Publications by authors named "C Maier"

1,080 Publications

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A workplace organisational intervention to improve hospital nurses' and physicians' mental health: study protocol for the Magnet4Europe wait list cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2022 07 28;12(7):e059159. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: The increasing burden of mental distress reported by healthcare professionals is a matter of serious concern and there is a growing recognition of the role of the workplace in creating this problem. Magnet hospitals, a model shown to attract and retain staff in US research, creates positive work environments that aim to support the well-being of healthcare professionals.

Methods And Analysis: Magnet4Europe is a cluster randomised controlled trial, with wait list controls, designed to evaluate the effects of organisational redesign, based on the Magnet model, on nurses' and physicians' well-being in general acute care hospitals, using a multicomponent implementation strategy. The study will be conducted in more than 60 general acute care hospitals in Belgium, England, Germany, Ireland, Norway and Sweden. The primary outcome is burnout among nurses and physicians, assessed in longitudinal surveys of nurses and physicians at participating hospitals. Additional data will be collected from them on perceived work environments, patient safety and patient quality of care and will be triangulated with data from medical records, including case mix-adjusted in-hospital mortality. The process of implementation will be evaluated using qualitative data from focus group and key informant interviews.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee Research UZ/KU Leuven, Belgium; additionally, ethics approval is obtained in all other participating countries either through a central or decentral authority. Findings will be disseminated at conferences, through peer-reviewed manuscripts and via social media.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN10196901.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-059159DOI Listing
July 2022

Computation-Assisted Identification of Bioactive Compounds in Botanical Extracts: A Case Study of Anti-Inflammatory Natural Products from Hops.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Jul 19;11(7). Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Oregon State University, 1601 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

The slow pace of discovery of bioactive natural products can be attributed to the difficulty in rapidly identifying them in complex mixtures such as plant extracts. To overcome these hurdles, we explored the utility of two machine learning techniques, i.e., Elastic Net and Random Forests, for identifying the individual anti-inflammatory principle(s) of an extract of the inflorescences of the hops () containing hundreds of natural products. We fractionated a hop extract by column chromatography to obtain 40 impure fractions, determined their anti-inflammatory activity using a macrophage-based bioassay that measures inhibition of iNOS-mediated formation of nitric oxide, and characterized the chemical composition of the fractions by flow-injection HRAM mass spectrometry and LC-MS/MS. Among the top 10 predictors of bioactivity were prenylated flavonoids and humulones. The top Random Forests predictor of bioactivity, xanthohumol, was tested in pure form in the same bioassay to validate the predicted result (IC 7 µM). Other predictors of bioactivity were identified by spectral similarity with known hop natural products using the Global Natural Products Social Networking (GNPS) algorithm. Our machine learning approach demonstrated that individual bioactive natural products can be identified without the need for extensive and repetitive bioassay-guided fractionation of a plant extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11071400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9312012PMC
July 2022

GPR39 Deficiency Impairs Memory and Alters Oxylipins and Inflammatory Cytokines Without Affecting Cerebral Blood Flow in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model of Cognitive Impairment.

Front Cell Neurosci 2022 6;16:893030. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States.

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is the second most common cause of dementia. There is no treatment for VCI, in part due to a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The G-protein coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) is regulated by arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipins that have been implicated in VCI. Furthermore, GPR39 is increased in microglia of post mortem human brains with VCI. Carriers of homozygous GPR39 SNPs have a higher burden of white matter hyperintensity, an MRI marker of VCI. We tested the hypothesis that GPR39 plays a protective role against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cognitive impairment, in part mediated via oxylipins actions on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuroinflammation. Homozygous (KO) and heterozygous (Het) GPR39 knockout mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with and without HFD for 8 months were tested for cognitive performance using the novel object recognition (NOR) and the Morris water maze (MWM) tests, followed by CBF measurements using MRI. Brain tissue and plasma oxylipins were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Cytokines and chemokines were measured using a multiplex assay. KO mice, regardless of diet, swam further away from platform location in the MWM compared to WT and Het mice. In the NOR test, there were no effects of genotype or diet. Brain and plasma AA-derived oxylipins formed by 11- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX), cyclooxygenase (COX) and non-enzymatically were increased by HFD and GPR39 deletion. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) was lower in KO mice on HFD than standard diet (STD), whereas IL-4, interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) were altered by diet in both WT and KO, but were not affected by genotype. Resting CBF was reduced in WT and KO mice on HFD, with no change in vasoreactivity. The deletion of GPR39 did not change CBF compared to WT mice on either STD or HFD. We conclude that GPR39 plays a role in spatial memory retention and protects against HFD-induced cognitive impairment in part by modulating inflammation and AA-derived oxylipins. The results indicate that GPR39 and oxylipin pathways play a role and may serve as therapeutic targets in VCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2022.893030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298837PMC
July 2022

A Sticky Situation: Variable Agreement Between Platelet Function Tests Used to Assess Anti-platelet Therapy Response.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 1;9:899594. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: Platelet function testing to monitor antiplatelet therapy is important for reducing thromboembolic complications, yet variability across testing methods remains challenging. Here we evaluated the agreement of four different testing platforms used to monitor antiplatelet effects of aspirin (ASA) or P2Y inhibitors (P2Y12-I).

Methods: Blood and urine specimens from 20 patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy were analyzed by light transmission aggregometry (LTA), whole blood aggregometry (WBA), VerifyNow PRUTest and AspirinWorks. Result interpretation based on pre-defined cutoff values was used to calculate raw agreement indices, and Pearson's correlation coefficient determined using individual units of measure.

Results: Agreement between LTA and WBA for P2Y12-I-response was 60% ( = 0.65, high-dose ADP; = 0.75, low-dose ADP). VerifyNow agreed with LTA in 75% ( = 0.86, high-dose ADP; = 0.75, low-dose ADP) and WBA in 55% ( = 0.57) of cases. Agreement between LTA and WBA for ASA-response was 45% ( = 0.09, high-dose collagen WBA; = 0.19, low-dose collagen WBA). AspirinWorks agreed with LTA in 60% ( = 0.32) and WBA in 35% ( = 0.02, high-dose collagen WBA; = 0.08, low-dose collagen WBA) of cases.

Conclusions: Overall agreement varied from 35 to 75%. LTA and VerifyNow demonstrated the highest agreement for P2Y12-I-response, followed by moderate agreement between LTA and WBA. LTA and AspirinWorks showed moderate agreement for aspirin response, while WBA showed the weakest agreement with both LTA and AspirinWorks. The results from this study support the continued use of LTA for monitoring dual antiplatelet therapy, with VerifyNow as an appropriate alternative for P2Y12-I-response. Integration of results obtained from these varied testing platforms with patient outcomes remains paramount for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.899594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9283921PMC
July 2022

Advanced practice nurses globally: Responding to health challenges, improving outcomes.

Int J Nurs Stud 2022 08 26;132:104262. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Healthcare Management and European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2022.104262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9040455PMC
August 2022
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