Publications by authors named "Caihong Wang"

184 Publications

Understanding the molecular role of syndecan-1 in the regulation of caspase-6 during the progression of cardiac arrhythmia.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 16;22(4):1180. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Wujiang Hospital of Nantong University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215200, P.R. China.

The role of caspase-6 in heart disease is not well understood, particularly with respect to cardiac arrhythmia. Also, the function of syndecan-1 in the stimulation of inflammation or a regenerative response after cardiac injury is unclear. Leptin receptor-deficient (C57BL/KS-lepr/lepr) mice were used in the present study. In addition to developing type 2 diabetes, they also develop initial- and end-stage cardiac arrhythmia after 5 and 8 months, respectively. The initial and end-stage arrhythmias were confirmed through progressive variations in the PP intervals observable in electrocardiograms. Histopathological images of the cardiac tissue exhibited scattered and loosened cardiac cells at the initial stage of cardiac arrhythmia, whereas tissue hardness and extensive structural changes in cardiomyocytes were evident at the end stage. At the molecular level, the progressive upregulation of caspase-6 was observed as the cardiac arrhythmia progressed. In the initial stage of arrhythmia, immunohistochemistry revealed that caspase-6 was expressed at the surface of cardiac cells, suggesting that caspase-6 targeted the extracellular matrix, leading to a loosening of the cardiac tissue structure. In the end stage of cardiac arrhythmia, caspase-6 expression was abundant in the cytoplasm, as well as at the cell surface, suggesting that caspase-6 may have cleaved intermediate filaments, paving the way for cellular morphological changes and apoptosis. Notably, syndecan-1 was upregulated 5.8-fold in the initial stage of cardiac arrhythmia, but downregulated at the end stage. Syndecan-1 may restrict the expression of caspase-6 in the initial stage of cardiac arrhythmia, while its downregulation at the end stage may allow destructive changes via caspase-6 overexpression. Furthermore, the knockdown of syndecan-1 using small interfering RNA enhanced the expression of caspase-6 in the cardiac tissue by factors of 1.8 and 1.2 at the initial and end stages of cardiac arrhythmia, respectively, compared with that in non-silenced cardiac tissue. Therefore, it may be concluded that syndecan-1 plays a major role in the regulation of caspase-6 during the pathological stages of cardiac arrhythmia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406766PMC
October 2021

Plasma-Induced Defect Engineering and Cation Refilling of NiMoO Parallel Arrays for Overall Water Splitting.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 25;13(35):41545-41554. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China.

Developing highly active water splitting electrocatalysts with ordered micro/nanostructures and uniformly distributed active sites can meet the increasing requirement for sustainable energy storage/utilization technologies. However, the stability of complicated structures and active sites during a long-term process is also a challenge. Herein, we fabricate a novel approach to create sufficient atomic defects via N plasma treatment onto parallel aligned NiMoO nanosheets, followed by refilling of these defects via heterocation dopants and stabilizing them by annealing. The parallel aligned nanosheet arrays with an open structure and quasi-two-dimensional long-range diffusion channels can accelerate the mass transfer at the electrolyte/gas interface, while the incorporation of Fe/Pt atoms into defect sites can modulate the local electronic environment and facilitate the adsorption/reaction kinetics. The optimized Pt-NP-NMC/CC-5 and Fe-NP-NMC/CC-10 electrodes exhibit low overpotentials of 71 and 241 mV at 10 mA cm for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively, and the assembled device reveals a low voltage of 1.55 V for overall water splitting. This plasma-induced high-efficiency defect engineering and coupled active site stabilization strategy can be extended to large-scale fabrication of high-end electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09084DOI Listing
September 2021

Cortical Thinning and Abnormal Structural Covariance Network After Three Hours Sleep Restriction.

Front Psychiatry 2021 20;12:664811. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Neurorestoratology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Henan, China.

Sleep loss leads to serious health problems, impaired attention, and emotional processing. It has been suggested that the abnormal neurobehavioral performance after sleep deprivation was involved in dysfunction of specific functional connectivity between brain areas. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no study investigating the structural connectivity mechanisms underlying the dysfunction at network level. Surface morphological analysis and graph theoretical analysis were employed to investigate changes in cortical thickness following 3 h sleep restriction, and test whether the topological properties of structural covariance network was affected by sleep restriction. We found that sleep restriction significantly decreased cortical thickness in the right parieto-occipital cortex (Brodmann area 19). In addition, graph theoretical analysis revealed significantly enhanced global properties of structural covariance network including clustering coefficient and local efficiency, and increased nodal properties of the left insula cortex including nodal efficiency and betweenness, after 3 h sleep restriction. These results provided insights into understanding structural mechanisms of dysfunction of large-scale functional networks after sleep restriction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.664811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329354PMC
July 2021

