Publications by authors named "C K Yao"

3,390 Publications

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Synthesis of membrane-type graphene oxide immobilized manganese dioxide adsorbent and its adsorption behavior for lithium ion.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 5;279:130487. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China; National Engineering Research Center for Colloidal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China. Electronic address:

Recently, there has been an urgent need to develop new materials and technologies for extracting lithium ions. Herein, the membrane-type adsorbent of manganese dioxide (MnO) is prepared by a vacuum filtration method using graphene oxide (GO) as a binder and amino-β-cyclodextrin (amino-β-CD) as an adjuvant. The results of thermogravimetric analysis show that MnO is successfully immobilized on GO layers with a content of about 24 wt%, which enabled rapid adsorb lithium ions from the ionic solution. In addition, the permeation experiment shows the membrane has specific selectivity for lithium ion transport and adsorption, which is manifested in the selectivity ratios of K/Li, Na/Li and K/Na to 2.5, 3.2 and 0.8, respectively. Adsorption experiments show that GO-β-CD/MnO membrane has a high adsorption capacity for lithium ions (37.5 mg g). The adsorption kinetic curve indicates that the lithium adsorption process is controlled by the chemical adsorption mechanism. In the enrichment experiment, the concentration of lithium ions from seawater can be enriched to 1.2 mg L after 100 cycles. The results suggest that the developed GO-β-CD/MnO membrane could effectively extract lithium ions from seawater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130487DOI Listing
April 2021

Anti-Cancer Activity Based on the High Docetaxel Loaded Poly(2-Oxazoline)s Micelles.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 9;16:2735-2749. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Nanocarriers, with a high drug loading content and good safety, to achieve desirable therapeutic effect are always the goals for industry and research.

Methods And Results: In the present study, we developed a docetaxel loaded poly-2-oxazoline polymer micellar system which employed poly-2-butyl-2 oxazoline and poly-2-methyl-2 oxazoline as the hydrophobic chain and hydrophilic chain, respectively. This micellar system achieves a high load up to 25% against the docetaxel, and further demonstrates an IC50 as low as 40% of the commercialized docetaxel injection in vitro and a double maximum tolerated dose in MCF-7 cells in vivo.

Conclusion: The high drug loading content, superior safety, and considerable anti-cancer activity make this newly developed docetaxel loaded poly(2-oxazoline) micelle go further in future clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S298093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043799PMC
April 2021

Mendelian randomisation identifies alternative splicing of the FAS death receptor as a mediator of severe COVID-19.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Severe COVID-19 is characterised by immunopathology and epithelial injury. Proteomic studies have identified circulating proteins that are biomarkers of severe COVID-19, but cannot distinguish correlation from causation. To address this, we performed Mendelian randomisation (MR) to identify proteins that mediate severe COVID-19. Using protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) data from the SCALLOP consortium, involving meta-analysis of up to 26,494 individuals, and COVID-19 genome-wide association data from the Host Genetics Initiative, we performed MR for 157 COVID-19 severity protein biomarkers. We identified significant MR results for five proteins: FAS, TNFRSF10A, CCL2, EPHB4 and LGALS9. Further evaluation of these candidates using sensitivity analyses and colocalization testing provided strong evidence to implicate the apoptosis-associated cytokine receptor FAS as a causal mediator of severe COVID-19. This effect was specific to severe disease. Using RNA-seq data from 4,778 individuals, we demonstrate that the pQTL at the locus results from genetically influenced alternate splicing causing skipping of exon 6. We show that the risk allele for very severe COVID-19 increases the proportion of transcripts lacking exon 6, and thereby increases soluble FAS. Soluble FAS acts as a decoy receptor for FAS-ligand, inhibiting apoptosis induced through membrane-bound FAS. In summary, we demonstrate a novel genetic mechanism that contributes to risk of severe of COVID-19, highlighting a pathway that may be a promising therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.01.21254789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043484PMC
April 2021

Characteristic Malonyl Ginsenosides from the Leaves of as Potential Quality Markers for Adulteration Detection.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 501 Haike Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

Due to the high price and limited supply of , a large number of samples adulterated with the leaves appear in the market. A group of new malonyl ginsenosides were exclusively detected in the leaves (PNL). Targeted isolation of the malonyl ginsenosides was guided by UPLC-QDa MS. HRMS, 1D/2D NMR, and chemical methods were used for structural identification. A selected ion monitoring method was developed based on UPLC-QDa MS to detect the adulterations. In addition, the anti-inflammatory activities and the collision-induced dissociation features of the isolated saponins were studied. As a result, eight new 3-OH malonylated dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides (notoginsenosides L3-L10) were obtained from PNL. Adulteration with PNL can be easily detected with limit of detection as low as 0.06%. To sum up, the isolated ginsenosides can be used as quality markers for fraud detection, which will promote the quality control of the notoginseng products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00382DOI Listing
April 2021

Spatiotemporal coordination of Greatwall-Endos-PP2A promotes mitotic progression.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jun;220(6)

Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Mitotic entry involves inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A bound to its B55/Tws regulatory subunit (PP2A-B55/Tws), which dephosphorylates substrates of mitotic kinases. This inhibition is induced when Greatwall phosphorylates Endos, turning it into an inhibitor of PP2A-Tws. How this mechanism operates spatiotemporally in the cell is incompletely understood. We previously reported that the nuclear export of Greatwall in prophase promotes mitotic progression. Here, we examine the importance of the localized activities of PP2A-Tws and Endos for mitotic regulation. We find that Tws shuttles through the nucleus via a conserved nuclear localization signal (NLS), but expression of Tws in the cytoplasm and not in the nucleus rescues the development of tws mutants. Moreover, we show that Endos must be in the cytoplasm before nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) to be efficiently phosphorylated by Greatwall and to bind and inhibit PP2A-Tws. Disrupting the cytoplasmic function of Endos before NEBD results in subsequent mitotic defects. Evidence suggests that this spatiotemporal regulation is conserved in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202008145DOI Listing
June 2021

A facile and green route to fabricate fiber-reinforced membrane for removing oil from water and extracting water under slick oil.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 26;416:125697. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Key Lab of Science & Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, PR China; College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, PR China. Electronic address:

Except the good separation performance, the membranes used for oil-water mixture separation should be fabricated with as little wastewater produced as possible. Thus, we proposed a green tactic--water vapor induced phase inversion to prepare the high-strength and superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic nonwoven fabric-based cotton/PA6/PAN membranes which is based on the polymer/solvent/nonsolvent ternary system analysis. Differing from adding additives in polymer solution or coagulation bath, above proposed strategy has an "subtractive effect" with the advantages of constructing three-dimensional porous structure and greatly reducing the organic wastewater produced during preparation process. Moreover, the obtained cotton/PA6/PAN membranes exhibited unexpected performances for separating oil-in-water emulsions. An ultrahigh permeation flux of up to 478,000 L m h bar with a separation efficiency of > 99.9% was obtained under the driving pressure of 1.6 KPa, which was one order of magnitude higher than the conventional separation membranes with similar properties. In addition, it is surprising that the cotton/PA6/PAN membranes can also extract water from the slick oil/water immiscible mixture. Therefore, it is expected that the cotton/PA6/PAN membranes can be used in practical oily wastewater purification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125697DOI Listing
March 2021

Overexpression of AGAMOUS-like gene PfAG5 promotes early flowering in Polypogon fugax.

Funct Plant Biol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Herbicides are the major tool for controlling large populations of yield depleting weeds. However, over-reliance on herbicides has resulted in weed adaptation and herbicide resistance. In recent years, early flowering weed species related to herbicide resistance is emerging, which may cause seed loss before crop harvest, creating a new problem for non-chemical weed management. In this study, a homologue gene of AGAMOUS sub-family (referred to as PfAG5) of the MADS-box family was cloned from plants of an early flowering Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud. population resistant to the ACCase inhibitor herbicide (clodinafop-propargyl). The PfAG5 gene was functionally characterised in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Overexpression of the PfAG5 gene in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering, abnormal flowers (e.g. small petals), short plants and reduced seed set, compared with the wild type. The expression of the PfAG5 gene was high in leaves and flowers, but low in pods in transgenic Arabidopsis. The PfAG5 gene was expressed earlier and higher in the resistant (R) than the susceptible (S) P. fugax plants. Furthermore, one protein (FRIGIDA-like) with relevance to flowering time regulation and interacts with PfAG5 in resistant (R) P. fugax was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays. These results suggest that the PfAG5 gene is involved in modulating early flowering in P. fugax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP21047DOI Listing
April 2021

[Congenital Fibrinogen Deficiency Caused by Novel FGG Gene Mutation].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(2):586-590

Shandong Blood Center, Jinan 250000, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: To detect and analyze coagulation related indexes and genotypes of a patient with congenital fibrinogen deficiency and his family members, and to investigate the possible molecular pathogenesis.

Methods: Four peripheral blood samples (proband and 3 family members) were collected and the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (Fg), D-Dimer and eight coagulation factor indicators were detected. All exons and flanking sequences of the FGA, FGB, and FGG genes encoding the three peptide chains of fibrinogen were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics.

Results: Among the eight coagulation factors of the proband and the elder sister, F Ⅴ and F Ⅷ were slightly higher, TT was significantly prolonged, and Fg was significantly reduced. Sequencing results showed that c.901C>T heterozygous mutation existed in the FGG gene. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the mutation changed the original protein structure and reduced the number of hydrogen bonds.

Conclusion: The fibrinogen gamma chain c.901C>T heterozygous mutation is the main cause of congenital fibrinogen deficiency in this family. This mutation is reported for the first time at home and abroad.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.02.044DOI Listing
April 2021

Acclimation to a broad range of nitrate strength on a euryhaline marine microalga Tetraselmis subcordiformis for photosynthetic nitrate removal and high-quality biomass production.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 24;781:146687. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical & Biological Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065, China. Electronic address:

