sought social service information. Areas under the ROC curve (≥ .75) indicated strong predictive models and results were consistent with the existing literature. For example, higher education and sexual minority identification was associated with seeking general health, SRH, and social service information. New findings also emerged. Cisgender identity versus transgender and non-binary identities was associated with lower odds of general health, SRH, and social service information seeking. Experiencing intimate partner violence was associated with higher odds of seeking general health, SRH, and social service information. Findings demonstrate the ability to develop predictive models to inform targeted health information dissemination strategies but underscore the need to better understand health disparities that can be operationalized as predictors in machine learning algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-021-01255-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Racial and sex representation in clinical trials: Where are we in abdominal organ transplantation?

Am J Transplant 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16619DOI Listing
April 2021

Optimizing screening for anorectal, pharyngeal, and urogenital C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections in at risk adolescents and young adults in New Orleans, Louisiana and Los Angeles, California, USA.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Public health organizations have inconsistent recommendations for screening adolescents and young adults for Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) infections. Guidelines suggest different combinations of anorectal, pharyngeal, and urogenital testing based on age, sex, and sexual activity. Further evaluation of how identity and behaviors impact the anatomic distribution of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection is needed to optimize future screening practices.

Methods: We assessed the positivity of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections at different anatomic sites in a cohort of at-risk sexually active adolescents and young adults between 12-24 years old in New Orleans, Louisiana and Los Angeles, California. Participants were tested for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae at three sites (anorectum, pharynx, and urethral/cervix) every four months using self-collected swabs. We stratified anatomic distributions of infection into four gender and sexual behavior categories: (i) cisgender men who have sex with men and transgender women (MSMTW), (ii) cis-heterosexual males, (iii) cis-heterosexual females, and (iv) gender minorities assigned female at birth.

Results: While three-site testing detected all infections, two-site (anorectum and urethra/cervix) testing identified 92-100% of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae infections in participants assigned female at birth and cis-heterosexual males. For MSMTW, two site anorectal and pharyngeal testing versus single site anorectal testing increased the proportion of individuals with either infection from 74 to 93%.

Conclusion: Sexual behavioral and gender identity factors may influence detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections at specific anatomic testing sites. Testing guidelines should incorporate sexual behavior and gender identity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1838DOI Listing
December 2020

Association Between Human Papillomavirus Vaccination School-Entry Requirements and Vaccination Initiation.

JAMA Pediatr 2020 09;174(9):861-867

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles.

Importance: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is suboptimal in the US. The association between HPV vaccination requirements for school entry and HPV vaccination coverage remains to be studied.

Objective: To examine the association between HPV vaccination school-entry requirements and vaccination initiation in jurisdictions with such vaccination policies (ie, Virginia, the District of Columbia, and Rhode Island) compared with other regions of the US, as determined by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In a population-based, cross-sectional study, 2017 data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen database were used to determine HPV vaccination initiation. Data from 2008 to 2017 were then examined to assess the association between HPV vaccination school-entry policies and vaccination initiation. Data were obtained for adolescents aged 13 to 17 years in the US with health care professional-reported HPV vaccination histories (cross-sectional study, n = 4784; pre-post policy comparisons, n = 42 431). This study was conducted from May 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020.

Exposures: State-level HPV vaccination school-entry requirements from 2008 to 2017.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Health care professional-confirmed HPV vaccination initiation.

Results: The 2017 cross-sectional study included 4784 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years (2228 [46.6%] girls; 2556 [53.4%] boys; mean [SD] age, 15.0 [1.4] years; interquartile range, 14-16 years). Compared with nonpolicy jurisdictions within the same region, Rhode Island and the District of Columbia, which have HPV immunization school-entry requirements, had higher levels of HPV vaccination initiation (Rhode Island: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.34; 95% CI, 2.16-10.00; District of Columbia: aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.39-4.19). However, compared with regional nonpolicy states, Virginia's HPV vaccination initiation did not differ significantly (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.72-1.42). The 2008-2017 pre-post policy comparisons involved 42 431 adolescents aged 13-17 years (22 362 [52.7%] girls; 20 069 [47.3%] boys; mean [SD] age, 15.0 [1.4] years; interquartile range, 14-16 years). Postpolicy levels of HPV vaccination initiation in girls was significantly higher in Rhode Island (aOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.92-5.07) than prepolicy values. Similar changes were noted for postpolicy HPV vaccination initiation in boys in the District of Columbia (aOR, 6.36; 95% CI, 4.27-9.46) and Rhode Island (aOR, 5.84; 95% CI, 3.92-8.69) compared with prepolicy measures. With respect to regional nonpolicy states during the same period, both girls and boys in Rhode Island and boys in the District of Columbia experienced larger increases in HPV vaccination initiation. For example, in Rhode Island, boys aged 16 to 17 years had 7.32 (95% CI, 3.56-15.06) times the change in pre-post policy HPV vaccination initiation, while girls aged 16 to 17 years had 1.28 (95% CI, 0.60-2.73) times the change. In the District of Columbia, boys had 6.36 (95% CI, 4.27-9.46) times the change in pre-post policy HPV vaccination initiation.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination school-entry requirements are associated with increases in vaccination initiation. Expanding such policies may increase HPV vaccination in the US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325070PMC
September 2020

High Lifetime Prevalence of Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women Versus Low Lifetime Prevalence in Female Sex Workers in Lima, Peru.