Altered Distribution of Circulating T Follicular Helper-Like Cell Subsets in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 19;8:690100. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Rheumatology, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Recent studies on follicular regulatory T (Tfr) and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells suggest that they may participate in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we examine Tfr-like and Tfh-like cells and their subsets in RA and assess the correlations between these subsets with B cells and cytokines related to the pathogenesis of RA and their clinical significance. The study population consisted of 18 healthy controls and 47 RA patients (17 new onset, 57.00 ± 11.73 years; 30 treated RA patients, 57.56 ± 1.97 years). Disease activity scores in 28 joints were calculated. The positive rates of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) were 82.9 and 89.4%, respectively. Cell subsets were analyzed using flow cytometry, and serum cytokine levels were measured using cytometric bead array. Tfh-like and PD-1 Tfh-like cells were elevated, and the distribution of Tfh-like cell subsets was altered with increased Tfh17-like and Tfh1/17-like cells in RA patients. The receiver operating characteristics curves for Tfh-like, Tfh17-like, Tfh1/17-like, and PD-1 Tfh-like cells indicate improved RA diagnostic potential. RA patients had decreased regulatory T (Treg), Tfr-like, and memory Tfr-like (mTfr-like) cells and increased Tfh-like/Treg, Tfh-like/Tfr-like, and Tfh-like/mTfr-like cell ratios. Tfh-like cells and their subsets, including Tfh1-like, Tfh2-like, Tfh1/17-like, and PD-1 Tfh-like cells, were positively correlated with B cells. Tfh-like/Treg, Tfh-like/Tfr-like, and Tfh-like/mTfr-like cell ratios were positively correlated with B cells in new-onset RA. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-17, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α were positively correlated with Tfr-like and mTfr-like cells. IL-2 and IL-10 were positively correlated with Tfh-like and Tfh2-like cells. IL-4 was positively correlated with Tfh-like cells. Tfh-like and PD-1 Tfh-like cells are increased, whereas Treg, Tfr-like, and mTfr-like cells are decreased in RA, leading to an imbalance in Tfh-like/Treg, Tfh-like/Tfr-like, and Tfh-like/mTfr-like cell ratios. Tfh-like cells and a portion of their subsets as well as Tfh-like/Treg, Tfh-like/Tfr-like, and Tfh-like/mTfr-like cell ratios are closely related to B cells. Dysfunction of cell subsets leads to abnormal levels of cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The altered distributions of Tfh-like cell subsets, especially Tfh1/17-like cells, represent potential therapeutic targets for treatment of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.690100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326448PMC
July 2021

New Insights From Single-Cell Sequencing Data: Synovial Fibroblasts and Synovial Macrophages in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:709178. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Rheumatology, the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology can analyze the transcriptome expression level of cells with high-throughput from the single cell level, fully show the heterogeneity of cells, and provide a new way for the study of multicellular biological heterogeneity. Synovitis is the pathological basis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovial fibroblasts (SFs) and synovial macrophages are the core target cells of RA, which results in the destruction of articular cartilage, as well as bone. Recent scRNA-seq technology has made breakthroughs in the differentiation and development of two types of synovial cells, identification of subsets, functional analysis, and new therapeutic targets, which will bring remarkable changes in RA treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.709178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326910PMC
July 2021

Dynamic Altered Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 19;12:683610. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) has demonstrated abnormalities of static intrinsic brain activity measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). Recent studies regarding the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have found the brain activity is inherently dynamic over time. Little is known, however, regarding the temporal dynamics of local neural activity in MDD. Here, we investigated whether temporal dynamic changes in spontaneous neural activity are influenced by MDD. We recruited 81 first-episode, drug-naive MDD patients and 64 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls who underwent rs-fMRI. A sliding-window approach was then adopted for the estimation of dynamic ALFF (dALFF), which was used to measure time-varying brain activity and then compared between the two groups. The relationship between altered dALFF variability and clinical variables in MDD patients was also analyzed. MDD patients showed increased temporal variability (dALFF) mainly focused on the bilateral thalamus, the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, the right middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe, and the vermis. Furthermore, increased dALFF variability values in the right thalamus and right cerebellum posterior lobe were positively correlated with MDD symptom severity. The overall results suggest that altered temporal variability in corticocerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit (CCTCC), involved in emotional, executive, and cognitive, is associated with drug-naive, first-episode MDD patients. Moreover, our study highlights the vital role of abnormal dynamic brain activity in the cerebellar hemisphere associated with CCTCC in MDD patients. These findings may provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.683610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328277PMC
July 2021

Invasive Infections in Community-Settings and Healthcare Settings.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 12;14:2647-2656. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, ShangHai, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To assess clinical characteristics, outcomes and antimicrobial resistance of invasive (KP) infections in Chinese pediatric patients in hospital and community settings.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the nine tertiary hospitals during 2016-2018. The 324 pediatric inpatients who had KP isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid and had complete medical records reviewed were included. We analyzed the risk factors, outcomes and antimicrobial resistance pattern of KP-infected patients based on comparison between healthcare-associated KP infections (HAI) and community-acquired infections.

Results: Of the 324 enrolled patients, 275 (84.9%) were clinically defined as HAI, including 175 (63.6%) neonates and 100 (36.4%) aged >28 days. The overall prevalence of CRKP was 38.2% (43.4% in HAI verse 8.7% in CAI, P <0.05). Prematurity (odds ratio (OR): 37.07, 95% CI: 8.29-165.84), hematologic malignancies (OR: 15.52, 95% CI: 1.89-127.14) and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR: 13.09, 95% CI: 1.66-103.56) were independent risk factors for HAI. Patients from rural area (OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.12-3.35), invasive mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.25-4.33), antibiotic therapy prior to admission (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.25-4.33) and prior hospital stay in the past 30 days (OR: 3.46, 95% CI: 1.87-6.41) were associated with healthcare-associated CRKP infections. Organ dysfunction was independently correlated with poor outcomes (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.23-6.95).

Conclusion: Pediatric invasive KP infections and high prevalence of CRKP infections largely occurred in healthcare settings in China. The adequate and intensified infection control measures should be focused on high-risk hematologic patients, neonatal patients and intubated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S315871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285564PMC
July 2021

PM and water-soluble components induce airway fibrosis through TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in asthmatic rats.

Mol Immunol 2021 09 25;137:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, 56 Xinjian South Road, Taiyuan, 030001, China. Electronic address:

Epidemiological studies have suggested that fine particulate matter (PM) and asthma have been independently associated with pulmonary fibrosis but rarely studied together. Furthermore, it is unknown whether airway fibrosis in asthma is more attributable to water-soluble ions of PM. Our current study was to explore the potential mechanism of PM and water-soluble components on airway fibrosis in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized asthmatic rats. Rats were intratracheally instilled with PM and water-soluble components every 3 days for 4 times or 8 times. Histopathological examination demonstrated that lung inflammatory and airway fibrosis were induced after PM and water-soluble components exposure. Meanwhile, PM, in particular water-soluble extracts, increased expression of collagen 1 (COL-1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), Smad family member 3 (Smad3), and p-Smad3, whereas decreased secretion of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, pretreating asthmatic rats with SB432542, the inhibitor of TGF-β1, and SIS3 HCl, the antagonist of Smad3, both reversed the activation of airway fibrosis induced by water-soluble extracts. Therefore, TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway may be responsible for the pathological process of airway fibrosis in asthmatic rats following PM and water-soluble components exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.06.005DOI Listing
September 2021