Industrial wastewaters usually possess a wide range of nitrate strength. Microalgae-based nitrate-rich wastewater treatment could realize nitrate recovery along with CO sequestration for sustainable biomass production, but the low tolerance of the microalgal strains to high-strength nitrate restricted the treatment process. The present study comprehensively evaluated a euryhaline marine microalga Tetraselmis subcordiformis for photosynthetic nitrate removal and biomass production in synthetic wastewater with a broad range of nitrate strength (0.24-7.0 g NO-N/L). This alga could acclimate to high nitrate strength up to 3.5 g NO-N/L (HN) without compromising biomass production. Nitrate could be completely removed within four days when low nitrate (0.24 g NO-N/L, LN) was loaded. The maximum nitrate removal rate of 331 mg N/L/day and specific nitrate removal rate of 360 mg N/day/g cell was obtained under medium nitrate condition (1.8 g NO-N/L, MN). High-nitrate stress under 7.0 g NO-N/L (SHN) caused an increased light energy dissipation while decreased the density of photosystem II active reaction center, which partially protect the cells from photodamage and contributed to their acclimation to SHN. The algae also enhanced amino acid/fatty acid proportions essential for maintaining intracellular redox states to cope with the stress caused by LN or SHN. HN and SHN was in favor of protein accumulation and maintenance with enhanced proportion of essential amino acids, which entitled the algal biomass to be of high quality for animal feed applied in livestock graziery and aquaculture. LN facilitated productive starch and lipid accumulation with good quality for biofuels production. The nitrate removal rate and biomass productivity exceeded most of the microalgae reported in literature under similar conditions, which highlighted Tetraselmis subcordiformis as a potent strain for flexible nitrate-rich wastewater remediation coupled with fast CO bio-mitigation and high-quality biomass production for sustainable algal biorefinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146687DOI Listing
March 2021

Sublytic C5b-9 induces glomerular mesangial cell proliferation via ERK1/2-dependent SOX9 phosphorylation and acetylation by enhancing Cyclin D1 in rat Thy-1 nephritis.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Immunology, and Key Laboratory of Immunological Environment and Disease, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211166, China.

Glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) proliferation is a histopathological alteration in human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) or in animal models of MsPGN, e.g., the rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) model. Although sublytic C5b-9 assembly on the GMC membrane can trigger cell proliferation, the mechanisms are still undefined. We found that sublytic C5b-9-induced rat GMC proliferation was driven by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), sry-related HMG-box 9 (SOX9), and Cyclin D1. Here, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was a result of the calcium influx-PKC-α-Raf-MEK1/2 axis activated by sublytic C5b-9, and Cyclin D1 gene transcription was enhanced by ERK1/2-dependent SOX9 binding to the Cyclin D1 promoter (-582 to -238 nt). In addition, ERK1/2 not only interacted with SOX9 in the cell nucleus to mediate its phosphorylation at serine residues 64 (a new site identified by mass spectrometry) and 181 (a known site), but also indirectly induced SOX9 acetylation by elevating the expression of general control non-repressed protein 5 (GCN5), which together resulted in Cyclin D1 synthesis and GMC proliferation. Moreover, our in vivo experiments confirmed that silencing these genes ameliorated the lesions of Thy-1N rats and reduced SOX9 phosphorylation, acetylation and Cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, the renal tissue sections of MsPGN patients also showed higher phosphorylation or expression of ERK1/2, SOX9, and Cyclin D1. In summary, these findings suggest that sublytic C5b-9-induced GMC proliferation in rat Thy-1N requires SOX9 phosphorylation and acetylation via enhanced Cyclin D1 gene transcription, which may provide a new insight into human MsPGN pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00589-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Anti-Tumor Drug Discovery Based on Natural Product β-Elemene: Anti-Tumor Mechanisms and Structural Modification.

Molecules 2021 Mar 10;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

College of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, China.

Natural products are important sources for drug discovery, especially anti-tumor drugs. β-Elemene, the prominent active ingredient extract from the rhizome of , is a representative natural product with broad anti-tumor activities. The main molecular mechanism of β-elemene is to inhibit tumor growth and proliferation, induce apoptosis, inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis, enhance the sensitivity of chemoradiotherapy, regulate the immune system, and reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). Elemene oral emulsion and elemene injection were approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) for the treatment of various cancers and bone metastasis in 1994. However, the lipophilicity and low bioavailability limit its application. To discover better β-elemene-derived anti-tumor drugs with satisfying drug-like properties, researchers have modified its structure under the premise of not damaging the basic scaffold structure. In this review, we comprehensively discuss and summarize the potential anti-tumor mechanisms and the progress of structural modifications of β-elemene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998186PMC
March 2021

Association between short-term ambient air pollution and outpatient visits of anxiety: A hospital-based study in northwestern China.

Environ Res 2021 Mar 31;197:111071. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Preventive Medicine, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

Anxiety, a common and devastating mental disorder, has raised widespread interests. The impacts of air pollution on physical health are well known, whereas few studies have explored the association of atmospheric pollution, especially short-term air pollution exposure, with the risk of anxiety disorders. In addition, there are increasing concerns in emerging evidence supporting a possible etiological link. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the relationship between short-term exposure to atmospheric pollutants and anxiety outpatient visits in Xi'an, a city of northwestern China and a metropolis with relatively heavy air pollution. We collected the data of both daily outpatient visits and daily air pollution (SO, NO, and PM) between January 1, 2010 and January 31, 2016 (2222 days). To clarify the association between short-term ambient atmospheric pollution exposure and anxiety outpatient visits, an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was applied by adjusting the day of the week and weather conditions (including temperature, humidity, sunlight hours, and rainfalls). Positive association between gaseous air pollutants (SO and NO) and anxiety daily outpatient visits was observed. Moreover, the largest estimated values of both SO and NO were evidence at lag 03 (4-day moving average lag), with 10 μg/m increase corresponded to the increase of outpatient anxiety visits at 4.11% (95% CI: 2.15%, 6.06%) for SO and 3.97% (95% CI: 1.90%, 6.06%) for NO. However, there was no differences in susceptibility to air pollutants between different genders as well as different ages. Taken together, short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants, especially gaseous air pollutants (NO and SO), can be related to higher risk of anxiety outpatient visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111071DOI Listing
March 2021