Sex Transm Dis 2020 Aug;47(8):549-555

From the Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, CA.

Background: The syphilis epidemic continues to cause substantial morbidity worldwide and is worsening despite ongoing control efforts. Syphilis remains an important public health problem among 3 key populations: men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women, and female sex workers.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients that received rapid point-of-care treponemal antibody tests from January 2019 to July 2019 in 4 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Lima, Peru. We assessed patient medical records for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, history of STIs, as well as sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Cross-sectional descriptive analyses were used to determine factors associated with treponemal positivity.

Results: We included 401 patient records in our analyses: 252 MSM, 31 transgender women, and 118 female sex workers. The overall median age of patients was 29.0 years (interquartile range, 24.0-36.0 years). Positivity on the treponemal test was 28.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.3%-33.3%) overall, 37.7% (95% CI, 31.7%-44.0%) for MSM, 54.8% (95% CI, 36.0%-72.7%) for transgender women, and 3.4% (95% CI, 0.9%-8.5%) for female sex workers. In the bivariate analysis, treponemal positivity was also associated with receptive anal sex in the last 6 months in MSM (P < 0.01). Additionally, treponemal positivity increased with age (P = 0.0212) and varied by socioeconomic status (P < 0.01). Multivariate Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator logistic regression showed that treponemal positivity was highly associated with HIV coinfection (adjusted odds ratio, 5.42) and previous STI other than HIV or syphilis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.54).

Conclusions: A review of the medical records of members of 3 key populations who had recently received a rapid point-of-care treponemal test in Lima, Peru, revealed that lifetime prevalence of syphilis was high among MSM and transgender women, but low among female sex workers. Those results may indicate a need for more frequent, regular testing among MSM and transgender women-possibly in conjunction with HIV testing, and appropriate treatment of those shown to be positive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7357539PMC
August 2020

Community-based Implementation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Recommended Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Youth at High Risk for HIV Infection in Los Angeles and New Orleans.

Sex Transm Dis 2020 07;47(7):481-483

From the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

We examined whether the implementation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommended screening of Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae with proactive follow-up among high-risk youth recruited from community and clinic settings reduced future C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae diagnoses. After the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendations demonstrated a 41% decline in sexually transmitted infections; 3 tests in 1 year resulted in a 10% decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371266PMC
July 2020

Safety and Effectiveness of Same-Day Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Screening and Treatment Among Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Homeless Youth in Los Angeles, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana.

Sex Transm Dis 2020 01;47(1):19-23

From the Division of Infectious Diseases.

Background: Gay, bisexual, transgender, and homeless youth are at risk of sexually transmitted infections. As part of an adolescent human immunodeficiency virus prevention study, we provided same-day Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) testing and treatment. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of same-day CT and NG treatment on the proportion of participants receiving timely treatment.

Methods: We recruited adolescents with high sexual risk behaviors aged 12 to 24 years from homeless shelters, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender organizations, and community health centers in Los Angeles, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana from May 2017 to June 2019. Initially, participants were offered point-of-care pharyngeal, rectal, and urethral/vaginal CT and NG testing and referral to another clinic for treatment. After March 2018 in Los Angeles and November 2018 in New Orleans, we provided same-day treatment (and partner treatment packs) for study participants. We measured the proportion of participants who received same-day treatment and the median time to treatment. We collected frequency of partner treatment and any reported adverse treatment-related events.

Results: The proportion of participants receiving same-day CT and NG treatment increased from 3.6% (5/140) to 21.1% (20/95; Δ17.5%; 95% confidence interval, 9.2%-26.9%) after implementation of same-day testing and treatment. The median time to treatment decreased from 18.5 to 3 days. Overall, 36 participants took a total of 48 partner treatment packs. There were no reported treatment-related adverse events.

Conclusions: Providing sexually transmitted infection treatment to adolescents at the same visit as testing is feasible and safe, and can increase the proportion of individuals receiving timely treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923576PMC
January 2020

Associations between violence, criminality, and cognitive control deficits among young men living in low resource communities in South Africa.