Traffic-related PM and diverse constituents disturb the balance of Th17/Treg cells by STAT3/RORγt-STAT5/Foxp3 signaling pathway in a rat model of asthma.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 21;96:107788. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, China. Electronic address:

Water-soluble ions (WSI) and organic extract (OE) in traffic-related particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 μm (TRPM) are potential risk factors for asthma exacerbation. Although CD4 T lymphocytes mediated immune response is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, the effect of WSI-TRPM and OE-TRPM on the balance of Th17/Treg cells in asthma remains poorly understood. In this study, the ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats were repeatedly exposure to TRPM (3 mg/kg·bw), WSI-TRPM (1.8 mg/kg·bw, 7.2 mg/kg·bw) and OE-TRPM (0.6 mg/kg·bw, 2.4 mg/kg·bw) every three days for five times. The inflammation response and hyperemia edema were observed in the lung and trachea tissues. DNA methylation levels of STAT3 and RORγt genes in rats with WSI-TRPM and OE-TRPM treatment were decreased. DNA methylation level in STAT5 gene tended to decrease, with no change observed on Foxp3 expression. WSI-TRPM and OE-TRPM enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of STAT3 and RORγt while inhibited the expression of STAT5 and Foxp3, which may contribute to the imbalance of Th17/Treg cells (P < 0.05). More importantly, recovered balance of Th17/Treg cell subsets, upregulated p-STAT5 and Foxp3 expression and reduced p-STAT3 and RORγt levels were observed after 5-Aza treatment. Our results demonstrate that the STAT3/RORγt-STAT5/Foxp3 signaling pathway is involved in asthma exacerbation induced by WSI-TRPM and OE-TRPM through disrupting the balance of Th17/Treg cells. The alteration of DNA methylation of STAT3, STAT5, and RORγt genes may be involved in asthma exacerbation as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107788DOI Listing
July 2021

PNMA5 Promotes Bone Metastasis of Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer as a Target of BMP2 Signaling.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 31;9:678931. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Bone metastases frequently occur in NSCLC patients at the late stage, indicating poor survival. However, mechanisms about the initiation of NSCLC bone metastases remain largely unclear. In our previous reports, BMP2 signaling activation has been found to enhance NSCLC bone metastases through enhancing carcinoma cells migration, invasion, osteoclasts differentiation and osteoblasts immature differentiation. Nevertheless, downstream target genes of BMP2 contributing to those processes still remain unknown. In this project, we find that the expression of is higher in metastatic bone tumors of Lewis lung carcinoma than in metastatic lung tumors and parental Lewis lung cells. overexpression not only can promote cell migration and invasion of NSCLC cells but also tumor-induced osteoclasts differentiation. Interestingly, knockdown of in Lewis lung cells blocks BMP2 signaling from inducing Lewis lung cells migration and invasion. Although BMP2 signaling can promote Lewis lung cells-induced osteoclasts differentiation from macrophages, this effect can also be blocked when is knocked down in Lewis lung cells. Moreover, can promote NSCLC bone metastases as the downstream target of BMP2. Those results above indicate that BMP2 signaling enhances NSCLC bone metastases via its direct downstream target gene . This research reveals the detailed molecular mechanism about how BMP2 signaling contributes to NSCLC bone metastases via PNMA5 and provides a new potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC bone metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.678931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200676PMC
May 2021

The Value of MR-DWI and T1 Mapping in Indicating Radiation-Induced Soft Tissue Injury.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:651637. Epub 2021 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Radiation Biology of Fujian Higher Education Institutions, The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objective: To explore the value of MR-DWI and T1 mapping in predicting radiation-induced soft tissue fibrosis and its correlation with radiation inflammation.

Methods: ① a total of 30 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a control group (Nor group), irradiation group (IR group) and irradiation plus glycyrrhetinic acid group (GA group). The IR group and GA group were treated with 6MV X-rays to irradiate the right hind limbs of mice for 30 Gy in a single shot. MRI examinations were performed before and on the 7th day after irradiation to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) value of the hind limb muscles of the mice. On the 90th day after irradiation, the hind limb contracture was measured, and the right hind limb muscle was taken for HE staining, masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis to detect the expression of a-SMA and Fibronectin. ② The other 30 mice were grouped randomly as above. On the 7th day after irradiation, the right hind limbs of the mice were examined by MRI to measure the ADC value and T1 value of the thigh muscles, and then the right hind thigh muscles were immediately sacrificed to detect IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-a and TGF-β1 expression with ELISA.

Results: On the 7th day after irradiation, the ADC values ​​of right hind thigh muscles of mice in Nor group, IR group and GA group were (1.35 ± 0.11)*10mm2/s, (1.48 ± 0.07) *10mm2/s and (1.36 ± 0.13)*10mm2/s, respectively, by which the differences between the IR group and Nor group (=0.008) and that between IR group and GA group (=0.013) were statistically significant; T1 values ​​were (1369.7 ± 62.7)ms, (1483.7 ± 127.7)ms and (1304.1 ± 82.3)ms, respectively, with which the differences in the T1 value between the IR group and Nor group (=0.012) and between IR group and GA group (<0.001) were also statistically significant. On the 90th day after irradiation, the contracture lengths of the right hind limbs of the three groups of mice were (0.00 ± 0.07)cm, (2.08 ± 0.32)cm, and (1.49 ± 0.70) cm, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the IR group compared with the Nor group (<0.001) and the GA group (=0.030). The ADC value (r=0.379, =0.039) and T1 value (r=0.377, =0.040) of the mice's hindlimbs on Day 7 after irradiation were correlated with the degree of contracture on Day 90 after irradiation; the ADC value (r=0.496, =0.036) and T1 value (r=0.52, =0.027) were positively correlated with the Masson staining results and with the expression of α-SMA and Fibronectin. While the ADC value was positively correlated with IL-6 (r=0.553, =0.002), there was no obvious correlation with IL-1β, TNF-a and TGF-β1; the T1 value was positively correlated with IL-1β (r=0.419, =0.021), IL-6 (r=0.535, =0.002) and TNF-a (r=0.540, =0.002) but not significantly related to TGF-β1 (r=0.155, =0.413).