Eradication Rates for Esomeprazole and Lansoprazole-Based 7-Day Non-Bismuth Concomitant Quadruple Therapy for First-Line Anti- Treatment in Real World Clinical Practice.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 25;14:1239-1246. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Hepatogastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Purpose: Non-bismuth concomitant quadruple therapy is commonly administered in Taiwan, achieving an acceptable efficacy as a first-line anti treatment. This study compared the eradication rates between esomeprazole- and lansoprazole-based non-bismuth concomitant quadruple therapy for first-line anti- treatment.

Patients And Methods: This study included 206 -infected naïve patients between July 2016 and February 2019. The patients were prescribed with either a 7-day non-bismuth containing quadruple therapy (esomeprazole, 40 mg twice daily; amoxicillin, 1 g twice daily; and metronidazole, 500 mg twice daily; and clarithromycin, 500 mg twice daily for 7 days [EACM group]; lansoprazole, 30 mg twice daily; amoxicillin, 1 g twice daily; metronidazole, 500 mg twice daily; and clarithromycin, 500 mg twice daily [LACM group]). Then, the patients were asked to perform urea breath tests 8 weeks later.

Results: The eradication rates in the EACM group were 86.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.8%-92.2%) and 90.6% (95% CI, 82.9%-95.6%) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and the per-protocol (PP) analyses, respectively. Moreover, the eradication rates in the LACM group were 90.1% (95% CI, 82.6%-95.2%) and 92.6% (95% CI, 85.5%-96.9%) in the ITT and the PP analyses, respectively. Consequently, the LACM group exhibited more diarrhea patients than the EACM group (7.1% versus 1.0%, = 0.029), but all symptoms were mild. Univariate analysis in this study showed that metronidazole-resistant strains were the clinical factor affecting the eradications (95.3% versus 78.9%, = 0.044). Moreover, a trend was observed in dual clarithromycin- and metronidazole-resistant strains (91.5% versus 66.7%, = 0.155).

Conclusion: The eradication rates between esomeprazole and lansoprazole-based non-bismuth concomitant quadruple therapy for first-line treatment were similar in this study. Both could achieve a > 90% report card in the PP analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S304711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007608PMC
March 2021

Integrated regulatory network in Pseudomonas syringae reveals dynamics of virulence.

Cell Rep 2021 Mar;34(13):108920

Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR, China; Shenzhen Research Institute, City University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518057, China. Electronic address:

Pseudomonas syringae, a Gram-negative plant pathogen, expresses multitudinous transcriptional regulators to control the type III secretion system (T3SS) and response to diverse environmental challenges. Although the mechanisms of virulence-associated regulators of P. syringae have been studied for decades, the overall crosstalk underlying these regulators is still elusive. Here, we identify five T3SS regulators (EnvZ-OmpR, CbrAB2, PhoPQ, PilRS, and MgrA), and find that the two-component systems EnvZ-OmpR and CbrAB2 negatively regulate the T3SS. To elucidate crosstalk between 16 virulence-associated regulators in P. syringae, we map an online intricate network called "PSRnet" (Pseudomonas syringae regulatory network) by combining the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of these 16 regulators by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and their binding loci by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Consequently, we identify 238 and 153 functional genes involved in the T3SS and other virulence-related pathways in KB and MM media, respectively. Our results provide insights into the mechanism of plant infections caused by P. syringae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108920DOI Listing
March 2021

Characteristics of and therapeutic strategy for pulmonary typical carcinoid: a population-based study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310005, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001433DOI Listing
March 2021

Measuring the multilayer silicon based microstructure using differential reflectance spectroscopy.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(3):3114-3122

The yield of a large-area ultra-thin display panel depends on the realization of designed thickness of multilayer films of all pixels. Measuring the thicknesses of multilayer films of a single pixel is crucial to the accurate manufacture. However, the thinnest layer is reaching the sub-20nm level, and different layers feature remarkable divergence in thickness with similar optical constants. This turns to a key obstruction to the thickness characterization by optical spectroscopy. Based on the tiny differences in absorptivity, a fast method for measuring the film thickness in a single pixel is proposed which combines the layer number reducing model and micro-area differential reflectance spectroscopy. The lower layers can be considered as semi-infinite in the corresponding spectral range whose thickness is infinite in the fitting algorithm. Hence, the thickness of the upper layer is fitted in a simplified layer structure. For demonstration, a multilayer silicon microstructure in a single pixel, p-Si/a-Si/n-Si (10nm/950nm/50nm) on complex substrate, is measured. The light spot diameter is about 60 microns with measuring-time in 2 seconds. The measurement deviation is 3% compared by a commercial ellipsometer. To conclude, the proposed method realizes the layer number reduction for fitting multilayer thickness with large thickness difference and similar optical constants, which provides a powerful approach for multilayer microstructure characterizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.414033DOI Listing
February 2021

The Evolution of Unilateral Cleft Lip Repair.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles Division of Plastic Surgery, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Division of Plastic Surgery, Shriners Hospital for Children, Pasadena, CA.

