Publications by authors named "C Kill"

54 Publications

What about the others: differential diagnosis of COVID-19 in a German emergency department.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17;21(1):969. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center of Emergency Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147, Essen, Germany.

Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains a major challenge for worldwide health care systems and in particular emergency medicine. An early and safe triage in the emergency department (ED) is especially crucial for proper therapy. Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 comprise those of many common diseases; thus, differential diagnosis remains challenging.

Method: We performed a retrospective study of 314 ED patients presenting with conceivable COVID-19 symptoms during the first wave in Germany. All were tested for COVID-19 with SARS-Cov-2-nasopharyngeal swabs. Forty-seven patients were positive. We analyzed the 267 COVID-19 negative patients for their main diagnosis and compared COVID-19 patients with COVID-19 negative respiratory infections for differences in laboratory parameters, symptoms, and vital signs.

Results: Among the 267 COVID-19 negative patients, 42.7% had respiratory, 14.2% had other infectious, and 11.2% had cardiovascular diseases. Further, 9.0% and 6.7% had oncological and gastroenterological diagnoses, respectively. Compared to COVID-19 negative airway infections, COVID-19 patients showed less dyspnea (OR 0.440; p = 0.024) but more dysgeusia (OR 7.631; p = 0.005). Their hospital stay was significantly longer (9.0 vs. 5.6 days; p = 0.014), and their mortality significantly higher (OR 3.979; p = 0.014).

Conclusion: For many common ED diagnoses, COVID-19 should be considered a differential diagnosis. COVID-19 cannot be distinguished from COVID-19 negative respiratory infections by clinical signs, symptoms, or laboratory results. When hospitalization is necessary, the clinical course of COVID-19 airway infections seems to be more severe compared to other respiratory infections.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registry DRKS, DRKS-ID of the study: DRKS00021675 date of registration: May 8th, 2020, retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06663-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446739PMC
September 2021

Point-of-care testing in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective analysis of relevance and consequences.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2021 Aug 30;29(1):128. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Center of Emergency Medicine, University Hospital of Marburg, Baldingerstraße, 35043, Marburg, Germany.

Background: Metabolic and electrolyte imbalances are some of the reversible causes of cardiac arrest and can be diagnosed even in the pre-hospital setting with a mobile analyser for point-of-care testing (POCT).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study, which included analysing all pre-hospital resuscitations in the study region between October 2015 and December 2016. A mobile POCT analyser (Alere epoc®) was available at the scene of each resuscitation. We analysed the frequency of use of POCT, the incidence of pathological findings, the specific interventions based on POCT as well as every patient's eventual outcome.

Results: N = 263 pre-hospital resuscitations were included and in n = 98 of them, the POCT analyser was used. Of these measurements, 64% were performed using venous blood and 36% using arterial blood. The results of POCT showed that 63% of tested patients had severe metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.2 + BE <  - 5 mmol/l). Of these patients, 82% received buffering treatment with sodium bicarbonate. Potassium levels were markedly divergent normal (> 6.0 mmol/l/ < 2.5 mmol/l) in 17% of tested patients and 14% of them received a potassium infusion. On average, the pre-hospital treatment time between arrival of the first emergency medical responders and the beginning of transport was 54 (± 20) min without POCT and 60 (± 17) min with POCT (p = 0.07). Overall, 21% of patients survived to hospital discharge (POCT 30% vs no POCT 16%, p = 0.01, Φ = 0.16).

Conclusions: Using a POCT analyser in pre-hospital resuscitation allows rapid detection of pathological acid-base imbalances and potassium concentrations and often leads to specific interventions on scene and could improve the probability of survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-021-00943-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406837PMC
August 2021

[Risk management in the triage of emergency room patients to outpatient care : Manchester Triage System and CEReCo-blue as a tool for low-risk patient management in integrated emergency centers].

Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Zentrum für Notfallmedizin, Universitätsmedizin Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147, Essen, Deutschland.

Background: So-called "integrated emergency centers (IEC)" are going to be implemented in German hospitals and will be the first contact point in the emergency care setting. For early decision-making whether outpatient care or inpatient admission in the emergency department is indicated, it would be helpful to have a system to identify patients for outpatient treatment. In this study, we investigated whether the Manchester Triage System (MTS) is suitable for identifying patients who can be safely referred to emergency room patients to outpatient care.