Conclusion: The MR-DWI and T1 mapping values on the 7th day after irradiation can reflect the early condition of tissue inflammation after the soft tissue is irradiated, and the values have a certain correlation with the degree of radiofibrosis of the soft tissue in the later period and may be used as an index to predict radiofibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.651637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190401PMC
May 2021

Specific Ion Effects of Azobenzene Salts on Photoresponse of PNIPAm in Aqueous Solutions.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Aug 14;42(16):e2100232. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, No. 24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu, 610065, China.

Ionic species are important to dominate phase separation behaviors of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) in aqueous solutions. Herein, photoresponsive azobenzene-based salts with various ions are prepared and their photoresponsive ion effects on clouding temperatures (T ) of PNIPAm in aqueous solutions are explored. It is found that, despite of various structures of anions and cations, trans-T under vis light irradiation are always higher than cis-T under UV irradiation. Particularly, Hofmeister effect of anions on T is roughly observed. For example, azobenzene with kosmotropic CO gives the lowest cis-T while in use of typical chaotropic anions, such as ClO , azobenzene isomerization less affects values of T s. In another hand, azobenzene-based metallic salts containing lithium, sodium, and potassium cations also demonstrate photoresponsive Hofmeister effect. Trans-metallic azobenzene demonstrates a chaotropic effect on T s while UV induces kosmotropic behaviors on T . Additionally, ionic conduction of the solution along with photoresponsive phase separations is also investigated and PNIPAm aggregations induce a sharp reduction of ion conduction during UV light illumination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202100232DOI Listing
August 2021

The psychological status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma during radiotherapy.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Purpose: The psychological status of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients cannot be ignored. Few studies have studied the dynamic changes and influencing factors of psychological status in NPC patients during radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changing trends and risk factors of anxiety and depression in NPC patients during radiotherapy.

Methods: Demographic and clinical data of 232 newly treated NPC patients were collected. Before radiotherapy, the fourth week, and the end of radiotherapy were observational timepoints. Anxiety and depression states were evaluated by the hospital anxiety and depression scale.

Results: Scores of anxiety before radiotherapy, in the fourth week and at the end of radiotherapy were 6.32 ± 3.19, 7.87 ± 3.49, and 9.08 ± 3.69, respectively (P < 0.001). Incidence rates of anxiety were 34.0%, 55.1%, and 64.0% (P < 0.001). Depression scores were 5.31 ± 3.19, 7.07 ± 3.63, and 8.32 ± 3.89 (P < 0.001). Incidence rates of depression were 25.0%, 43.9%, and 56.0% (P < 0.001). Gender, age, education level, smoking, and treatment-related toxicity scores (P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for anxiety in patients with NPC during radiotherapy, while age, education level, and treatment-related toxicity scores (P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for depression in these patients.

Conclusion: The incidence and degree of anxiety and depression in NPC patients increased during radiotherapy. Age, education level, and treatment-related side effects influenced anxiety and depression. More psychological nursing should be given to the NPC patients who are more likely to suffer from psychological distress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06892-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Resveratrol Alleviates the KCl Salinity Stress of Rhed.

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:650485. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Horticulture, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

Applying large amounts of potash fertilizer in apple orchards for high apple quality and yield aggravates KCl stress. As a phytoalexin, resveratrol (Res) participates in plant resistance to biotic stress. However, its role in relation to KCl stress has never been reported. Herein we investigated the role of Res in KCl stress response of Rehd., a widely used apple rootstock in China which is sensitive to KCl stress. KCl-stressed apple seedlings showed significant wilting phenotype and decline in photosynthetic rate, and the application of 100 μmol Res alleviated KCl stress and maintained photosynthetic capacity. Exogenous Res can strengthen the activities of peroxidase and catalase, thus eliminating reactive oxygen species production induced by KCl stress. Moreover, exogenous Res can decrease the electrolyte leakage by accumulating proline for osmotic balance under KCl stress. Furthermore, exogenous Res application can affect K/Na homeostasis in cytoplasm by enhancing K efflux outside the cells, inhibiting Na efflux and K absorption, and compartmentalizing K into vacuoles through regulating the expression of K and Na transporter genes. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the application of exogenous Res to relieve the KCl stress of apples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.650485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149799PMC
May 2021

Comparative transcriptome analysis of NaCl and KCl stress response in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Provide insight into the regulation involved in Na and K homeostasis.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 4;164:101-114. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Horticulture, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China; Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement and Breeding in Horticulture Plants, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Background: Apple is among the most widely cultivated perennial fruit crops worldwide. It is sensitive to salt stress, which seriously affects the growth and productivity of apple trees by destroying the homeostasis of Na and K. Previous studies focused on the molecular mechanism underlying NaCl stress. However, signaling transduction under KCl stress has not been thoroughly studied.

Results: We comprehensively analyzed the salt tolerance of Malus hupehensis Rehd., which is a widely used rootstock in apple orchards, by using RNA-Seq. Roots and leaves were treated with NaCl and KCl. Based on mapping analyses, a total of 762 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to NaCl and KCl stress in the roots and leaves were identified. Furthermore, we identified seven hub genes by WGCNA Analysis. The Gene Ontology (GO) terms were enriched in ion transmembrane transporter and oxidoreductase activity under NaCl and KCl stress. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways focused on the plant hormone signal transduction and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. We also screened out 28 candidate genes from 762 DEGs and verified their expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All of these enriched genes were closely related to NaCl and KCl stress and take part in mediating the Na and K homeostasis in M. hupehensis.