Abstract: The understanding of cleft lip etiology and approaches for surgical repair have evolved over time, allowing for improved ability to restore form and function. The variability of cleft lip presentations has necessitated a nuanced surgical approach with multidisciplinary cleft care. The earliest documentation of unilateral cleft lip repair predates the 19th century, with crude outcomes observed before the advent of curved incisions and advancement flaps. In the 20th century, straight line, quadrilateral flap, and triangular flap repairs were introduced to mitigate post-repair surgical scarring, increase lip length, and restore the symmetry of the Cupid's bow. Towards the latter part of the century, the development of rotation-advancement principles allowed for improved functional and aesthetic outcomes. Future technical improvements will continue to address the goals of lip and nasal symmetry, muscular continuity, precise scar concealment, and improved patient satisfaction in an increasing range of cleft phenotypes and during subsequent years of growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007635DOI Listing
March 2021

Overexpression of RhoV Promotes the Progression and EGFR-TKI Resistance of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:619013. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background: The Rho GTPase family with ~20 member genes play central roles in a wide variety of cellular processes and tumor cell migration and metastasis. Different Rho GTPase may play different roles in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.

Methods: We comprehensively examined the expression of all Rho GTPase family member genes in a panel of lung adenocarcinoma patient's tumors and matched normal tissues. We next investigated the critical role of RhoV in different lung adenocarcinoma cells and animal models.

Results: RhoV was identified as one of the most significantly overexpressed Rho GTPases in lung adenocarcinoma and associated with patients' survival. Silencing RhoV expression inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion, and tumorigenicity capacities of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Moreover, knockdown RhoV promoted the sensitivity of EGFR-TKI in the gefitinib resistant PC9 cells (PC9-GR) and aggravated gefitinib-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis both in PC9 and PC9-GR cells. Our data also indicated that RhoV induced progression and EGFR-TKI resistance of lung adenocarcinoma may be related to the activation of the AKT/ERK pathway.

Conclusion: Overexpression of RhoV in lung adenocarcinoma promotes the progression and EGFR-TKI resistance, suggesting RhoV is a promising prognosis and therapeutic target of lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.619013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986718PMC
March 2021

Design and development of a novel sliding friction and wear tester with complex working conditions.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6903. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Mechanical Electronic and Information Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing, 100083, China.

Serious wear phenomena occur in mining machinery under complex working conditions, and the wear of machine parts is primarily caused by the synergistic effect of adhesive wear, abrasive wear, corrosive wear, etc. However, the existing friction and wear testing equipment cannot be used to carry out wear tests under complex working conditions. To simultaneously meet the test requirements of adhesive wear, abrasive wear, and corrosive wear, a novel sliding friction and wear tester that can simulate complex working conditions was developed in the present research. The tester is composed of a loading mechanism, a speed-regulating mechanism, a corrosion chamber, and a control and display system. Wear tests of the middle plate of a scraper conveyor, a key equipment of coal mining, were carried out to verify the consistency and effectiveness of the tester. The test results were consistent, and those under the same test conditions were similar with a maximum standard deviation of 2.4 mg. The wear condition of the middle plate specimens was close to the actual wear condition of the middle plate. Moreover, the surfaces of the middle plate specimens after grinding exhibited obvious adhesive, abrasive, and corrosive wear characteristics, and the wear degrees of the specimens under the same test conditions were similar. The quality loss of the middle plate specimens was found to increase with the increase of coal gangue percentage, and the main wear mechanism was the synergistic action of abrasive, adhesive, and corrosive wear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86451-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994673PMC
March 2021

Early Life Intervention Using Probiotic Improves Intestinal Development, Immune Response, and Gut Microbiota in Large Yellow Croaker () Larvae.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:640767. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs), Key Laboratory of Mariculture (Ministry of Education), Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Marine fish larvae are vulnerable during the early life period. The early intervention using probiotics may be a promising method to improve growth of fish larvae. In this study, a 30-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of early life intervention using probiotic (CB) on growth performance, intestinal development, immune response and gut microbiota of large yellow croaker () larvae. Four isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated with the supplementation of four different levels of CB (5 × 10 CFU g), 0.00% (Control), 0.10% (CB1), 0.20% (CB2), and 0.40% (CB3). Results showed that larvae fed diets with CB had significant higher final length than the control group. Meanwhile, larvae fed the diet with 0.10% CB had significant higher final weight and specific growth rate (SGR) than the control group. However, no significant difference in survival rate was observed among dietary treatments. CB supplementation significantly increased the height of intestinal villus and the length of intestinal enterocyte. Similarly, CB supplementation significantly increased the expression of tight zonula occludens-2 () and ornithine decarboxylase () than the control group. Larvae fed the diet with 0.20% CB had significant higher lipase and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) activity than the control group. Moreover, CB supplementation significantly improved immune enzyme activities than the control group. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA V4-5 region indicated that dietary CB altered intestinal microbiota profile and decreased intestinal microbial diversities of larvae. CB supplementation could effectively increase the abundance of CB, and decrease the abundance of some potential pathogenic bacteria in larval gut. These results revealed that early life intervention using 0.10-0.20% CB could promote growth of large yellow croaker larvae probably through promoting intestinal development, improving immune enzyme activities and modulating gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.640767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982665PMC
March 2021

