Publications by authors named "C Su"

5,979 Publications

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Characterization of the vehicle emissions in the Greater Taipei Area through vision-based traffic analysis system and its impacts on urban air quality.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 23;782:146571. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Information and Computer Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taoyuan City, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

In recent years, many surveillance cameras have been installed in the Greater Taipei Area, Taiwan; traffic data obtained from these surveillance cameras could be useful for the development of roadway-based emissions inventories. In this study, web-based traffic information covering the Greater Taipei Area was obtained using a vision-based traffic analysis system. Web-based traffic data were normalized and applied to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to study the impact of vehicle emissions on air quality in the Greater Taipei Area. According to an analysis of the obtained traffic data, sedans were the most common vehicles in the Greater Taipei Area, followed by motorcycles. Moderate traffic conditions with an average speed of 30-50 km/h were most prominent during weekdays, whereas traffic flow with an average speed of 50-70 km/h was most common during weekends. The proportion of traffic flows in free-flow conditions (>70 km/h) was higher on weekends than on weekdays. Two peaks of traffic flow were observed during the morning and afternoon peak hours on weekdays. On the weekends, this morning peak was not observed, and the variation in vehicle numbers was lower than on weekdays. The simulation results suggested that the addition of real-time traffic data improved the CMAQ model's performance, especially for the carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations. According to sensitivity tests for total and vehicle emissions in the Greater Taipei Area, vehicle emissions contributed to >90% of CO, 80% of nitrogen oxides (NO), and approximately 50% of PM in the downtown areas of Taipei. The vehicle emissions contribution was affected by both vehicle emissions and meteorological conditions. The connection between the surveillance camera data, vehicle emissions, and regional air quality models in this study can also be used to explore the impact of special events (e.g., long weekends and COVID-19 lockdowns) on air quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146571DOI Listing
March 2021

Flexible graphene/GO electrode for gel-free EEG.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Room 710, T3, No.43, Keelung Rd., Sec.4, Taipei City, Taiwan, R.O.C., Taipei City, Taiwan, 10607, TAIWAN.

Objective: Developments in electroencephalography (EEG) technology has allowed the use of brain-computer interface (BCI) outside dedicated labs. In order to achieve long-time monitoring and detection of EEG signals for BCI application, dry electrodes with good signal quality and high bio compatibility are essential. In 2016, we proposed a flexible dry electrode made of silicone gel and Ag flakes, which showed good signal quality and mechanical robustness. However, the Ag componets used made the electrode too expensive for commercial adaptation. In this study, we aim to develop an improved electrode based on our previous design.

Approach: The new electrode was produced from silicone gel, metal flakes and graphene/GO. Two types of electrode with different graphene/GO proportion were produced to explore how the amount of graphene/GO affects the electrode. We also designed tests to test the electrodes' signal quality and robustness in detecting steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP).

Main Results: During our tests, the proposed elextrodes showed low impedance and had good signal correlation to conventional wet electrode in both time domain and frequency domain. The graphene/GO electrode also showed good signal quality in eyes opened EEG recording. Curiously, we found that the electrode with more graphene/GO had uneven surface and had worse signal quality. Finally, we sound the graphene/GO electrode could reliably detect SSVEP in target bfrequency and harmonic frequencies even in hairy occipital area.

Significance: This study proposed a new flexible dry electrode that was easy to prepare and can be made into various shape. This makes the electrode easily adaptable to existing EEG systems. The electrode showed high signal correlation to conventional wet electrode, and can reliably detect SSVEP. These traits give the proposed electrode a huge potential in commercial BCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/abf609DOI Listing
April 2021

Rapid eye movement sleep and slow wave sleep rebounded and related factors during positive airway pressure therapy.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 7;11(1):7599. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710038, Shaanxi Province, China.

This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and predictors of increased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep or slow wave sleep (SWS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) following positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. The study retrospectively analyzed data from patients with OSA who underwent both diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) and pressure titration PSG at the Tangdu Hospital Sleep Medicine Center from 2011-2016. Paired diagnostic PSG and pressure titration studies from 501 patients were included. REM rebound was predicted by a higher oxygen desaturation index, lower REM proportion, higher arousal index, lower mean pulse oxygen saturation (SpO), higher Epworth sleepiness score and younger age (adjusted R = 0.482). The SWS rebound was predicted by a longer total duration of apneas and hypopneas, lower N3 duration, lower SpO nadir, lower REM proportion in diagnostic PSG and younger age (adjusted R = 0.286). Patients without REM rebound or SWS rebound had a high probability of comorbidities with insomnia and mood complaints. Some parameters (subjective and objective insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, age and OSA severity) indicate changes in REM sleep and SWS between diagnostic and titration PSG tests. Treatment of insomnia and mood disorders in patients with OSA may helpful to improve the use PAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87149-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027864PMC
April 2021

Clinical and genetic characteristics of hypophosphatasia in Chinese children.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Apr 7;16(1):159. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Endocrinology, Genetics and Metabolism, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Background: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited disorder, which is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the ALPL gene. HPP is a heterogeneous disease that has a wide spectrum of phenotypes. Few studies were carried out in the Chinese population with HPP, especially in children.

Methods: The clinical and genetic characteristics of 10 Chinese children with HPP who were referred to the Beijing Children's Hospital were described. Previously reported HPP cases of children in China were also reviewed.

