Publications by authors named "C Otero"

180 Publications

Beneficial Effects of Spirulina Aqueous Extract on Vasodilator Function of Arteries from Hypertensive Rats.

Int J Vasc Med 2020 8;2020:6657077. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Hypertension is a multifactorial disorder considered one of the major causes of premature death worldwide. This pathology is associated with vascular functional/structural alterations in which nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen reactive species participate. On the other hand, the use of microalgae extracts in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is increasing. Based on the antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Spirulina, this study aims to investigate the effect of an aqueous extract of Spirulina on the vasodilator function of the aorta from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), analyzing the functional role of NO. For this, aortic segments from male SHR were divided into two groups, one control and the other exposed to an Spirulina aqueous extract (0.1% w/v, for 3 hours), to analyze (i) the production of NO, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide; (ii) the vasodilator response induced by acetylcholine (ACh), by the NO donor and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and by the K channel opener and pinacidil; and (iii) the expression of the p-Akt, p-eNOS, and HO-1 proteins. The results showed that the aqueous Spirulina extract (i) increased the production of NO, did not significantly modify that of superoxide, while decreased that of hydrogen peroxide; (ii) increased the vasodilatory responses induced by ACh, NPS, and pinacidil; and (iii) increased the expression of p-Akt and HO-1. These results suggest that incubation with the aqueous Spirulina extract improves the vascular function of arteries from SHR by increasing the release/bioavailability/function of NO. Increased K channel activation and expression of pAkt and HO-1 appear to be participating in these actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6657077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787865PMC
December 2020

Vaccines for Perinatal and Congenital Infections-How Close Are We?

Front Pediatr 2020 15;8:569. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Duke University Medical Center, Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Durham, NC, United States.

Congenital and perinatal infections are transmitted from mother to infant during pregnancy across the placenta or during delivery. These infections not only cause pregnancy complications and still birth, but also result in an array of pediatric morbidities caused by physical deformities, neurodevelopmental delays, and impaired vision, mobility and hearing. Due to the burden of these conditions, congenital and perinatal infections may result in lifelong disability and profoundly impact an individual's ability to live to their fullest capacity. While there are vaccines to prevent congenital and perinatal rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B infections, many more are currently in development at various stages of progress. The spectrum of our efforts to understand and address these infections includes observational studies of natural history of disease, epidemiological evaluation of risk factors, immunogen design, preclinical research of protective immunity in animal models, and evaluation of promising candidates in vaccine trials. In this review we summarize this progress in vaccine development research for Cytomegalovirus, Group B Streptococcus, Herpes simplex virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Toxoplasma, Syphilis, and Zika virus congenital and perinatal infections. We then synthesize this evidence to examine how close we are to developing a vaccine for these infections, and highlight areas where research is still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769834PMC
December 2020

TRPM Channels in Human Diseases.

Cells 2020 12 4;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Faculty of Life Science, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago 8370186, Chile.

The transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) subfamily belongs to the TRP cation channels family. Since the first cloning of TRPM1 in 1989, tremendous progress has been made in identifying novel members of the TRPM subfamily and their functions. The TRPM subfamily is composed of eight members consisting of four six-transmembrane domain subunits, resulting in homomeric or heteromeric channels. From a structural point of view, based on the homology sequence of the coiled-coil in the C-terminus, the eight TRPM members are clustered into four groups: TRPM1/M3, M2/M8, M4/M5 and M6/M7. TRPM subfamily members have been involved in several physiological functions. However, they are also linked to diverse pathophysiological human processes. Alterations in the expression and function of TRPM subfamily ion channels might generate several human diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative alterations, organ dysfunction, cancer and many other channelopathies. These effects position them as remarkable putative targets for novel diagnostic strategies, drug design and therapeutic approaches. Here, we review the current knowledge about the main characteristics of all members of the TRPM family, focusing on their actions in human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9122604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761947PMC
December 2020

Maternal antibody interference contributes to reduced rotavirus vaccine efficacy in developing countries.

PLoS Pathog 2020 11 19;16(11):e1009010. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Rotavirus (RV) vaccine efficacy is significantly reduced in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared to high-income countries. This review summarizes current research into the mechanisms behind this phenomenon, with a particular focus on the evidence that maternal antibody (matAb) interference is a contributing factor to this disparity. All RV vaccines currently in use are orally administered, live-attenuated virus vaccines that replicate in the infant gut, which leaves their efficacy potentially impacted by both placentally transferred immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA Abs conferred via breast milk. Observational studies of cohorts in LMICs demonstrated an inverse correlation between matAb titers, both in serum and breast milk, and infant responses to RV vaccination. However, a causal link between maternal humoral immunity and reduced RV vaccine efficacy in infants has yet to be definitively established, partially due to limitations in current animal models of RV disease. The characteristics of Abs mediating interference and the mechanism(s) involved have yet to be determined, and these may differ from mechanisms of matAb interference for parenterally administered vaccines due to the contribution of mucosal immunity conferred via breast milk. Increased vaccine doses and later age of vaccine administration have been strategies applied to overcome matAb interference, but these approaches are difficult to safely implement in the setting of RV vaccination in LMICs. Ultimately, the development of relevant animal models of matAb interference is needed to determine what alternative approaches or vaccine designs can safely and effectively overcome matAb interference of infant RV vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676686PMC
November 2020