Aggress Behav 2020 01 14;46(1):5-15. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Despite empirical support for "Self-control theory" in criminology, there is controversy about how self-control should be operationalized. Working within the framework of "self-control theory," we investigated if violence and criminal behaviors are associated with nine distinct dimensions of cognitive control in a community sample of young men (n = 654) living in peri-urban townships in South Africa. Cognitive control was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Multivariate statistical analysis was used, to identify associations between violence and criminality, and deaggregated measures of nine distinct components of cognitive control. Fifteen percent of the sample reported recent violence, 27% had been in physical fights with family/friends in the preceding 6 months, 10% reported being arrested, 4% reported forced sexual contact, and 26% reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Controlling for substance use and sociodemographic variables, contact with the criminal justice system and violence were associated with deficits in all domains of cognitive control. Forced sexual contact was associated with behavioral dysregulation. IPV was associated with behavior dysregulation and executive control dysfunction. Future studies might utilize deaggregated measures of self-control to provide further insight into links between particular components of cognitive control and various forms of offending and violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205326PMC
January 2020

Development of a measure to assess vaccine confidence among men who have sex with men.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2018 11 15;17(11):1053-1061. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

b Rollins School of Public Health, Hubert Department of Global Health , Emory University , Atlanta , GA , USA.

Background: Recent serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreaks led to meningococcal vaccine recommendations for Southern California men who have sex with men (MSM). Assessment of vaccine confidence is critical to improving vaccine coverage in the context of disease outbreaks wherein immunization(s) are recommended.

Methods: We surveyed MSM using venue-based sampling and began development of the vaccine confidence index (VCI) with 30 survey items corresponding to trust- and safety-related perceptions. We performed exploratory factor analyses and computed the Cronbach's alpha coefficient to assess internal consistency of the VCI. We created a categorical confidence variable (low, medium, and high confidence) and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate associations with reported confidence and immunization uptake.

Results: Ten survey items were included in the final VCI and formed the confidence measure. Participants with low confidence had the lowest levels of reported uptake for both meningococcal vaccines. Confidence differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) between MSM who indicated they received vaccines recommended within the context of the outbreak and those who did not.

Conclusions: Our VCI is sensitive to a number of issues that may influence vaccine confidence. It is useful for assessing MSM trust and acceptance of recommended immunizations and may be used to inform intervention development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2018.1541405DOI Listing
November 2018

Factors Associated with Immunization Opinion Leadership among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles, California.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 05 8;15(5). Epub 2018 May 8.

Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

We sought to identify the characteristics of men who have sex with men (MSM) who are opinion leaders on immunization issues and to identify potential opportunities to leverage their influence for vaccine promotion within MSM communities. Using venue-based sampling, we recruited and enrolled MSM living in Los Angeles ( = 520) from December 2016 to February 2017 and evaluated characteristic differences in sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and technology use among those classified as opinion leaders versus those who were not. We also asked respondents about their past receipt of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, and Y (MenACWY) and meningococcal B (MenB) vaccines, as well as their opinions on the importance of 13 additional vaccines. Multivariable results revealed that non-Hispanic black (aOR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.17⁻5.95) and other race/ethnicity (aOR = 2.98; 95% CI: 1.41⁻6.29) respondents, as well as those with a history of an STI other than HIV (aOR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.10⁻3.48), were more likely to be opinion leaders. MenACWY (aOR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.13⁻3.25) and MenB (aOR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.77⁻5.41) vaccine uptake, and perceived importance for these and seven additional vaccines, were also associated with being an opinion leader. The results suggest that the co-promotion of vaccination and other health promotion initiatives via opinion leaders could be a useful strategy for increasing vaccination among MSM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981978PMC
May 2018

A distinct class of vesicles derived from the trans-Golgi mediates secretion of xylogalacturonan in the root border cell.

Plant J 2017 Nov 16;92(4):596-610. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

Root border cells lie on the surface of the root cap and secrete massive amounts of mucilage that contains polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Golgi stacks in the border cells have hypertrophied margins, reflecting elevated biosynthetic activity to produce the polysaccharide components of the mucilage. To investigate the three-dimensional structures and macromolecular compositions of these Golgi stacks, we examined high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted alfalfa root cap cells with electron microscopy/tomography. Golgi stacks in border cells and peripheral cells, precursor cells of border cells, displayed similar morphological features, such as proliferation of trans cisternae and swelling of the trans cisternae and trans-Golgi network (TGN) compartments. These swollen margins give rise to two types of vesicles larger than other Golgi-associated vesicles. Margins of trans-Golgi cisternae accumulate the LM8 xylogalacturonan (XGA) epitope, and they become darkly stained large vesicles (LVs) after release from the Golgi. Epitopes for xyloglucan (XG), polygalacturonic acid/rhamnogalacturonan-I (PGA/RG-I) are detected in the trans-most cisternae and TGN compartments. LVs produced from TGN compartments (TGN-LVs) stained lighter than LVs and contained the cell wall polysaccharide epitopes seen in the TGN. LVs carrying the XGA epitope fuse with the plasma membrane only in border cells, whereas TGN-LVs containing the XG and PGA/RG-I epitopes fuse with the plasma membrane of both peripheral cells and border cells. Taken together, these results indicate that XGA is secreted by a novel type of secretory vesicles derived from trans-Golgi cisternae. Furthermore, we simulated the collapse in the central domain of the trans-cisternae accompanying polysaccharide synthesis with a mathematical model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.13704DOI Listing
November 2017