Results: A total of 33 cases were identified, which included 2 perinatal lethal HPP, 10 infantile HPP, 10 childhood HPP, and 11 odonto HPP. The male-to-female ratio was 24:9. The average age at onset was 0.69 years (ranged from 2 h after birth to 14 years), while the average age at clinical diagnosis was 3.87 years (ranged from 2 h after birth to 19 years). Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were significantly decreased in patients with perinatal lethal/infantile HPP when compared with those with the mild forms of HPP childhood/odonto HPP (P < 0.01). Although serum phosphate levels were not different (P > 0.05), serum calcium levels were elevated, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were decreased in patients with perinatal lethal/infantile HPP in comparison with those with the childhood/odonto HPP (P all < 0.01). Genetic analyses identified 40 mutations in 31 HPP cases, including 28 missense mutations, 9 frameshift mutations, 2 splice junction alterations, and 1 regulatory mutation. Of which, 5 novel mutations were identified in our present study: 2 frameshift mutations (p.Arg138GlyfsTer27, p.Leu511Profs*272); 2 missense mutations (p.Ala176Val, p.Phe268Leu), and 1 splice junction alteration (c.297+5G>A). Compound heterozygous mutations accounted for 80.6% of all variants. No mutational "hot-spot" was found. Most mutations of ALPL were located in exons 5, 7, 10, and 3. Notably, subjects that carrying single heterozygous mutations showed milder phenotypes of HPP, while subjects with nonsense mutations were associated with a severer phenotype.

Conclusions: HPP is a rare disease with often delayed diagnosis, and the incidence of HPP in China may be seriously underestimated. The present study expands the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum and the understanding of HPP in Chinese children. These findings will be useful for clinical assessment and shorten the diagnosis time for pediatric HPP in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01798-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028151PMC
April 2021

How peptic ulcer disease could potentially lead to the lifelong, debilitating effects of chronic fatigue syndrome: an insight.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 6;11(1):7520. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Long-Term Care, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has been defined as unexplained relapsing or persistent fatigue for at least 6 consecutive months. Immuno-inflammatory pathway, bacterial infection, and other causes play essential roles in CFS. Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common causes of foregut inflammation, leading to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). This study aimed to analyze the risk of CFS development between patients with and without PUD. Other related factors were also analyzed. We performed a retrospective, nationwide cohort study identifying patients with or without PUD respectively by analyzing the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000), Taiwan. The overall incidence of CFS was higher in the PUD cohort than in the non- PUD cohort (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.75-2.30), with the same adjusted HR (aHR) when adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. The sex-specific PUD cohort to the non-PUD cohort relative risk of CFS was significant in both genders. The age-specific incidence of CFS showed incidence density increasing with age in both cohorts. There is an increased risk of developing CFS following PUD, especially in females and the aging population. Hopefully, these findings can prevent common infections from progressing to debilitating, chronic conditions such as CFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87018-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024330PMC
April 2021

Predictive Significance of Serum MMP-9 in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Open Life Sci 2019 Jan 10;14:275-287. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Emergency, The First Hospital of Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun, Jilin, 130021,China.

Objective: The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is increasing, and there are no reliable serum biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of PTC. This study aimed to assess whether serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) could serve as an auxiliary diagnostic/prognostic marker for PTC after total and partial thyroidectomy.

Material And Methods: Postoperative serum MMP-9 concentrations were measured in 182 male patients with PTC, 86 male patients with benign thyroid nodule (BTN), and 62 male healthy controls (HCs). Multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to evaluate the correlation between variables. The performance of serum MMP-9 in diagnosing PTC and predicting structural persistent/recurrent disease (SPRD) during 48 months of follow-up after initial surgery was evaluated by receiving operating characteristic curve analysis.

Results: The median serum MMP-9 concentration in the PTC group (79.45 ng/ml) was significantly higher than those in the BTN group (47.35 ng/ml) and HC group (47.71 ng/ml). The area under the curve (AUC) for predicting PTC from BTN was 0.852 at a cut-off value of 60.59 ng/ml. Serum MMP-9 was negatively correlated with disease-free survival (OR 1.026, P=0.001). Serum MMP-9 exhibited good performance in predicting SPRD at a cutoff value of 99.25 ng/ml with an AUC of 0.818. Advanced TNM stage (OR 31.371, P=0.019) and serum MMP-9 ≥99.25 ng/ml (OR 4.103, P=0.022) were independent risk factors for SPRD.

Conclusions: Serum MMP-9 potentially represents a good predictive biomarker for PTC diagnosis and prognosis after thyroidectomy in Chinese male patients for whom radio-imaging indicates suspected PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/biol-2019-0031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874766PMC
January 2019

Does Economic Overheating Provide Positive Feedback on Population Health? Evidence From BRICS and ASEAN Countries.

Front Public Health 2021 18;9:661279. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Business Administration, National Fertilizer Corporation Institute of Engineering and Technology, Multan, Pakistan.

This paper explores the relationship of real GDP per capita with cancer incidence applying panel threshold regression model in BRICS and ASEAN countries. The empirical results highlight that the business cycle has an inverted-U correlation with population health indicators and a non-linear single threshold effect. In BRICS countries, the health-promoting effect of economic growth is significantly weaker when exceeding the threshold. Similarly, economic growth in ASEAN countries, even worsens population health, after the turning point. These asymmetric effects are strongly related to the response of regional economic globalization health policies. Changes in economic expansion and overheating may have serious adverse effects on health care systems in emerging economies. Governments should adopt more aggressive health care policies during economic overheating, to avoid wasting health care resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.661279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012809PMC
March 2021

Peripheral Blood Autoantibodies Against to Tumor-Associated Antigen Predict Clinical Outcome to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Based Treatment in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:625578. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital & Thoracic Cancer Institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Peripheral blood biomarkers to immunotherapy have attracted more and more attentions owing to noninvasive nature. This study was designed to identify a panel of tumor associated autoantibodies (TAAbs) in plasma to predict the clinical outcome of ICIs-based treatment in advanced NSCLC patients and correlation between TAAbs and checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (CIP) would also be investigated.

