Publications by authors named "Caitlin A Howlett"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Same room - different windows? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between self-report and neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility in healthy adults.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 08 26;88:102061. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Innovation, Implementation & Clinical Translation (IIMPACT) in Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:

Cognitive flexibility can be thought of as the ability to effectively adapt one's cognitive and behavioural strategies in response to changing task or environmental demands. To substantiate the common inference that self-report and neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility provide 'different windows into the same room', we undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether self-report and neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility are related in healthy adults. Ten databases and relevant grey literature were searched from inception. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adhered to. Twenty-one articles satisfied our inclusion criteria. A multi-level random-effects meta-analysis revealed no relationship (0.05, 95% CI = -0.00 to 0.10). Random-effects meta-analyses raised the possibility that the Cognitive Flexibility Scale and the Trail Making Test - part B (time) may be related (0.19, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.31). We conclude that the relationship between self-report and neuropsychological tests of cognitive flexibility is not large enough to be considered convincing evidence for the two assessment approaches sharing construct validity. These results have clear implications for assessing and interpreting cognitive flexibility research and clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2021.102061DOI Listing
August 2021

Considerations for using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test to assess cognitive flexibility.

Behav Res Methods 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC, 3122, Australia.

The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a popular neurocognitive task used to assess cognitive flexibility, and aspects of executive functioning more broadly, in research and clinical practice. Despite its widespread use and the development of an updated WCST manual in 1993, confusion remains in the literature about how to score the WCST, and importantly, how to interpret the outcome variables as indicators of cognitive flexibility. This critical review provides an overview of the changes in the WCST, how existing scoring methods of the task differ, the key terminology and how these relate to the assessment of cognitive flexibility, and issues with the use of the WCST across the literature. In particular, this review focuses on the confusion between the terms 'perseverative responses' and 'perseverative errors' and the inconsistent scoring of these variables. To our knowledge, this critical review is the first of its kind to focus on the inherent issues surrounding the WCST when used as an assessment of cognitive flexibility. We provide recommendations to overcome these and other issues when using the WCST in future research and clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-021-01551-3DOI Listing
March 2021
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