Publications by authors named "Cai-Hong Dong"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Genus (Syn. ) Reinstated and Species Clarification of the Cultivated Medicinal Mushroom "Fuling" in China.

Front Microbiol 2020 15;11:590788. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Institute of Horticultural Plant Biology, Szent István University, Budapest, Hungary.

The fungus "Fuling" has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for more than 2000 years, and its sclerotia have a wide range of biological activities including antitumour, immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-aging etc. This prized medicinal mushroom also known as "Hoelen" is resurrected from a piece of pre-Linnean scientific literature. Fries treated it as Fr. and mentioned that it was cultivated on pine trees in China. However, this name had been almost forgotten, and (syn. ), originally described from North America, and known as "Tuckahoe" has been applied to "Fuling" in most publications. Although Merrill mentioned a 100 years ago that Asian and North American are similar but different, no comprehensive taxonomical studies have been carried out on the East Asian and its related species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and morphological examination on both the sclerotia and the basidiocarps which are very seldomly developed, the East Asian samples of including sclerotia, commercial strains for cultivation and fruiting bodies, nested in a strongly supported, homogeneous lineage which clearly separated from the lineages of North American and other species. So we confirm that the widely cultivated "Fuling" in East Asia is not conspecific with the North American . Based on the changes in Art. 59 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, the generic name , which was sanctioned by Fries, has nomenclatural priority (ICN, Art. F.3.1), and this name well represents the economically important stage of the generic type. So we propose to use rather than , and subsequently and are the valid names for "Fuling" in East Asia and "Tuckahoe" in North America, respectively. In addition, a new combination, , is proposed. Furthermore, it seems that is a species complex, and that three species exist in North America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.590788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793888PMC
December 2020

Classification, Biological Characteristics and Cultivations of Ganoderma.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1181:15-58

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Species of Ganoderma (Ling-zhi) have been widely researched and cultivated due to their highly prized medicinal value, which is famous as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aims of this chapter are to (1) review the historical taxonomy of the family Ganodermataceae, (2) provide an account of the genera and species of Ganoderma together with the distributions and habitats, (3) evaluate morphological features and phylogenetic methods to define the genera and species and (4) present two commonly used cultivated methods (wood-log cultivation and substitute cultivation) for Ganoderma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-9867-4_2DOI Listing
November 2019

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Features of Hepatic Reactive Lymphoid Hyperplasia: Correlation With Histopathologic Findings.

J Ultrasound Med 2019 Sep 21;38(9):2379-2388. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: To find certain specifics of hepatic reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (HRLH) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging as diagnostic imaging clues by retrospectively analyzing its enhancement features.

Methods: From June 2010 to June 2017, 18 histopathologically confirmed HRLH lesions in 18 patients were included in this retrospective study. The lesion's location, maximum diameter, shape, margin, echogenicity, and color flow signal on conventional ultrasound (US) imaging and enhancement pattern, presence of a feeding artery, and donutlike enhancement on CEUS imaging were observed and recorded. The lesion size on CEUS imaging at peak enhancement and that on conventional US imaging were compared and recorded.

Results: All of the lesions showed homogeneous hypoechogenicity with a regular well-defined margin on conventional US imaging, with a mean diameter ± SD of 14.3 ± 4.6 mm (range, 8-24 mm). On CEUS imaging, all of the lesions showed "quick-wash-in and quick-wash-out," which showed complete homogeneous hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and wash-out in the second half of the arterial phase or first half of the portal phase. In 83.3% (15 of 18) of the lesions, the lesion size that was enhanced at peak was enlarged compared with the hypoechoic area on conventional US imaging, and transient donutlike enhancement appeared when the lesion showed wash-out. In 55.6% (10 of 18) of cases, the feeding artery was detected.