Materials And Methods: Baseline plasma was collected from patients with advanced NSCLC before receiving ICIs-based treatment. ELISA was used to detect concentration of autoantibodies. Clinical efficacy was evaluated according to RECIST v1.1.

Results: We have identified a panel of five-TAAbs to predict responses of ICIs-based treatment in a discovery cohort (n = 37), and confirmed its predictive value in a validation cohort (n = 129). In the validation cohort, the positivity of this 5-TAAbs panel was significantly associated with better response (ORR: 44.4% vs. 13.6%, < 0.001) and longer PFS (7.6 vs. 3.3m, < 0.001). This significant association was remained in subgroup of patients treated with combination therapy (ORR: 43.8% vs. 13.7%, = 0.004,PFS: 6.7 vs. 3.7m, = 0 .017). Furthermore, this 5-TAAs panel worked better in patients who received subsequent-line treatment (ORR: 42.4% vs. 7.7%, = 0.001, PFS: 6.2 vs. 3.0m, = 0.004) than those received first-line treatment (ORR: 46.7% vs. 35.7%, = 0.345, PFS: NR vs. 10.48m, = 0.146). In addition, the CIP incidence in patients with 5-TAAbs positive was significantly higher comparing to negative patients (20.4% vs. 5.9%, = 0.015).

Conclusion: Our 5-TAAbs panel is a potential predictive biomarker for responses and toxicities to ICIs-based treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.625578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010683PMC
March 2021

Effects of pulmonary rehabilitation program on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

NeuroRehabilitation 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Respiratory Care, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chiayi, Taiwan.

Background: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) develop respiratory failure and progressive muscle weakness. The effects of pulmonary rehabilitation on the lung function of patients with ALS are unclear.

Objective: Through this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we evaluated the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation, such as type of treatment, on patients with ALS and compared the effectiveness of this treatment.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched until December 2020. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the updated Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB 2.0). Data were analyzed using Review Manager version 5.4 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England), and the meta-analysis was performed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines.

Results: Of 2168 articles, 10 trials were reviewed; among these trials, two focused on respiratory training and eight on physical exercise, three of which involved a combination of aerobic and resistance training. Our meta-analysis demonstrated no difference in the ALSFRS-R score and % FVC among patients with ALS.

Conclusions: Respiratory training or physical exercise did not significantly affect the ALSFRS-R score and % FVC of patients with ALS. At 12 months after intervention, the ALSFRS-R score in the physical exercise group was higher than that in the usual care group. Further clinical trials are warranted to develop approaches for improving the lung function of patients with ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/NRE-210052DOI Listing
March 2021

Prasugrel switching from clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome in Taiwanese patients: an analysis of safety and efficacy.

Cardiovasc Interv Ther 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

The recommended maintenance dose of prasugrel for East Asian populations (i.e., Japanese and Taiwanese) is 3.75 mg as part of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for the prevention of recurrent ischemia and stent thrombosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This modified dosage regimen has been established in studies conducted in Japan; however, the efficacy and safety of switching from clopidogrel to prasugrel DAPT among Taiwanese patients remain to be explored. In this phase IV, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study, we evaluated the 4-week pharmacodynamic response, and the 48-week safety outcomes of prasugrel 3.75 mg after a switch from clopidogrel in Taiwanese ACS patients. A total of 203 prasugrel-naïve ACS patients (over 90% male) who had received post-PCI clopidogrel DAPT for at least 2 weeks were enrolled from ten medical centers in Taiwan and subsequently switched to prasugrel 3.75 mg DAPT. Four weeks after the switch, P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) values were significantly decreased in the total cohort (mean - 18.2 ± 48.1; 95% confidence interval - 24.9 to - 11.5, p < 0.001), and there was an overall consistent antiplatelet response in the treated subjects. The proportion of patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR; PRU > 208) dropped from 23.5 to 10% (p < 0.001). Female sex was associated with a greater PRU reduction with prasugrel, whereas HPR at baseline, age ≥ 65 years, and body mass index ≥ 25 best predicted HPR at Week 4. Throughout the 48-week treatment with prasugrel, the incidences of MACE (1.0%) and TIMI major bleeding (2.0%) were rather low, accompanying an acceptable safety profile of TIMI minor (6.4%) and non-major, non-minor clinically relevant bleeding (3.0%). Overall, switching to the maintenance dose of prasugrel (3.75 mg) was observed to be effective and well tolerated among post-PCI ACS patients in Taiwan. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT03672097.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12928-021-00771-wDOI Listing
April 2021

High yielding, one-step mechano-enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to cellulose nanocrystals without bulk solvent.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 20;331:125015. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

National Engineering Research Center for Process Development of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, PR China; Key Laboratory for Green Pharmaceutical Technologies and Related Equipment of Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, PR China. Electronic address:

Traditional methods of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are limited due to the low enzymatic efficiency and large amount of waste liquid. The purpose of this study is to improve the yield and production efficiency of CNCs by enzymatic hydrolysis. A one-step mechano-enzymatic hydrolysis method was developed by utilizing the synergy of wet grinding and enzymatic hydrolysis reaction to efficiently prepare CNCs. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the maximum CNCs yield of 49.3% was achieved with higher thermal stability and crystallinity index of 76.7%. Mechano-enzymatic hydrolysis followed the first order pseudo-kinetics, and fractal kinetics demonstrated that mechanical force of rotation speed affected the fractal dimensions and binding ability between substrate and enzyme. This study provides an alternative method to prepare CNCs, which can significantly avoid the use of bulk water, improve the production efficiency of CNCs and thus lower the production cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125015DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of Early Rehydration on Brain Perfusion and Infarct Core after Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 29;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute for Translation Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta Pei Road, Kaohsiung City 83301, Taiwan.