Conclusions: This transcriptome analysis provides a valuable resource for elucidating the signaling pathway of NaCl and KCl stress and is a substantial genetic resource for discovering genes related to the NaCl and KCl stress response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.04.022DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative effectiveness of team-based care with a clinical decision support system versus team-based care alone on cardiovascular risk reduction among patients with diabetes: Rationale and design of the D4C trial.

Am Heart J 2021 08 4;238:45-58. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Xiamen Diabetes Institute, and Xiamen Clinical Medical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China; Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Diabetes Translational Medicine, Xiamen, China.. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes has become a major public health challenge worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia major risk factors for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are common in patients with diabetes in China. We propose to compare the effectiveness of team-based care plus a clinical decision support system (CDSS) with team-based care alone on glycemic, blood pressure (BP), and lipid control, and clinical CVD reduction among patients with type-2 diabetes and at high risk for CVD.

Methods: The Diabetes Complication Control in Community Clinics (D4C) study is a cluster-randomized trial conducted among 38 community health centers in Xiamen City, China. Nineteen clinics have been randomly assigned to team-based care plus CDSS and 19 to team-based care alone. Team-based care includes primary care providers, health coaches, and diabetes specialists working collaboratively with patients to achieve shared treatment goals for CVD risk factor reduction. The CDSS integrates guideline-based treatment algorithms for glycemic, BP, and lipid control, along with a patient's medical history and insurance policy, to recommend treatment and follow-up plans. In phase 1, the co-primary outcomes are mean reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), systolic BP (SBP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol over 18 months, and the proportion of patients with controlled HbA1c, SBP, and LDL-cholesterol at 18 months' between the 2 comparison groups. In phase 2, the primary outcome is the difference in major CVD incidence (non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalized heart failure, and CVD mortality) between the 2 comparison groups. Mean reduction in HbA1c, SBP, and LDL-cholesterol levels will be simultaneously modeled for a single overall treatment effect.

Conclusion: The D4C trial will generate evidence on whether a CDSS will further reduce the CVD burden among patients with diabetes beyond team-based care at community clinics. If proven effective, this implementation strategy could be scaled up within primary care settings in China and other LMICs to reduce CVD incidence and mortality among patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.04.009DOI Listing
August 2021

The stage-specifically accelerated brain aging in never-treated first-episode patients with depression.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Aug 1;42(11):3656-3666. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Depression associated with structural brain abnormalities is hypothesized to be related with accelerated brain aging. However, there is far from a unified conclusion because of clinical variations such as medication status, cumulative illness burden. To explore whether brain age is accelerated in never-treated first-episode patients with depression and its association with clinical characteristics, we constructed a prediction model where gray matter volumes measured by voxel-based morphometry derived from T1-weighted MRI scans were treated as features. The prediction model was first validated using healthy controls (HCs) in two Chinese Han datasets (Dataset 1, N = 130 for HCs and N = 195 for patients with depression; Dataset 2, N = 270 for HCs) separately or jointly, then the trained prediction model using HCs (N = 400) was applied to never-treated first-episode patients with depression (N = 195). The brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD) scores defined as the difference between predicted brain age and chronological age, were calculated for all participants and compared between patients with age-, gender-, educational level-matched HCs in Dataset 1. Overall, patients presented higher brain-PAD scores suggesting patients with depression having an "older" brain than expected. More specially, this difference occurred at illness onset (illness duration <3 months) and following 2 years then disappeared as the illness further advanced (>2 years) in patients. This phenomenon was verified by another data-driven method and significant correlation between brain-PAD scores and illness duration in patients. Our results reveal that accelerated brain aging occurs at illness onset and suggest it is a stage-dependent phenomenon in depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249899PMC
August 2021

Antibiotic Use Among Hospitalized Children and Neonates in China: Results From Quarterly Point Prevalence Surveys in 2019.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:601561. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Lishui Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Lishui, China.

Antimicrobial resistance is a significant clinical problem in pediatric practice in China. Surveillance of antibiotic use is one of the cornerstones to assess the quality of antibiotic use and plan and assess the impact of antibiotic stewardship interventions. We carried out quarterly point prevalence surveys referring to WHO Methodology of Point Prevalence Survey in 16 Chinese general and children's hospitals in 2019 to assess antibiotic use in pediatric inpatients based on the WHO AWaRe metrics and to detect potential problem areas. Data were retrieved via the hospital information systems on the second Monday of March, June, September and December. Antibiotic prescribing patterns were analyzed across and within diagnostic conditions and ward types according to WHO AWaRe metrics and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification. A total of 22,327 hospitalized children were sampled, of which 14,757 (66.1%) were prescribed ≥1 antibiotic. Among the 3,936 sampled neonates (≤1 month), 59.2% ( = 2,331) were prescribed ≥1 antibiotic. A high percentage of combination antibiotic therapy was observed in PICUs (78.5%), pediatric medical wards (68.1%) and surgical wards (65.2%). For hospitalized children prescribed ≥1 antibiotic, the most common diagnosis on admission were lower respiratory tract infections (43.2%, = 6,379). WHO Watch group antibiotics accounted for 70.4% of prescriptions ( = 12,915). The most prescribed antibiotic ATC classes were third-generation cephalosporins (41.9%, = 7,679), followed by penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors (16.1%, = 2,962), macrolides (12.1%, = 2,214) and carbapenems (7.7%, = 1,331). Based on these data, overuse of broad-spectrum Watch group antibiotics is common in Chinese pediatric inpatients. Specific interventions in the context of the national antimicrobial stewardship framework should aim to reduce the use of Watch antibiotics and routine surveillance of antibiotic use using WHO AWaRe metrics should be implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.601561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039455PMC
March 2021

Haloamines as Bifunctional Reagents for Oxidative Aminohalogenation of Maleimides.

Org Lett 2021 05 12;23(9):3669-3673. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, People's Republic of China.