The identification of neutrophils-mediated mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets for the management of sepsis-induced acute immunosuppression using bioinformatics.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e24669

General Practice Department, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Abstract: Neutrophils have crucial roles in defensing against infection and adaptive immune responses. This study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanism in neutrophils in response to sepsis-induced immunosuppression.The GSE64457 dataset was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and the neutrophil samples (D3-4 and D6-8 post sepsis shock) were assigned into two groups. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) clustering analysis was conducted to select the consistently changed DEGs post sepsis shock. The overlapping genes between the DEGs and the deposited genes associated with immune, sepsis, and immunosuppression in the AmiGO2 and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database were screened out and used for the construction of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The expression of several hub genes in sepsis patients was validated using the PCR analysis. The drugs targeting the hub genes and the therapy strategies for sepsis or immunosuppression were reviewed and used to construct the drug-gene-therapy-cell network to illustrate the potential therapeutic roles of the hub genes.A total of 357 overlapping DEGs between the two groups were identified and were used for the STEM clustering analysis, which generated four significant profiles with 195 upregulated (including annexin A1, ANXA1; matrix metallopeptidase 9, MMP9; and interleukin 15, IL-15) and 151 downregulated DEGs (including, AKT1, IFN-related genes, and HLA antigen genes). Then, a total of 34 of the 151 downregulated DEGs and 39 of the 195 upregulated DEGs were shared between the databases and above DEGs, respectively. The PPI network analysis identified a downregulated module including IFN-related genes. The deregulation of DEGs including AKT1 (down), IFN-inducible protein 6 (IFI6, down), IL-15 (up), and ANXA1 (up) was verified in the neutrophils from patients with sepsis-induced immunosuppression as compared with controls. Literature review focusing on the therapy showed that the upregulation of IL-15, IFN, and HLA antigens are the management targets. Besides, the AKT1 gene was targeted by gemcitabine.These findings provided additional clues for understanding the mechanisms of sepsis-induced immunosuppression. The drugs targeting AKT1 might provide now clues for the management strategy of immunosuppression with the intention to prevent neutrophil infiltration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024669DOI Listing
March 2021

Optimizing glass-ceramic bonding incorporating new silane technology in an experimental universal adhesive formulation.

Dent Mater 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Oral Health Sciences, BIOMAT & UZ Leuven (University Hospitals Leuven), Dentistry, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Objective: Incorporating silane-coupling agent into universal adhesives (UAs) to simplify adhesive luting of glass-ceramic restorations appeared ineffective due to silane's instability in an acidic aqueous solution. This study aimed to evaluate new silane technology added to an experimental UA to be bonded to glass ceramics without separate prior silanization.

Methods: Combined silane technology, consisting of 3-(aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and γ-methacryloxypropyltriethoxysilane (γMPTES), was incorporated into an experimental UA formulation, being referred to as ADH-XTE (3M Oral Care). Immediate and aged shear bond strength (SBS) of ADH-XTE onto as-milled ('AM'), tribochemical silica-coated ('TSC'), HF-etched ('HF'), and mirror-polished ('MP') glass-ceramic CAD/CAM blocks (IPS e.max CAD) with/without separate silanization was measured (n = 10/group). The control adhesives included Scotchbond Universal ('SBU') and Scotchbond 1 XT ('SB1-XT'). The glass-ceramic surface topography and the fractography of the SBS-debonded specimens were observed by SEM.

Results: Without separate prior silanization, the experimental UA ADH-XTE, containing combined APTES/γMPTES silane technology, significantly outperformed the glass-ceramic bonding efficiency of its silane-containing SBU precursor, while it performed equally effective as SBU applied with prior silanization. Upon aging, significant reduction in SBS was recorded when ADH-XTE was bonded to TSC glass-ceramic surfaces (p < 0.05), while not to HF ones. Notably, the lowest SBS was obtained when the UAs were bonded to AM and MP glass-ceramic surfaces, in particular when applied without separate prior silanization (p < 0.05).

Significance: The glass-ceramic bonding capacity of the new combined APTES/γMPTES silane-containing UA ADH-XTE surpassed that of its SBU precursor. HF etching remains needed to durably bond to glass-ceramics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2021.02.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Phenoconversion from Possible REM Sleep Behavior to Parkinsonism in the Population-Based CLSA.

Mov Disord 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28571DOI Listing
March 2021

Epigenome-wide association study of whole blood gene expression in Framingham Heart Study participants provides molecular insight into the potential role of CHRNA5 in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Mar 22;13(1):60. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

The Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Avenue, Framingham, MA, 01702, USA.

Background: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification that can directly affect gene regulation. DNA methylation is highly influenced by environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, which is causally related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. To date, there have been few large-scale, combined analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression and their interrelations with lung diseases.