Imaging evidence for the effect of rehydration on cerebral perfusion and brain ischemia has never been proposed in the literature. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that early rehydration treatment can improve cerebral perfusion and decrease infarct volume, consequently reducing mortality of dehydrated stroke animals.

Methods: Thirty dehydrated experimental rats were randomly assigned to either a rehydration or control group after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast enhancement perfusion imaging were performed at 30 min and 6 h after MCAO using a 9.4T MR imaging scanner to measure the infarct volume and brain perfusion.

Results: The survival rates after the first MRI scan were 91.7% for the rehydration group and 58.3% for the control group ( = 0.059). The survival rates after the second MRI scan were 66.7% for the rehydration group, and 8.3% of the control group survived ( = 0.003). The infarct volume of the rehydration group was significantly smaller than control group at 30 min after MCAO ( = 0.007). The delay time and time to maximum were significantly shorter in the rehydration group at 30 min ( = 0.004 and 0.035, respectively).

Conclusions: The findings suggest that early rehydration therapy can decrease the infarct volume, shorten the delay time of cerebral perfusion, and increase survival of dehydrated ischemic-stroke rats. This preliminary study provided imaging evidence that more intensive early hydration therapies and reperfusion strategies may be necessary for acute stroke patients with dehydrated status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040439DOI Listing
March 2021

Automatic Detection of the Circulating Cell-Free Methylated DNA Pattern of , and for Detection of Early Breast Cancer and Surgical Treatment Response.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Ph.D. Program in Drug Discovery and Development Industry, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, No. 250, Wuxing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan.

The early detection of cancer can reduce cancer-related mortality. There is no clinically useful noninvasive biomarker for early detection of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to develop accurate and precise early detection biomarkers and a dynamic monitoring system following treatment. We analyzed a genome-wide methylation array in Taiwanese and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer (BC) patients. Most breast cancer-specific circulating methylated , and biomarkers were found in the plasma. An automatic analysis process of methylated ccfDNA was established. A combined analysis of , and (CGIm) was performed in R using Recursive Partitioning and Regression Trees to establish a new prediction model. Combined analysis of , and (CGIm) was found to have a sensitivity level of 97% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.955 in the training set, and a sensitivity level of 100% and an AUC of 0.961 in the test set. The circulating methylated , and was also significantly decreased after surgery (all < 0.001). The aberrant methylation patterns of the , and genes means that they are potential biomarkers for the detection of early BC and can be combined with breast imaging data to achieve higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, facilitating breast cancer detection. They may also be applied to monitor the surgical treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002961PMC
March 2021

Efficient isolation of organosolv lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) with high antioxidative activity via introducing LiCl/DMSO dissolving.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 30;181:752-761. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, College of Light Industry and Food Science, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) have shown great potential as biocompatible antioxidants. But it is difficult to isolate LCC efficiently from lignocellulose by traditional Solid-Liquid Extraction method (SLE), which is blamed to the innate bioimpedance caused by the complex supramolecular structure of the lignocellulose, and a great mass transferring resistance between the extracting solution and solid lignocellulose. To release these restrictions above and improve the efficiency of LCC isolation, a modified isolating method named Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) was proposed, in which ball-milled wheat stalk was dissolved in lithium chloride/dimethyl sulfoxide (LiCl/DMSO) solution, then regenerated by dioxane aqueous to extract LL-LCCs. The effect of the LLE on the LCC isolating was evaluated and results showed that both the total yield and antioxidant activity of LL-LCCs were higher than that of control group. It proved the dissolution of wheat stalk in LiCl/DMSO solution could reduce the mass transfer resistance during the extraction. Due to the catalyzation of LiCl as Lewis acid, LL-LCCs had lower molecular weight but more phenolic hydroxyl groups and higher S/G ratios. These factors of LL-LCCs resulted in greater free-radical scavenging ability than control sample. The modified isolation protocol could facilitate the isolation and utilization of LCCs as a free-radical scavenger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.167DOI Listing
March 2021

Microbial characteristics response to the soil quality of newly created farmland on the Loess Plateau.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Xi'an Institute for Innovative Earth Environment Research, Xi'an, 710061, China.