Conclusions: Enlarged complete homogeneous hyperenhancement in the arterial phase, consequently followed by quick wash-out of the lesion and the appearance of donutlike enhancement, may be the CEUS features of HRLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.14934DOI Listing
September 2019

Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2016 ;18(4):327-36

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v18.i4.60DOI Listing
April 2017

A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

Int J Med Mushrooms 2014 ;16(5):485-95

College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, 110866, China; State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Cordyceps militaris is one of the most popular mushrooms and nutraceuticals in Eastern Asia. This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and fungi), whereas that from the fermented mycelia showed selective activity. The antioxidant potential of two extracts is significant in the four tested systems in vitro, including total antioxidant capacity, scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals, reducing power, and chelating ability on ferrous ions. The fruiting bodies had stronger DPPH· radical scavenging activity, whereas the fermented mycelia had stronger total antioxidant capacity, chelating ability, and reducing power, which suggested that they had their own role and worked in different ways. Both extracts present strong activities against tumor cell line A549. The results obtained indicated that extracts from C. militaris might be valuable antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic natural sources and seemed to be applicable in health and medicine as well as in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/intjmedmushrooms.v16.i5.70DOI Listing
May 2015

Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

Int J Med Mushrooms 2014 ;16(2):125-35

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/intjmedmushr.v16.i2.30DOI Listing
January 2015

Three types of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from the medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

Int J Med Mushrooms 2014 ;16(2):115-24

College of Land and Environment, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, 110866, China.

Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) is a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, catalyzing the synthesis of its C20 precursor. In the present study, three types of ggpps genes were cloned and analyzed from the Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued carotenoid-producing species. The sequences were named as ggpps727, ggpps191, and ggpps595. The open reading frame codes for predicted polypeptides of 464, 550, and 431 aa. Three predicted GGPPSs had a high similarity to that from Beauveria bassiana ARSEF 2860 with identity of 73%, 71%, and 56%, respectively. Homology comparison of the deduced peptide sequences of the various GGPPSs revealed highly conserved domains. Both GGPPS727 and GGPPS191 from C. militaris contained all five domains highly conserved among prenyltransferases as well as two aspartate-rich DDXX(XX)D motifs in domains II and V, which have been proven essential for prenyltransferase activity. By constructing the phylogenetic tree of fungal GGPPSs, it was found that fungi-derived GGPPSs could be divided into three clusters, suggesting there were three types of GGPPSs in fungi. Each type may be responsible for a different metabolism. Three types of GGPPSs from C. militaris belonged to the different clusters separately. Expression analysis of three ggpps genes during the fruit body cultivation of C. militaris by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suggested the ggpps 191 gene may be involved in the synthesis of carotenoids and ggpps 727 may be responsible for primary metabolism. This is the first report of the GGPPS from C. militaris, a valued edible and medicinal fungus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/intjmedmushr.v16.i2.20DOI Listing
January 2015

Lasiodiplodin analogues from the endophytic fungus Sarocladium kiliense.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2013 ;61(3):363-5

Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, P.R. China.

A new 12-membered ring lactone, (3S),(6R)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin (1), with two known analogues, (3R)-lasiodiplodin (2), and (3R),(5S)-5-hydroxylasiodiplodin (3) were isolated from the EtOH extracts of normal Apriona germari (Hope)-associated fungus Sarocladium kiliense grown in rice medium. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic data interpretation, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and modified Mosher's method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c12-00898DOI Listing
December 2013

A survey of the geographic distribution of Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

J Microbiol 2011 Dec 28;49(6):913-9. Epub 2011 Dec 28.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, P. R. China.

Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the best known fungi in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Many efforts have been devoted to locating the production areas of this species resulting in various reports; however, its geographic distribution remains incompletely understood. Distribution of O. sinensis at the county level is clarified in this work based on both a literature search and fieldwork. More than 3600 publications related to O. sinensis were investigated, including scientific papers, books, and online information. Herbarium specimens of O. sinensis and field collections made by this research group during the years 2000-2010 were examined to verify the distribution sites. A total of 203 localities for O. sinensis have been found, of which 106 are considered as confirmed distribution sites, 65 as possible distribution sites, 29 as excluded distribution sites and three as suspicious distribution sites. The results show that O. sinensis is confined to the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions, including Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces in China and in certain areas of the southern flank of the Himalayas, in the countries of Bhutan, India and Nepal, with 3,000 m as the lowest altitude for the distribution. The fungus is distributed from the southernmost site in Yulong Naxi Autonomous County in northwestern Yunnan Province to the northernmost site in the Qilian Mountains in Qilian County, Qinghai Province, and from the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau in Wudu County, Gansu Province to the westernmost site in Uttarakhand, India. The clarification of the geographic distribution of O. sinensis will lay the foundation for conservation and sustainable use of the species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-011-1193-zDOI Listing
December 2011