Publications by authors named "C Michel Zwaan"

332 Publications

Ceritinib in paediatric patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive malignancies: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1, dose-escalation and dose-expansion study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Paediatrics, Division of Oncology and Haematology, Charité-Universitätmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; The German Cancer Consortium, partner site Berlin, Berlin, Germany; German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Several paediatric malignancies, including anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT), neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, harbour activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through different mechanisms. Here, we report the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ceritinib in paediatric patients with ALK-positive malignancies.

Methods: This multicentre, open-label, phase 1 trial was done at 23 academic hospitals in ten countries. Children (aged ≥12 months to <18 years) diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive malignancies that had progressed despite standard therapy, or for which no effective standard therapy were available, were eligible. ALK-positive malignancies were defined as those with ALK rearrangement, amplification, point mutation, or in the case of rhabdomyosarcoma, expression in the absence of any genetic alteration. Eligible patients had evaluable or measurable disease as defined by either Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours, version 1.1 for patients with non-haematological malignancies, International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria scan for patients with neuroblastoma, or International Working Group criteria for patients with lymphoma. Other eligibility criteria were Karnofsky performance status score of at least 60% for patients older than 12 years or Lansky score of at least 50% for patients aged 12 years or younger. This study included a dose-escalation part, followed by a dose-expansion part, in which all patients received treatment at the recommended dose for expansion (RDE) established in the dose-escalation part. Both parts of the study were done in fasted and fed states. In the dose-escalation part, patients were treated with once-daily ceritinib orally, with dose adjusted for body-surface area, rounded to the nearest multiple of the 50 mg dose strength. The starting dose in the fasted state was 300 mg/m daily and for the fed state was 320 mg/m daily. The primary objective of this study was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (ie, RDE) of ceritinib in the fasted and fed states. The RDE was established on the basis of the incidence of dose-limiting toxicities in patients who completed a minimum of 21 days of treatment with safety assessments and at least 75% drug exposure, or who discontinued treatment earlier because of dose-limiting toxicity. Overall response rate (defined as the proportion of patients with a best overall response of complete response or partial response) was a secondary endpoint. Activity and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of ceritinib. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01742286) and is completed.

Findings: Between Aug 28, 2013, and Oct 17, 2017, 83 children with ALK-positive malignancies were enrolled to the dose-escalation (n=40) and dose-expansion (n=43) groups. The RDE of ceritinib was established as 510 mg/m (fasted) and 500 mg/m (fed). 55 patients (30 with neuroblastoma, ten with IMT, eight with ALCL, and seven with other tumour types) were treated with ceritinib at the RDE (13 patients at 510 mg/m fasted and 42 patients at 500 mg/m fed). The median follow-up was 33·3 months (IQR 24·8-39·3) for patients with neuroblastoma, 33·2 months (27·9-35·9) for those with IMT, 34·0 months (21·9-46·4) for those with ALCL, and 27·5 months (22·4-36·9) for patients with other tumour types. An overall response was recorded in six (20%; 95% CI 8-39) of 30 patients with neuroblastoma, seven (70%; 33-93) of ten patients with IMT, six (75%; 35-97) of eight patients with ALCL, and one (14%; <1-58) of seven patients with other tumours. The safety profile of ceritinib was consistent with that observed in adult patients. All patients had at least one adverse event. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 67 (81%) of 83 patients and were mostly increases in aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase increase in 38 [46%] patients and aspartate aminotransferase increase in 27 [33%] patients). At least one serious adverse event was reported in 40 (48%) of 83 patients and 31 (37%) of 83 patients had at least one grade 3 or 4 serious adverse event. 14 (17%) deaths occurred during the study, of which 12 were on-treatment deaths and two were after 30 days of the last dose. Of the 12 on-treatment deaths, ten were due to disease progression (neuroblastoma), one due to sepsis, and one due to intractable hypotension.