Microbiome plays an important role in evaluating soil quality for sustainable agriculture. However, the suitability of biological indicators in reclaimed farmland is less understood. Using high-throughput sequencing, we evaluated the soil microbial community of the newly created farmland (NF) after reclamation with two local high-yield farmlands (slope farmland (SF), check-dam farmland (CF)) on the Loess Plateau. Soil enzyme activities and the amount of culturable microorganism were also quantified to assess the soil quality. Results showed that the microbial diversity, cultural microorganism abundance, and soil enzyme activities indicated poor soil quality in NF. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. The abundance of Acidobacteria was significantly lower in NF (13.31%) than in SF (27.25%) and CF (27.91%). Soil enzyme activities had a significant correlation with the abundance of culturable microorganism, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, and pH, suggesting that soil microbes have driven the formation of nutrition and further mediated crop growth. Therefore, the application of bacterial fertilizers could be a potential way to improve the soil quality of reclaimed farmland for crop growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13667-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Pharmacokinetics-based chronoefficacy of Fuzi against chronic kidney disease.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar;73(4):535-544

Research Center for Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: Identifying drugs with time-varying efficacy or toxicity, and understanding the underlying mechanisms would help to improve treatment efficacy and reduce adverse effects. In this study, we uncovered that the therapeutic effect of Fuzi (the lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux) depended on the dosing time in mice with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: The Fuzi efficacy was determined by biomarker measurements [i.e. plasma creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)], as well as inflammation, fibrosis and histological analyses. Circadian regulation of Fuzi pharmacokinetics and efficacy was evaluated using brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (Bmal1)-deficient (Bmal1-/-) mice.

Key Findings: The Fuzi efficacy was higher when the drug was dosed at ZT10 and was lower when the drug was dosed at other times (ZT2, ZT6, ZT14, ZT18 and ZT22) according to measurements of plasma CRE, BUN and urinary NAG. Consistently, ZT10 (5 PM) dosing showed a stronger protective effect on the kidney (i.e. less extensive tubular injury) as compared to ZT22 (5 AM) dosing. This was supported by lower levels of inflammatory and fibrotic factors (IL-1β, IL-6, Tnf-α, Ccl2, Tgfb1 and Col1a1) at ZT10 than at ZT22. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed that the area under the curve (AUC) values (reflective of systemic exposure) and renal distribution of aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine (three putative active constituents) for Fuzi dosing at ZT10 were significantly higher than those for herb dosing at ZT22, suggesting a role of circadian pharmacokinetics in Fuzi chronoefficacy. Drug efficacy studies confirmed that aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine possessed a kidney-protecting effect. In addition, genetic knockout of Bmal1 in mice abolished the time-dependency of Fuzi pharmacokinetics and efficacy. This reinforced the existence of chronoefficacy for Fuzi and supported the role of circadian pharmacokinetics in Fuzi chronoefficacy.

Conclusions: The efficacy of Fuzi against CKD depends on the dosing time in mice, which is associated with circadian pharmacokinetics of the three main active constituents (i.e. aconitine, hypaconitine and mesaconitine). These findings highlight the relevance of dosing time in the therapeutic outcomes of herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgaa060DOI Listing
March 2021

Clock gene Bmal1 controls diurnal rhythms in expression and activity of intestinal carboxylesterase 1.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Mar;73(1):52-59

Research Center for Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Objectives: We aimed to characterize diurnal rhythms in CES1 expression and activity in mouse intestine, and to investigate a potential role of the core clock gene Bmal1 in generating diurnal rhythms.

Methods: The regulatory effects of intestinal Bmal1 on diurnal CES1 expression were assessed using intestine-specific Bmal1 knockout (Bmal1iKO) mice and colon cancer cells. The relative mRNA and protein levels were determined by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Metabolic activity of CES1 in vitro and in vivo were determined by microsomal assays and pharmacokinetic studies, respectively. Transcriptional gene regulation was investigated using luciferase reporter assay.

Key Findings: Total CES1 protein varied significantly according to time of the day in wild-type (Bmal1fl/fl) mice, peaking at ZT6. Of detectable Ces1 genes, Ces1d mRNA displayed a robust diurnal rhythm with a peak level at ZT6, whereas mRNAs of Ces1e, 1f and 1g showed no rhythms in wild-type mice. Loss of intestinal Bmal1 reduced the levels of total CES1 protein and Ces1d mRNA, and blunted their diurnal rhythms in mice. In vitro microsomal assays indicated that intestinal metabolism of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, a known CES1 substrate) was more extensive at ZT6 than at ZT18. ZT6 dosing of MMF to wild-type mice generated a higher systemic exposure of mycophenolic acid (the active metabolite of MMF) as compared with ZT18 dosing. Intestinal ablation of Bmal1 down-regulated CES1 metabolism at ZT6, and abolished its time-dependency both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Ces1d/CES1 rhythmicity and positive regulation of Ces1d/CES1 by BMAL1 were confirmed in CT26 and Caco-2 cells. Mechanistically, BMAL1 trans-activated Ces1d/CES1 probably via binding to the E-box elements in the gene promoters.

Conclusions: Bmal1 controls diurnal rhythms in expression and activity of intestinal CES1. Our findings have implications for understanding the crosstalk between circadian clock and xenobiotic metabolism in the intestine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgaa035DOI Listing
March 2021

Reversible Stereoisomerization of 1,3-Diphosphetane Frameworks Revealed by a Single-Electron Redox Approach.

Inorg Chem 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Lehn Institute of Functional Materials (LIFM), School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

The discovery of pyramidal inversion has continued to impact modern organic and organometallic chemistry. Sequential alkylation reactions of an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligated dicarbondiphosphide with RI (R = Me, Et, or iBu) and ZnMe give rise to the highly stereoselective synthesis of -1,3-diphosphetanes . - is conformationally favorable at room temperature, whereas inversion to - is observed at 110 °C. One-electron oxidation of - with Fc(BAr) (Fc = [Fe(CH)]; BAr = [B(3,5-(CF)CH))]) leads to the stereoselective formation of -1,3-diphosphetane radical cation salts (BAr), which can be reversibly transformed to - upon one-electron reduction. Salts (BAr) represent the first examples of 1,3-diphosphetane radical cations. These results provide a potential application of planar four-membered heterocycle-based building blocks for electrically fueled molecular switches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00064DOI Listing
March 2021