Results: We performed an epigenome-wide association study of whole blood gene expression in ~ 6000 individuals from four cohorts. We discovered and replicated numerous CpGs associated with the expression of cis genes within 500 kb of each CpG, with 148 to 1,741 cis CpG-transcript pairs identified across cohorts. We found that the closer a CpG resided to a transcription start site, the larger its effect size, and that 36% of cis CpG-transcript pairs share the same causal genetic variant. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed that hypomethylation and lower expression of CHRNA5, which encodes a smoking-related nicotinic receptor, are causally linked to increased risk of COPD and lung cancer. This putatively causal relationship was further validated in lung tissue data.

Conclusions: Our results provide a large and comprehensive association study of whole blood DNA methylation with gene expression. Expression platform differences rather than population differences are critical to the replication of cis CpG-transcript pairs. The low reproducibility of trans CpG-transcript pairs suggests that DNA methylation regulates nearby rather than remote gene expression. The putatively causal roles of methylation and expression of CHRNA5 in relation to COPD and lung cancer provide evidence for a mechanistic link between patterns of smoking-related epigenetic variation and lung diseases, and highlight potential therapeutic targets for lung diseases and smoking cessation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01041-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986283PMC
March 2021

An enhanced strategy integrating offline superimposed two-dimensional separation with mass defect filter and diagnostic ion filter: Comprehensive characterization of steroid alkaloids in Fritillariae Pallidiflorae Bulbus as a case study.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Apr 3;1643:462029. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Shanghai Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Engineering Laboratory for TCM Standardization Technology, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Science, Haike Road 501, Shanghai, 201203, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

The inherent complexity of traditional Chinese medicines necessitates the application of multi-dimensional information to accomplish comprehensive profiling and confirmative identification of their chemical components. In this study, we display an enhanced strategy by integrating offline superimposed two-dimensional separation (S-2D-LC) with mass defect filter and diagnostic ion filter to comprehensively characterize the alkaloid composition of Fritillariae Pallidiflorae Bulbus (FPB). The superimposed HILIC × RP and UPCC × RP offline two-dimensional liquid chromatography system was constructed with superior orthogonality (R=0.004 and R=0.001) for chromatographic separation. In total, 70 fractions were collected after the first-dimensional chromatographic separation (HILIC and UPCC) and then analyzed by the second-dimensional reversed phase (RP) liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF/MS/MS in FAST DDA acquisition mode. A four-step interpretation strategy combining mass defect filter with diagnostic ion filter was developed to rapidly characterize alkaloids in Fritillaria species. Ultimately, a sum of 529 Fritillaria alkaloids were characterized from two botanical origins of FPB. The integrated strategy is practical to efficiently expose and comprehensively characterize more trace and isomeric components in complex herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462029DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Le Fort I Maxillary Repositioning on Three-Dimensional Nasal Tip Rotation: A Comparative Study with Implication for the Asian Nose.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 04;147(4):903-914

From the Departments of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Orthodontics and the Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University; and the Institute of Plastic and Craniofacial Surgery, SOBRAPAR Hospital.

Background: Le Fort I maxillary repositioning influences nasal morphology. In Asian cultures, upward nasal tip rotation with increased nostril exposure is considered aesthetically unpleasant and can have psychosocial consequences. This three-dimensional imaging-based study evaluated the effect of different Le Fort I maxillary movements on nasal tip rotation.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery (n = 107) were enrolled. To achieve a standard head orientation, preoperative and 1-week and 12-month postoperative cone-beam computed tomography-derived three-dimensional craniofacial models were superimposed. Tip rotation angle was calculated according to the Frankfort horizontal plane for all three-dimensional digital models. The final tip rotation angle change was defined as 12-month postoperative value minus preoperative value. Translational maxillary movement types (advancement versus setback and intrusion versus extrusion), postoperative maxillary segment locations (anterosuperior, anteroinferior, posterosuperior, or posteroinferior), and actual linear maxillary changes were noted.

Results: Advancement (1.79 ± 5.20 degrees) and intrusion (2.23 ± 4.96 degrees) movements demonstrated significantly larger final tip rotation angle changes than setback (-0.88 ± 5.15 degrees) and extrusion (0.09 ± 5.44 degrees) movements (all p < 0.05). Postoperative anterosuperior location (2.95 ± 4.52 degrees) of the maxillary segment demonstrated a significantly larger final tip rotation angle change than anteroinferior (0.48 ± 5.65 degrees), posterosuperior (-1.08 ± 4.77 degrees), and posteroinferior (-0.64 ± 5.80 degrees) locations (all p < 0.05). Translational maxillary movement and actual linear maxillary change were not correlated with final tip rotation angle change.

Conclusion: Effects of Le Fort I maxillary repositioning on nasal tip rotation depend on movement types and maxillary segment location.

Clinical Question/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000007774DOI Listing
April 2021

Optimized combination of circulating biomarkers as predictors of prognosis in AECOPD patients complicated with Heart Failure.