Methods: Patients in the emergency department of the "blue" MTS level were examined for the endpoint inpatient admission and were compared with the next higher MTS category "green". In a second step, the "blue" MTS category was examined for the most common criteria leading to inpatient admission.

Results: After excluding patients who were presented by the emergency medical services (EMS) or after prior medical consultation, the rate of inpatient admissions in the blue MTS category was significantly lower than in the green category (10.8% vs 29.0%). The rate could be reduced to 0.9% by establishing a subgroup with the additional exclusion criteria chronic disorder and readmission after prior inpatient treatment (CEReCo-blue group: Chronic Disorder (C), Emergency Medical Service (E), Readmission (R), Prior Medical Consultation (Co)).

Conclusion: The blue MTS category does not appear to be suitable for the selection of patients with indication for outpatient treatment. We propose the introduction of a subgroup, the so-called CEReCo-blue group, which could be helpful for the selection of this patient group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00063-021-00853-wDOI Listing
August 2021

SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test: Fast-safe or dangerous? An analysis in the emergency department of an university hospital.

J Med Virol 2021 Sep 9;93(9):5323-5327. Epub 2021 May 9.

Center for Emergency Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

The use of Antigen point of care tests (AgPOCT) might be an essential tool to fight the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Manufacturer information indicates a specificity of about 95% and there is a growing interest to use these tests area-wide. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify whether AgPOCT can be used safely for "rule-in" (detection of positive patients) and for "rule-out" (valid negative testing). Two thousand three hundred and seventy-five patients received polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and AgPOCT for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) regardless of symptoms. The positive predictive value of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients was compared with a cut-off threshold cycle (C ) value of ≤30 and in total. Five hundrded and fifty-one patients tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus by PCR, of whom 35.2% presented without symptoms. In all patients, regardless of their symptoms or C values, a sensitivity of 68.9% and a specificity of 99.6% were calculated for AgPOCT. In patients with C values ≤30, a sensitivity of 80.5% (95% confidence interval: ±1.62) and a specificity of 99.6% were shown for all tests (symptomatic/asymptomatic). Highly infectious patients (C  ≤ 20), regardless of symptoms, were reliably detected by the AgPOCT. In infectious patients with C values ≤30, the test has a sensitivity of about 80% regardless of COVID-19 typical symptoms, which is apparently less than the 96.52% specificity indicated by the manufacturer. Relevant improvement in test sensitivity by querying the patients who are symptomatic and asymptomatic is also not feasible. We strongly suggest that we critically question the use of AgPOCT for "rule-out," as they only provide a supposed safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242658PMC
September 2021

Observational cohort study of neurological involvement among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 26;14:1756286421993701. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Neurology and Center for Translational and Behavioral Neurosciences (C-TNBS), University Medicine Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, Essen, 45147, Germany.

Background: A growing number of reports suggest that infection with SARS-CoV-2 often leads to neurological involvement; however, data on the incidence and severity are limited to mainly case reports and retrospective studies.

Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study of 102 SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients investigated the frequency, type, severity and risk factors as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological involvement (NIV) in COVID-19 patients.

Results: Across the cohort, 59.8% of patients had NIV. Unspecific NIV was suffered by 24.5%, mainly general weakness and cognitive decline or delirium. Mild NIV was found in 9.8%; most commonly, impaired taste or smell. Severe NIV was present in 23.5%; half of these suffered cerebral ischaemia. Incidence of NIV increased with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Mortality was higher with increasing NIV severity. Notably, 83.3% with severe NIV had a pre-existing neurological co-morbidity. All cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody quotient did not suggest intrathecal antibody synthesis. Of the patients with severe NIV, 50% had blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and showed a trend of elevated interleukin levels in CSF. Antibodies against neuronal and glial epitopes were detected in 35% of the patients tested.

Conclusion: Cerebrovascular events were the most frequent severe NIV and severe NIV was associated with high mortality. Incidence of NIV increased with respiratory symptoms and NIV and pre-existing neurological morbidities were independent risk factors for fatality. Inflammatory involvement due to BBB disruption and cytokine release drives NIV, rather than direct viral invasion. These findings might help physicians define a further patient group requiring particular attention during the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286421993701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934032PMC
February 2021
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