Rapid Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Caffeine and Sodium Benzoate in Annaca by Infrared Spectroscopy.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;37(1):33-37

Ordos Public Security Bureau, Ordos 017000, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

Abstract: Objective To establish an infrared spectroscopic method for the rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of caffeine and sodium benzoate in Annaka samples. Methods Qualitative and quantitative modeling samples were prepared by mixing high-purity caffeine and sodium benzoate. The characteristic absorption peaks of caffeine and sodium benzoate in Annaka samples were determined by analyzing the infrared spectra of the mixed samples. The quantitative model of infrared spectra was established by partial least squares (PLS). Results By analyzing the infrared spectra of 17 mixed samples of caffeine and sodium benzoate (the purity of caffeine ranges from 10% to 80%), the characteristic absorption peaks for caffeine were determined to be 1 698, 1 650, 1 237, 972, 743, and 609 cm. The characteristic absorption peaks for sodium benzoate were 1 596, 1 548, 1 406, 845, 708 and 679 cm. When the detection of all characteristic absorption peaks was the positive identification criteria, the positive detection rate of caffeine and sodium benzoate in 48 seized Annaka samples was 100%. The linear range of PLS quantitative model for caffeine was 10%-80%, the coefficient of determination ( ) was 99.9%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 0.68%, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.91%; the linear range of PLS quantitative model for sodium benzoate was 20%-90%, the was 99.9%, the RMSECV was 0.91% and the RMSEP was 1.11%. The results of paired sample t test showed that the differences between the results of high performance liquid chromatography method and infrared spectroscopy method had no statistical significance. The established infrared quantitative method was used to analyze 48 seized Annaka samples, the purity of caffeine was 27.6%-63.1%, and that of sodium benzoate was 36.9%-72.3%. Conclusion The rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of caffeine and sodium benzoate in Annaka samples by infrared spectroscopy method could improve identification efficiency and reduce determination cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2019.390901DOI Listing
February 2021

PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Ameliorates Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis upon Manganese Exposure in PC12 Cells.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity has aroused public concerns for many years, but its precise mechanism is still poorly understood. Herein, we report the impacts of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway in mediating neurological effects induced by manganese sulfate (MnSO) exposure in PC12 cells. In this study, cells were treated with MnSO for 24 h in the absence or presence of LY294002 (a special inhibitor of PI3K). We investigated cell viability and apoptosis signals, as well as levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA). The mRNA levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and Caspase-3 were also quantified through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR); protein levels of serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt) and forkhead box O3A (Foxo3a) were determined by western blot. Increasing of MnSO doses led to decreased SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities, while the level of MDA was upregulated. Moreover, cell apoptosis was significantly increased, as the mRNA of Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 was significantly decreased, while Bax mRNA was increased. Phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and Foxo3a (p-Foxo3a) were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, LY294002 pretreatment reduced the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT but elevated MDA levels. Meanwhile, LY294002 pretreatment also increased cell apoptosis given the upregulated Bax and Caspase-3 mRNAs and decreased Bcl-2 mRNA. In summary, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway can be activated by MnSO exposure and mediate MnSO-induced neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02687-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Roles of ERK/Akt signals in mitochondria-dependent and endoplasmic reticulum stress-triggered neuronal cell apoptosis induced by 4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene, a major active metabolite of bisphenol A.

Toxicology 2021 Mar 23;455:152764. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Physiology and Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Bisphenol A (BPA) is recognized as a harmful pollutant in the worldwide. Growing studies have reported that BPA can cause adverse effects and diseases in human, and link to a potential risk factor for development of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). 4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP), which generated in the mammalian liver after BPA exposure, is a major active metabolite of BPA. MBP has been suggested to exert greater toxicity than BPA. However, the molecular mechanism of MBP on the neuronal cytotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, MBP exposure significantly reduced Neuro-2a cell viability and induced apoptotic events that MBP (5-15 μM) exhibited greater neuronal cytotoxicity than BPA (50-100 μM). The mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals including the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the increase in cytosolic apoptosis-induced factor (AIF), cytochrome c release, and Bax protein expression were involved in MBP (10 μM)-induced Neuro-2a cell death. Exposure of Neuro-2a cells to MBP (10 μM) also triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the induction of several key molecules including glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein (XBP)-1, protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring enzyme(IRE)-1, activation transcription factor(AFT)4 and ATF6, and caspase-12. Pretreatment with 4-PBA (an ER stress inhibitor) and specific siRNAs for GRP78, CHOP, and XBP-1 significantly suppressed the expression of these ER stress-related proteins and the activation of caspase-12/-3/-7 in MBP-exposed Neuro-2a cells. Furthermore, MBP (10 μM) exposure dramatically increased the activation of extracellular regulated protein (ERK)1/2 and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Pretreatment with PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) and transfection with the overexpression of activation of Akt1 (myr-Akt1) effectively suppressed MBP-induced apoptotic and ER stress-related signals. Collectively, these results demonstrate that MBP exposure exerts neuronal cytotoxicity via the interplay of ERK activation and Akt inactivation-regulated mitochondria-dependent and ER stress-triggered apoptotic pathway, which ultimately leads to neuronal cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2021.152764DOI Listing
March 2021