Interpretation: Ceritinib 500 mg/m once daily with food is the recommended dose for paediatric patients with ALK-positive malignancies. Ceritinib showed promising preliminary antitumour activity in patients with ALK-positive refractory or recurrent IMT or ALCL, and in a subset of patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma, with a manageable safety profile. Our data support the notion that ALK inhibitors should be considered in therapeutic strategies for paediatric patients with malignancies with genetic ALK alterations.

Funding: Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00536-2DOI Listing
November 2021

Integrative Genomic Analysis of Pediatric Myeloid-Related Acute Leukemias Identifies Novel Subtypes and Prognostic Indicators.

Blood Cancer Discov 2021 Nov 9;2(6):586-599. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Genomic characterization of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has led to the discovery of somatic mutations with prognostic implications. Although gene-expression profiling can differentiate subsets of pediatric AML, its clinical utility in risk stratification remains limited. Here, we evaluate gene expression, pathogenic somatic mutations, and outcome in a cohort of 435 pediatric patients with a spectrum of pediatric myeloid-related acute leukemias for biological subtype discovery. This analysis revealed 63 patients with varying immunophenotypes that span a T-lineage and myeloid continuum designated as acute myeloid/T-lymphoblastic leukemia (AMTL). Within AMTL, two patient subgroups distinguished by -ITD and PRC2 mutations have different outcomes, demonstrating the impact of mutational composition on survival. Across the cohort, variability in outcomes of patients within isomutational subsets is influenced by transcriptional identity and the presence of a stem cell-like gene-expression signature. Integration of gene expression and somatic mutations leads to improved risk stratification.

Significance: Immunophenotype and somatic mutations play a significant role in treatment approach and risk stratification of acute leukemia. We conducted an integrated genomic analysis of pediatric myeloid malignancies and found that a combination of genetic and transcriptional readouts was superior to immunophenotype and genomic mutations in identifying biological subtypes and predicting outcomes. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2643-3230.BCD-21-0049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580615PMC
November 2021

Germline GATA1s generating mutations predispose to leukemia with acquired trisomy 21 and Down syndrome-like phenotype.

Blood 2021 Nov 10. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome are at increased risk of myeloid leukemia in early childhood associated with acquisition of GATA1 mutations that generate a short GATA1 isoform called GATA1s. Germline GATA1s generating mutations result in congenital anemia in males. We report on two unrelated families harboring germline GATA1s generating mutations in which several members developed acute megakaryoblastic leukemia in early childhood. All evaluable leukemias had acquired trisomy or tetrasomy 21. The leukemia characteristics overlapped those of myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome including age of onset of less than 4 years, unique immunophenotype, complex karyotype, gene expression pattern, and drug sensitivity. These findings demonstrate that the combination of trisomy 21 and GATA1s generating mutations results in a unique myeloid leukemia independent of whether the GATA1 mutation or trisomy 21 is the primary or secondary event and suggest that there is unique functional cooperatively between GATA1s and trisomy 21 in leukemogenesis. The family histories also indicate that germline GATA1s generating mutations should be included among those associated with familial myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011463DOI Listing
November 2021

Pediatric Cancer Data Commons: Federating and Democratizing Data for Childhood Cancer Research.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 09;5:1034-1043

Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

The international pediatric oncology community has a long history of research collaboration. In the United States, the 2019 launch of the Children's Cancer Data Initiative puts the focus on developing a rich and robust data ecosystem for pediatric oncology. In this spirit, we present here our experience in constructing the Pediatric Cancer Data Commons (PCDC) to highlight the significance of this effort in fighting pediatric cancer and improving outcomes and to provide essential information to those creating resources in other disease areas. The University of Chicago's PCDC team has worked with the international research community since 2015 to build data commons for children's cancers. We identified six critical features of successful data commons design and implementation: (1) establish the need for a data commons, (2) develop and deploy the technical infrastructure, (3) establish and implement governance, (4) make the data commons platform easy and intuitive for researchers, (5) socialize the data commons and create working knowledge and expertise in the research community, and (6) plan for longevity and sustainability. Data commons are critical to conducting research on large patient cohorts that will ultimately lead to improved outcomes for children with cancer. There is value in connecting high-quality clinical and phenotype data to external sources of data such as genomic, proteomics, and imaging data. Next steps for the PCDC include creating an informed and invested data-sharing culture, developing sustainable methods of data collection and sharing, standardizing genetic biomarker reporting, incorporating radiologic and molecular analysis data, and building models for electronic patient consent. The methods and processes described here can be extended to any clinical area and provide a blueprint for others wishing to develop similar resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.21.00075DOI Listing
September 2021