Int J Med Sci 2021 4;18(7):1592-1599. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Key Laboratory of Shenzhen Respiratory Diseases, Institute of Shenzhen Respiratory Diseases, Shenzhen People's Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University), Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Systematic inflammation, nutritional status, and cardiovascular function have been associated with the outcomes of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients with heart failure (HF). However, the value of their relevant biomarkers in predicting mortality has not been well defined yet. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of circulating biomarkers including C-reaction protein (CRP)/albumin (ALB), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for AECOPD patients with HF. A retrospective study was carried out in the Second Clinical College of Jinan University from January 1, 2013 to January 31, 2019. A total of 146 cases of AECOPD complicated with HF were enrolled and classified into survivor group (n=94) and non-survivor group (n=52). The baseline characteristics, CRP/ALB ratio, NLR, PLR, serum levels of NT-proBNP, and other indicators were collected. The predictors for prognosis were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression, and the ability to predict 28-day mortality was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) and the area under the curve (AUC). The patients in non-survivors had significantly higher levels of CRP, CRP/ALB, NLR, PCT and NT-proBNP, but lower ALB levels compared to the survivors [111.7 (56.9, 186.5) VS. 43.8 (10.3, 96.1) mg/L, 4.6 (2.0, 8.0) VS. 1.4 (0.3, 3.4), 22.2 (11.1, 40.1) VS. 12.0 (6.2, 24.8), 2.6 (0.2, 10.3) VS. 0.08 (0.1, 0.5) ng/ml, 17912.5 (9344.0, 34344.5) VS. 9809.0 (4415.9, 16387.2) ng/ml, 25.8 (23.2, 30.5) VS. 30.7 (27.9, 34.1) g/L; < 0.001, <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, <0.001, and < 0.001, respectively]. No significant difference in PLR was found between the two groups (=0.413). The logistic analysis revealed that CRP/ALB (OR=1.303, 95%CI: 1.145-1.483, <0.001), NT-proBNP (OR=1.041, 95%CI: 1.010-1.073, =0.009) and NLR (OR=1.010, 95%CI: 0.999-1.022, <0.001) are independent risk factors for predicting the 28-day mortality. The AUC of the ROC curves were 0.768, 0.767, 0.757, 0.723, 0.716, and 0.668 for CRP/ALB, PCT, CRP, NT-proBNP, ALB, and NLR, respectively. The combination of CRP/ALB, NLR and NT-proBNP as biomarkers was shown to have better accuracy for predicting prognosis (AUC=0.830, 95%CI: 0.761-0.899, <0.001), with a higher specificity of 80.8% and specificity of 77.7% as compared with each single biomarkers. High levels of NLR, CRP/ALB and NT-proBNP may be clinical usefully predictors for death in AECOPD patients with HF. Combination of NLR with CRP/ALB and NT-proBNP can provide a higher accuracy for predicting 28-day mortality in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.52405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976571PMC
February 2021

TigeCMN: On exploration of temporal interaction graph embedding via Coupled Memory Neural Networks.

Neural Netw 2021 Mar 4;140:13-26. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Macquarie University, Australia. Electronic address:

With the increasing demand of mining rich knowledge in graph structured data, graph embedding has become one of the most popular research topics in both academic and industrial communities due to its powerful capability in learning effective representations. The majority of existing work overwhelmingly learn node embeddings in the context of static, plain or attributed, homogeneous graphs. However, many real-world applications frequently involve bipartite graphs with temporal and attributed interaction edges, named temporal interaction graphs. The temporal interactions usually imply different facets of interest and might even evolve over the time, thus putting forward huge challenges in learning effective node representations. Furthermore, most existing graph embedding models try to embed all the information of each node into a single vector representation, which is insufficient to characterize the node's multifaceted properties. In this paper, we propose a novel framework named TigeCMN to learn node representations from a sequence of temporal interactions. Specifically, we devise two coupled memory networks to store and update node embeddings in the external matrices explicitly and dynamically, which forms deep matrix representations and thus could enhance the expressiveness of the node embeddings. Then, we generate node embedding from two parts: a static embedding that encodes its stationary properties and a dynamic embedding induced from memory matrix that models its temporal interaction patterns. We conduct extensive experiments on various real-world datasets covering the tasks of node classification, recommendation and visualization. The experimental results empirically demonstrate that TigeCMN can achieve significant gains compared with recent state-of-the-art baselines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.02.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Characterization of allergenicity of Platanus pollen allergen a 3 (Pla a 3) after exposure to NO and O.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 10;278:116913. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, 338-8570, Japan.

Pollen allergens, widely present in the atmosphere, are the main cause of seasonal respiratory diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Although previous studies have reported that nitrogen dioxide (NO) and ozone (O) promote pollen allergy, the specific biological processes and underlying mechanisms remain less understood. In this study, Platanus pollen grains were exposed to gaseous pollutants (NO and O). We employed environmental electron microscopy, flow cytometry, western blot assay, enzyme-linked immunoassay, ultraviolet absorption spectrometry, circular dichroism, and protein mass spectrometry to characterise the subpollen particles (SPPs) released from pollen grains. Furthermore, we determined the immunogenicity and pathogenicity induced by Platanus pollen allergen a 3 (Pla a 3). Our results demonstrated that NO and O could damage the pollen cell membranes in SPPs and increase the amount of Pla a 3 allergen released into the atmosphere. Additionally, NO and O altered the structure of Pla a3 protein through nitrification and oxidation, which not only enhanced the immunogenicity of allergens but also increased the stability of the protein. In vivo analysis using an animal model indicated that NO and O greatly aggravated pollen-induced pneumonia. Thus, our study provides guidance for the prevention of pollen allergic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116913DOI Listing
June 2021