MiR-221-3p-mediated downregulation of MDM2 reverses the paclitaxel resistance of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Mar 23;899:174054. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215004, PR China. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the initiation and development of cancer and participate in drug resistance. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a first-line chemotherapy drug for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The abnormal miRNA expression in NSCLC and its association with chemotherapy drug resistance remains largely unknown. The study aimed to investigate the aberrant expression of miR-221-3p in NSCLC and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms in relation to PTX resistance. PTX increased miR-221-3p expression and regulated MDM2/P53 expression in the PTX-sensitive NSCLC strain (A549). Meanwhile, miR-221-3p was rarely expressed and not interfered by PTX in PTX-resistant A549 cells (A549/Taxol). Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-221-3p specifically binds to MDM2 messenger RNA and inhibited MDM2 expression. The expression of MDM2 and P53 showed a negative correlation in NSCLC cell lines. MiR-221-3p down-regulation reduced the sensitivity of A549 cells to PTX, whereas its up-regulation partially reversed the A549/Taxol cells resistance to PTX and increased the chemosensitivity of A549/Taxol cells to PTX in xenograft models. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that miR-221-3p expression increased, whereas the MDM2 level decreased in human NSCLC tumor tissues. Moreover, Western bolt analysis showed that P53 was lowly expressed in tumor tissues with MDM2 overexpression. Low expression of miR-221-3p in NSCLC tissues might indicate a poor T staging. In conclusion, miR-221-3p overexpression could regulate MDM2/p53 signaling pathway to reverse the PTX resistance of NSCLC and induce apoptosis in vitro and vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174054DOI Listing
March 2021

The semiparametric accelerated trend-renewal process for recurrent event data.

Lifetime Data Anal 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Recurrent event data arise in many biomedical longitudinal studies when health-related events can occur repeatedly for each subject during the follow-up time. In this article, we examine the gap times between recurrent events. We propose a new semiparametric accelerated gap time model based on the trend-renewal process which contains trend and renewal components that allow for the intensity function to vary between successive events. We use the Buckley-James imputation approach to deal with censored transformed gap times. The proposed estimators are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. Model diagnostic plots of residuals and a method for predicting number of recurrent events given specified covariates and follow-up time are also presented. Simulation studies are conducted to assess finite sample performance of the proposed method. The proposed technique is demonstrated through an application to two real data sets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10985-021-09519-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Effectiveness of the Nanosilver/TiO-Chitosan Antiviral Filter on the Removal of Viral Aerosols.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei City, Taiwan (ROC).

The precaution of airborne transmission of viruses, such as influenza, SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, is essential for reducing infection. In this study, we applied a zero-valent nanosilver/titania-chitosan (nano-Ag/TiO-CS) filter bed, whose broad-spectrum antimicrobial efficacy has been proven previously, for the removal of viral aerosols to minimize the risk of airborne transmission. The photochemical deposition method was used to synthesize the nano-Ag/TiO-CS antiviral material. The surface morphology, elemental composition, and microstructure of the nano-Ag/TiO-CS were analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and a transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The MS2 bacteriophages were used as surrogate viral aerosols. The antiviral efficacy of nano-Ag/TiO-CS was evaluated by the MS2 plaque reduction assay (PRA) and filtration experiments. In the filtration experiments, the MS2 aerosols passed through the nano-Ag/TiO-CS filter, and the MS2 aerosol removal efficiency was evaluated by an optical particle counter and culture method. In the MS2 PRA, 3 g of nano-Ag/TiO-CS inactivated 97% of MS2 bacteriophages in 20 mL liquid culture (2 ± 0.5 × 10 PFU/mL) within 2 hours. The removal efficiency of nano-Ag/TiO-CS filter (thickness: 6 cm) for MS2 aerosols reached up to 93%. Over 95% of MS2 bacteriophages on the surface of the nano-Ag/TiO-CS filter were inactivated within 20 minutes. The Wells-Riley model predicted that when the nano-Ag/TiO-CS filter was used in the ventilation system, airborne infection probability would reduce from 99% to 34.6%. The nano-Ag/TiO-CS filter could remain at 50% of its original antiviral efficiency after continuous operation for 1 week, indicating its feasibility for the control of the airborne transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jamp.2020.1607DOI Listing
March 2021

The impact of antiseizure medications on polysomnographic parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sleep Med 2021 Mar 4;81:319-326. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Oral antiseizure medications (ASMs) are first-line treatments for patients with epilepsy. However, ASMs may alter sleep architecture, adversely affecting patient outcomes. The meta-analysis aimed to elucidate the effect of ASMs on sleep architecture.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central database (up to Febrary 2021) were searched for randomized control trials (RCT) with effects of ASMs on polysomnography parameters. A meta-analysis using a random-effects model was performed. We did not set limitation to the participants with underlying diagnosis of epilepsy.

Results: Eighteen randomized-controlled trials fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The effects of five main groups of ASMs (sodium channel blockers, calcium channel blockers, GABA enhancers, synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A [SV2A] ligand, and broad-spetrum ASMs) on slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and sleep efficiency (SE) were analyzed. Compared with placebo, calcium channel blockers and GABA enhancers significantly increased SWS. GABA enhancers also decreased REM sleep percentage, whereas calcium channel blockers significantly increased SE. Sodium channel blockers, SV2A ligand and broad-spectrum ASMs did not affect SWS, REM sleep, or SE. The subgroup analysis revealed that gabapentin, pregabalin, and tiagabine increased the percentage of SWS. Tiagabine also decreased REM sleep, whereas pregabalin increased SE. Finally, levetiracetam did not affect SWS, REM sleep, and SE.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated that ASMs can have a statistically significant effect on sleep parameters; the effect differs between ASMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2021.02.056DOI Listing
March 2021

Correlations between serum BDNF levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants of mothers with gestational diabetes.