An unprecedented copper-catalyzed oxidative aminohalogenation of electron-deficient maleimides with secondary amines and NXS (X = Cl, Br, I) was developed, in which the N-X bonds generated in situ were used as difunctionalized reagents. The distinctive features of this multicomponent reaction include a simple green catalytic system, a spectral substrate range, and the late-stage modification of drug molecules. Most importantly, this umpolung radical cascade strategy exploits the in situ formation of -iodoamines that enable efficient alkene aminoiodination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01052DOI Listing
May 2021

Frontiers of Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Disorders: Crosstalk Between Tfh/Tfr and Regulatory B Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:641013. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Rheumatology, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Balance of Tfh/Tfr cell is critically important for the maintenance of immune tolerance, as evidenced by the fact that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are central to the autoantibodies generation through providing necessary help for germinal center (GC) B cells, whereas T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells significantly inhibit autoimmune inflammation process through restraining Tfh cell responses. However, signals underlying the regulation of Tfh and Tfr cells are largely undefined. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) is a heterogeneous subpopulation of B cells with immunosuppressive function. Considerable advances have been made in their functions to produce anti-inflammatory cytokines and to regulate Th17, Th1, and Treg cells in autoimmune diseases. The recent identification of their correlations with dysregulated Tfr/Tfh cells and autoantibody production makes Bregs an important checkpoint in GC response. Bregs exert profound impacts on the differentiation, function, and distribution of Tfh and Tfr cells in the immune microenvironment. Thus, unraveling mechanistic information on Tfh-Breg and Tfr-Breg interactions will inspire novel implications for the establishment of homeostasis and prevention of autoantibodies in diverse diseases. This review summarizes the dysregulation of Tfh/Tfr cells in autoimmune diseases with a focus on the emerging role of Bregs in regulating the balance between Tfh and Tfr cells. The previously unsuspected crosstalk between Bregs and Tfh/Tfr cells will be beneficial to understand the cellular mechanisms of autoantibody production and evoke a revolution in immunotherapy for autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.641013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033031PMC
September 2021

Properties and regulation of Gly-Sar uptake and transport in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Intestinal absorption of peptides is vital for the overall health and productivity of dairy cows. This study investigated the regulation, uptake and transport of dipeptides in bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIECs). We also evaluated the effects of time, pH, concentration of the dipeptides, temperature, presence of diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC)-an inhibitor of PepT1, and other dipeptides (Met-Met, Lys-Lys or Met-Lys), on the uptake and transport of Gly-Sar-FITC, which was a common fluorophore-labelled dipeptide. Under controlled experiments, BIECs were treated with 25 μM LY294002 (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor) and 25 μM Perifosine (a protein kinase B (AKT) inhibitor). The subsequent expression of PepT1 in the BIECs was assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. It was found that the uptake and transport of Gly-Sar-FITC were significant high at 37℃ than that at 4℃. The optimal pH for transport and uptake of Gly-Sar-FITC was 6.0-6.5, whereas the two properties decreased significantly in the presence of DEPC, Met-Met, Lys-Lys and Met-Lys (p < 0.05). The apical-to-basolateral transport was also found to be significantly higher than the reverse transport (p < 0.05). PI3K and AKT inhibitors were found to significantly suppress the expression of PepT1, thus impairing uptake and transport of Gly-Sar-FITC. Findings of this study thus suggest that the uptake and transport of Gly-Sar-FITC in BIECs are mediated by PepT1, and the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway regulates the absorption of small peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13546DOI Listing
April 2021

Validation of cerebral blood flow connectivity as imaging prognostic biomarker on subcortical stroke.

J Neurochem 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of MRI, Key Laboratory for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Molecular Imaging of Henan Province, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Stroke is a major cause of vascular cognitive dysfunction, such as memory impairment. We aimed to explore the neural substrates underlying verbal memory impairment in subcortical stroke patients by the methods of voxel-wise cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the functional covariance network (FCN). Sixty patients with chronic subcortical stroke and 60 normal controls (NCs) were recruited into this study. We used a three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling imaging to measure alterations in CBF and FCNs. We mapped the overall CBF alterations in a voxel-wise manner and compared CBF measurements using a two-sample t test. Correlations between CBF and verbal memory were also investigated. Subsequently, we constructed FCNs by calculating the correlation between specific regions and all other voxels of a whole brain, separately within the two groups. Thereafter, by comparing differences of the FCN patterns between the patient and NC groups, we investigated the connection alterations within the FCN maps. The stroke patients showed verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficits compared to NCs. The patients exhibited decreased CBF in the ipsilesional insula and ventral sensorimotor network, and increased CBF in contralesional frontal cortical and subcortical regions (putamen and thalamus). Meanwhile, the CBF in the ipsilesional insula was positively correlated, and the contralesional frontal cortical was negativity correlated, with VSTM scores. Moreover we found that stroke patients exhibited disordered connection within FCNs compared to NCs. The study suggests that the underlying imaging biomarker of VSTM impairment in patients with subcortical stroke was associated with disconnection of the frontal lobe network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15359DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of psychological condition before radiotherapy on prognosis in 390 patients initially treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Oct 25;29(10):5967-5972. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Purpose: To explore whether anxiety and depression are prognostic indexes for overall survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

Methods: Clinical data were collected for NPC patients who underwent IMRT. Anxiety and depression were investigated before radiotherapy by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared among patients with different levels of anxiety and depression. The Cox risk regression model was used to screen the factors affecting survival.

Results: A total of 390 initially treated NPC patients were included in the study. Among them, 166 patients suffered from anxiety, and 95 patients suffered from depression before radiotherapy. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with and without anxiety before radiotherapy were 71.6% and 81.8% (χ = 5.31, P = 0.021), respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with and without depression before radiotherapy were 74.3% and 78.1% (χ = 0.05, P = 0.82), respectively. Cox regression analysis indicated clinical stages (HR = 3.982, 95% CI: 2.365~6.705), anxiety (HR = 1.832, 95% CI: 1.140~2.944), and gender (HR = 0.555, 95% CI: 0.313~0.984) as independent prognostic factors.