Minimal residual disease, long-term outcome, and IKZF1 deletions in children and adolescents with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia: a matched cohort study.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Oct;8(10):e700-e710

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, Netherlands; Oncode Institute, Utrecht, Netherlands; Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia are at an increased risk of treatment-related mortality and relapse, which is influenced by unfavourable genetic aberrations (eg, IKZF1 deletion). We aimed to investigate the potential underlying effect of Down syndrome versus the effects of adverse cancer genetics on clinical outcome.

Method: Patients (aged 1-23 years) with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia and matched non-Down syndrome patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (matched controls) from eight trials (DCOG ALL10 and ALL11, ANZCHOG ALL8, AIEOP-BFM ALL2009, UKALL2003, NOPHO ALL2008, CoALL 07-03, and CoALL 08-09) done between 2002 and 2018 across various countries (the Netherlands, the UK, Australia, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Germany) were included. Participants were matched (1:3) for clinical risk factors and genetics, including IKZF1 deletion. The primary endpoint was the comparison of MRD levels (absolute MRD levels were categorised into two groups, low [<0·0001] and high [≥0·0001]) between patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia and matched controls, and the secondary outcomes were comparison of long-term outcomes (event-free survival, overall survival, relapse, and treatment-related mortality [TRM]) between patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia and matched controls. Two matched cohorts were formed: for MRD analyses and for long-term outcome analyses. For both cohorts, matching was based on induction regimen; for the long-term outcome cohort, matching also included MRD-guided treatment group. We used mixed-effect models, Cox models, and competing risk for statistical analyses.

Findings: Of 251 children and adolescents with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia, 136 were eligible for analyses and matched to 407 (of 8426) non-Down syndrome patients with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (matched controls). 113 patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia were excluded from matching in accordance with predefined rules, no match was available for two patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia. The proportion of patients with high MRD at the end of induction treatment was similar for patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia (52 [38%] of 136) and matched controls (157 [39%] of 403; OR 0·97 [95% CI 0·64-1·46]; p=0·88). Patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia had a higher relapse risk than did matched controls in the IKZF1 deleted group (relapse at 5 years 37·1% [17·1-57·2] vs 13·2% [6·1-23·1]; cause-specific hazard ratio [HR] 4·3 [1·6-11·0]; p=0·0028), but not in the IKZF1 wild-type group (relapse at 5 years 5·8% [2·1-12·2] vs 8·1% [5·1-12·0]; HR 1·0 [0·5-2·1]; p=0·99). In addition to increased induction deaths (15 [6%] of 251 vs 69 [0·8%] of 8426), Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia was associated with a higher risk of post-induction TRM compared with matched controls (TRM at 5 years 12·2% [7·0-18·9] vs 2·7% [1·3-4·9]; HR 5·0 [2·3-10·8]; p<0·0001).

Interpretation: Induction treatment is equivalently effective for patients with Down syndrome and acute lymphocytic leukaemia and for matched patients without Down syndrome. Down syndrome itself provides an additional risk in individuals with IKZF1 deletions, suggesting an interplay between the germline environment and this poor risk somatic aberration. Different treatment strategies are warranted considering both inherent risk of relapse and high risk of TRM.

Funding: Stichting Kinder Oncologisch Centrum Rotterdam and the Princess Máxima Center Foundation, NHMRC Australia, The Cancer Council NSW, Tour de Cure, Blood Cancer UK, UK Medical Research Council, Children with Cancer, Swedish Society for Pediatric Cancer, Swedish Childhood Cancer Fund, Danish Cancer Society and the Danish Childhood Cancer Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00272-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8480280PMC
October 2021
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