Pediatr Neonatol 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Section of Neonatology, Kaohsiung Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital & Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 83301; Department of Early Childhood Care and Education, Cheng-Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 83301. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of foetal and neonatal complications and long-term complications in the offspring. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin that has a crucial role in neurogenesis modulation and neural pathway maturation during neurodevelopment, may have a role in protecting neurons against injury and diseases by modulating glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the serum BDNF levels of infants of mothers with gestational diabetes (IMGD) and neurodevelopmental outcomes of the children after birth.

Methods: A total of 24 candidates, including 8 IMGD and 16 healthy infants, were recruited for the study. Medical records were reviewed. Serum BDNF levels of the study participants were collected at birth and at 6 and 12 months of age. Developmental outcomes of each candidate were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID III) at 6 and 12 months of corrected age.

Results: Compared to non-IMGD, IMGD had greater mean body weight (p = 0.04) and height (p < 0.01) at age 12 months. The language composite score was significantly lower in IMGD at 12 months of age (p = 0.038). The BDNF content was significantly higher in the non-IMGD than in the IMGD group at 12 months of age (p = 0.013).

Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that infants of mothers with gestational diabetes do worse in language development and have lower BDNF levels at 12 months of age. There may be a close correlation between language outcomes and serum BDNF levels at 12 months of age. A follow-up study on future developmental status is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.12.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Surface engineered iron oxide nanoparticles as efficient materials for antibiofilm application.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau, Perlis, 02600, Malaysia.

Overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of multi drug resistant strains. Antibiotic resistance is a major drawback in the biomedical field since medical implants are prone to infection by biofilms of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. With increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria, the search for alternative method is utmost importance. In this regard, magnetic nanoparticles are commonly used as a substitute for antibiotics that can circumvent the problem of biofilms growth on the surface of biomedical implants. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have unique magnetic properties that can be exploited in various ways in the biomedical applications. IONPs are engineered employing different methods to induce surface functionalization that include the use of polyethyleneimine and oleic acid. IONPs have a mechanical effect on biofilms when in presence of an external magnet. In this review, a detailed description of surface engineered magnetic nanoparticles as ideal antibacterial agents is provided, accompanied by various methods of literature review. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.2146DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical characteristics of uterine rupture without previous Cesarean section: A 25-year retrospective study.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Aim: To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of uterine rupture without preceding Cesarean section.

Methods: The medical records of all deliveries at the Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine between 1992 and 2017 were reviewed. All cases of uterine rupture without previous Cesarean delivery were included. Two types of uterine rupture, incomplete and complete, were distinguished. The clinical characteristics of each patient were collected and analyzed, including demographic information, clinical manifestation, operative records, site of rupture, pregnancy and labor complication, obstetrics risk factors, and birth outcome.

Results: There were 222 418 deliveries in total during the study period. Nineteen cases of uterine rupture without previous Cesarean section were identified. As a result, the incomplete rupture group had significant advanced gestational age, decreased maternal gravidity, lower incidence of dilation and curettage, and lower perinatal mortality rate. In aspect of the rupture site, the involvement of the lower segment of the uterus was significantly more common in the incomplete rupture group. In the complete rupture group, the participants with a gestation age less than 28 weeks were more likely to have a history of dilation and curettage than those with a gestation age over 28 weeks.

Conclusions: The history of dilation and curettage is the major risk factor of uterine rupture without Cesarean section. Our findings imply that obstetricians should be cautious of spontaneous uterine rupture in pregnant women who has a history of dilation and curettage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14761DOI Listing
March 2021

One-step vapor deposition of fluorinated polycationic coating to fabricate antifouling and anti-infective textile against drug-resistant bacteria and viruses.

Chem Eng J 2021 Aug 16;418:129368. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Ningbo Institute, Frontiers Science Center for Flexible Electronics (FSCFE), Xi'an Institute of Flexible Electronics (IFE) and Xi'an Institute of Biomedical Materials & Engineering (IBME), Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 West Youyi Road, Xi'an 710072, China.

The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus has turned out to be one of the biggest threats to the world, and the increase of drug-resistant bacterial strains also threatens the human health. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop novel anti-infective materials with broad-spectrum anti-pathogenic activity. In the present study, a fluorinated polycationic coating was synthesized on a hydrophilic and negatively charged polyester textile via one-step initiated chemical vapor deposition of poly(dimethyl amino methyl styrene--1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) (P(DMAMS--PFDA), PDP). The surface characterization results of SEM, FTIR, and EDX demonstrated the successful synthesis of PDP coating. Contact angle analysis revealed that PDP coating endowed the polyester textile with the hydrophobicity against the attachment of different aqueous foulants such as blood, coffee, and milk, as well as the oleophobicity against paraffin oil. Zeta potential analysis demonstrated that the PDP coating enabled a transformation of negative charge to positive charge on the surface of polyester textile. The PDP coating exhibited excellent contact-killing activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive methicillin-resistant , with the killing efficiency of approximate 99.9%. In addition, the antiviral capacity of PDP was determined by a green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression-based method using lentivirus-EGFP as a virus model. The PDP coating inactivated the negatively charged lentivirus-EGFP effectively. Moreover, the coating showed good biocompatibility toward mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. All the above properties demonstrated that PDP would be a promising anti-pathogenic polymeric coating with wide applications in medicine, hygiene, hospital, etc., to control the bacterial and viral transmission and infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.129368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962519PMC
August 2021