Conclusion: Anxiety before radiotherapy is associated with poor prognosis in NPC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06130-yDOI Listing
October 2021

Voxel-Mirrored Homotopic Connectivity Associated With Change of Cognitive Function in Chronic Pontine Stroke.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 18;13:621767. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Henan Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance Function and Molecular Imaging, Department of MRI, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Recent neuroimaging studies have shown the possibility of cognitive impairment after pontine stroke. In this study, we aimed to use voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) to investigate changes in the cognitive function in chronic pontine stroke. Functional MRI (fMRI) and behavioral assessments of cognitive function were obtained from 56 patients with chronic pontine ischemic stroke [28 patients with left-sided pontine stroke (LP) and 28 patients with right-sided pontine stroke (RP)] and 35 matched healthy controls (HC). The one-way ANOVA test was performed for the three groups after the VMHC analysis. Results showed that there were significant decreases in the bilateral lingual gyrus (Lingual_L and Lingual_R) and the left precuneus (Precuneus_L) in patients with chronic pontine ischemic stroke compared to HCs. However, in a multiple comparison test, this difference remained only between the HC and RP groups. Moreover, we explored the relationship between the decreased -values in VMHC and the behavior-task scores using a Pearson's correlation test and found that both scores of short-term memory and long-term memory in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test were positively correlated with -values of the left lingual gyrus (Lingual_L), the right lingual gyrus (Lingual_R), and the left precuneus (Precuneus_L) in VMHC. Besides that, the -values of Precuneus_L in VMHC were also negatively correlated with the reaction time for correct responses in the Flanker task and the spatial memory task. In conclusion, first, the lingual gyrus played an important role in verbal memory. Second, the precuneus influenced the working memory, both auditory-verbal memory and visual memory. Third, the right-sided stroke played a greater role in the results of this study. This study provides a basis for further elucidation of the characteristics and mechanisms of cognitive impairment after pontine stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.621767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7929989PMC
February 2021

Genome-wide dissection reveals diverse pathogenic roles of bacterial Tc toxins.

PLoS Pathog 2021 02 4;17(2):e1009102. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Beijing Institute of Tropical Medicine, Beijing, China.

Tc toxins were originally identified in entomopathogenic bacteria, which are important as biological pest control agents. Tc toxins are heteromeric exotoxins composed of three subunit types, TcA, TcB, and TcC. The C-terminal portion of the TcC protein encodes the actual toxic domain, which is translocated into host cells by an injectosome nanomachine comprising the other subunits. Currently the pathogenic roles and distribution of Tc toxins among different bacterial genera remain unclear. Here we have performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis, and established a database that includes 1,608 identified Tc loci containing 2,528 TcC proteins in 1,421 Gram-negative and positive bacterial genomes. Our findings indicate that TcCs conform to the architecture of typical polymorphic toxins, with C-terminal hypervariable regions (HVR) encoding more than 100 different classes of putative toxic domains, most of which have not been previously recognized. Based on further analysis of Tc loci in the genomes of all Salmonella and Yersinia strains in EnteroBase, a "two-level" evolutionary dynamics scenario is proposed for TcC homologues. This scenario implies that the conserved TcC RHS core domain plays a critical role in the taxonomical specific distribution of TcC HVRs. This study provides an extensive resource for the future development of Tc toxins as valuable agrochemical tools. It furthermore implies that Tc proteins, which are encoded by a wide range of pathogens, represent an important versatile toxin superfamily with diverse pathogenic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861908PMC
February 2021

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from cerebrospinal fluid among children with bacterial meningitis in China from 2016 to 2018: a multicenter retrospective study.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2021 01 30;10(1):24. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University and Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, No 20, 3rd Section of Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610041, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pediatric bacterial meningitis (PBM) remains a devastating disease that causes substantial neurological morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, there are few large-scale studies on the pathogens causing PBM and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns in China. The present multicenter survey summarized the features of the etiological agents of PBM and characterized their AMR patterns.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with PBM were enrolled retrospectively at 13 children's hospitals in China from 2016 to 2018 and were screened based on a review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microbiology results. Demographic characteristics, the causative organisms and their AMR patterns were systematically analyzed.

Results: Overall, 1193 CSF bacterial isolates from 1142 patients with PBM were obtained. The three leading pathogens causing PBM were Staphylococcus epidermidis (16.5%), Escherichia coli (12.4%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.6%). In infants under 3 months of age, the top 3 pathogens were E. coli (116/523; 22.2%), Enterococcus faecium (75/523; 14.3%), and S. epidermidis (57/523; 10.9%). However, in children more than 3 months of age, the top 3 pathogens were S. epidermidis (140/670; 20.9%), S. pneumoniae (117/670; 17.5%), and Staphylococcus hominis (57/670; 8.5%). More than 93.0% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, amikacin and carbapenems, and the resistance rates to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime were 49.4%, 49.2% and 26.4%, respectively. From 2016 to 2018, the proportion of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates (MRCoNS) declined from 80.5 to 72.3%, and the frequency of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates increased from 75.0 to 87.5%. The proportion of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli fluctuated between 44.4 and 49.2%, and the detection rate of ESBL production in Klebsiella pneumoniae ranged from 55.6 to 88.9%. The resistance of E. coli strains to carbapenems was 5.0%, but the overall prevalence of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) was high (54.5%).

Conclusions: S. epidermidis, E. coli and S. pneumoniae were the predominant pathogens causing PBM in Chinese patients. The distribution of PBM causative organisms varied by age. The resistance of CoNS to methicillin and the high incidence of ESBL production among E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were concerning. CRKP poses a critical challenge for the treatment of PBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-021-00895-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847565PMC
January 2021

An imbalance between functional segregation and integration in patients with pontine stroke: A dynamic functional network connectivity study.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 19;28:102507. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of MRI, Henan Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance Function and Molecular Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies on brain functional connectivity have revealed the neural physiopathology in patients with pontine stroke (PS). However, those studies focused only on the static features of intrinsic fluctuations, rather than on the time-varying effects throughout the entire scan. In the present study, we sought to explore the underlying mechanism of PS using the dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) method.

Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected from 58 patients with PS and 52 healthy controls (HC). Independent component analysis (ICA), the sliding window method, and k-means clustering analysis were performed to extract different functional networks, to calculate dFNC matrices, and to estimate distinct dynamic connectivity states. Additionally, temporal features were compared between the two groups in each state to explore the brain's preference for different dynamic connectivity states in PS, and global and local efficiency were compared among states to explore the differences of topologic organization across different dFNC states. The correlations between clinical scales and the temporal features that differed between the two groups also were calculated.

Results: The dFNC analyses suggested four recurring states; in two of these states, the PS group showed a different duration from that of the HC group. Patients with PS spent significantly more time in a sparsely connected state (State 1), which was characterized by relatively low levels of connectivity within and between all brain networks. In contrast, patients with PS spent significantly less time in a highly segregated state (State 2), which was characterized by high levels of positive connectivities within primary perceptional domains and within higher cognitive control domains, and by high levels of negative inter-functional connectivities (inter-FCs) among primary perceptional and higher cognitive control domains. Additionally, the dwell time in State 2 was positively correlated with HC group's long-term memory scores in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT-L), whereas there was no correlation between the State-2 dwell time and RAVLT-L scores in the PS group. Furthermore, the sparsely connected state and the highly segregated state mentioned above had the highest global efficiency and the highest local efficiency among the four states, respectively.

Conclusions: In summary, we observed a preference in the aberrant brain for dynamic connectivity states with different network topologic organization in patients with PS, indicating abnormal functional segregation and integration of the whole brain and confirming the imperfection of functional network connectivity in patients with PS. These findings provide new evidence for the dynamic neural mechanisms underlying clinical symptoms in patients with PS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714678PMC
June 2021

The complete chloroplast genome of subsp. (H.Lév.) T. S. Ying & Boufford (Berberidaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Nov 12;4(2):3933-3935. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

subsp. (H.Lév.) T.S.Ying & Boufford. is an evergreen shrub of Berberidaceae and has the potentials for horticultural and medicinal development. In the present paper, the complete chloroplast genome of subsp. (H.Lév.) T.S.Ying & Boufford. was sequenced. The complete chloroplast genome was 165,562 bp in length, containing a large single copy region (73,394 bp), a small single copy region (18,698 bp) and two inverted repeat regions (36,735 bp). The genome consisted of 113 genes, including 79 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that subsp. and were firstly clustered into a branch and the two species were most closely related to the genus of Berberidaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1687346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707765PMC
November 2019

Exogenous Strigolactones alleviate KCl stress by regulating photosynthesis, ROS migration and ion transport in Malus hupehensis Rehd.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb 17;159:113-122. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

College of Horticulture, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China; Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement and Breeding in Horticulture Plants, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

Aims: In recent years, the application of large amounts of potash fertilizer in apple orchards leads to worsening KCl stress. Strigolactone (SL), as a novel phytohormone, reportedly participates in plant tolerance to NaCl and drought stresses. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects of exogenous SL on the KCl stress of apple seedlings remain unclear.

Methods: We sprayed different concentrations of exogenous SL on Malus hupehensis Rehd. under KCl stress and measured the physiological indexes like, photosynthetic parameter, content of ROS, osmolytes and mineral element. In addition, the expressions of KCl-responding genes and SL-signaling genes were also detected and analyzed.

Results: Application of exogenous SL protected the chlorophyll and maintained the photosynthetic rate of apple seedlings under KCl stress. Exogenous SL strengthened the enzyme activities of peroxidase and catalase, thereby eliminating reactive oxygen species production induced by KCl stress, promoting the accumulation of proline, and maintaining osmotic balance. Exogenous SL expelled K outside of the cytoplasm and compartmentalized K into the vacuole, increased the contents of Na, Mg, Fe, and Mn in the cytoplasm to maintain the ion homeostasis under KCl stress.

Conclusions: Exogenous SL can regulate photosynthesis, ROS migration and ion transport in apple seedlings to alleviate KCl stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.12.015DOI Listing
February 2021

Disrupted Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Functional Connectivity in Pontine Infarction: A Longitudinal MRI Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 19;12:577899. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) and resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) are sensitive biomarkers of disease progression and prognosis. This study investigated neural underpinnings of motor and cognitive recovery by longitudinally studying the changes of CBF and FC in pontine infarction (PI). Twenty patients underwent three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-pcASL), resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans, and behavioral assessments at 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months after stroke. Twenty normal control (NC) subjects underwent the same examination once. First, we investigated CBF changes in the acute stage, and longitudinal changes from 1 week to 6 months after PI. Brain regions with longitudinal CBF changes were then used as seeds to investigate longitudinal FC alterations during the follow-up period. Compared with NC, patients in the left PI (LPI) and right PI (RPI) groups showed significant CBF alterations in the bilateral cerebellum and some supratentorial brain regions at the baseline stage. Longitudinal analysis revealed that altered CBF values in the right supramarginal (SMG_R) for the LPI group, while the RPI group showed significantly dynamic changes of CBF in the left calcarine sulcus (CAL_L), middle occipital gyrus (MOG_L), and right supplementary motor area (SMA_R). Using the SMG_R as the seed in the LPI group, FC changes were found in the MOG_L, middle temporal gyrus (MTG_L), and prefrontal lobe (IFG_L). Correlation analysis showed that longitudinal CBF changes in the SMG_R and FC values between the SMG_R and MOG_L were associated with motor and memory scores in the LPI group, and longitudinal CBF changes in the CAL_L and SMA_R were related to memory and motor recovery in the RPI group. These longitudinal CBF and accompany FC alterations may provide insights into the neural mechanism underlying functional recovery after PI, including that of motor and cognitive functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.577899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710811PMC
November 2020
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