Publications by authors named "C J Martin"

9,434 Publications

Diabetes Status Modifies the Association Between Different Measures of Obesity and Heart Failure Risk Among Older Adults: A Pooled Analysis of Community-Based NHLBI Cohorts.

Circulation 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Background: Obesity and diabetes are associated with a higher risk of heart failure (HF). The inter-relationships between different measures of adiposity-overall obesity, central obesity, fat mass (FM)-and diabetes status for HF risk are not well-established.

Methods: Participant-level data from ARIC(visit-5) and CHS(visit-1) cohorts were obtained from the NHLBI BioLINCC, harmonized, and pooled for the present analysis, excluding individuals with prevalent HF. FM was estimated in all participants using established anthropometric prediction equations additionally validated using the bioelectrical impedance-based FM in the ARIC subgroup. Incident HF events on follow-up were captured across both cohorts using similar adjudication methods. Multivariable-adjusted Fine-Gray models were created to evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and FM with risk of HF in the overall cohort as well as among those with vs. without diabetes at baseline. The population attributable risk of overall obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m), abdominal obesity (WC>88 and 102 cm in women and men, respectively), and high FM (above sex-specific median) for incident HF was evaluated among participants with and without diabetes.

Results: The study included 10,387 participants (52.9% ARIC; 25.1% diabetes; median age: 74 years). The correlation between predicted and bioelectrical impedance-based FM was high (R=0.90; n=5,038). Over a 5-year follow-up, 447 participants developed HF (4.3%). Higher levels of each adiposity measure were significantly associated with higher HF risk (HR [95% CI] per 1-SD higher BMI=1.19[1.09-1.31], WC=1.27[1.14-1.41]; FM=1.17[1.06-1.29]). A significant interaction was noted between diabetes status and measures of BMI (p-interaction=0.04) and WC (p-interaction=0.004) for the risk of HF. In stratified analysis, higher measures of each adiposity parameter were significantly associated with higher HF risk in individuals with diabetes (HR[95% CI] per 1-SD higher BMI=1.29[1.14-1.47], WC=1.48[1.29-1.70]; FM=1.25[1.09-1.43]) but not those without diabetes, including participants with prediabetes and euglycemia. The population attributable risk percentage of overall obesity, abdominal obesity, and high FM for incident HF was higher among participants with diabetes (12.8%, 29.9%, 13.7%, respectively) vs. those without diabetes (≤1% for each).

Conclusions: Higher BMI, WC, and FM are strongly associated with greater risk of HF among older adults, particularly among those with prevalent diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055830DOI Listing
December 2021

Λ_{c}^{+} Production and Baryon-to-Meson Ratios in pp and p-Pb Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV at the LHC.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Nov;127(20):202301

Nikhef, National institute for subatomic physics, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The prompt production of the charm baryon Λ_{c}^{+} and the Λ_{c}^{+}/D^{0} production ratios were measured at midrapidity with the ALICE detector in pp and p-Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV. These new measurements show a clear decrease of the Λ_{c}^{+}/D^{0} ratio with increasing transverse momentum (p_{T}) in both collision systems in the range 2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.202301DOI Listing
November 2021

EEG Signal Complexity Is Reduced During Resting-State in Fragile X Syndrome.

Front Psychiatry 2021 11;12:716707. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation of the (). FXS is associated with neurophysiological abnormalities, including cortical hyperexcitability. Alterations in electroencephalogram (EEG) resting-state power spectral density (PSD) are well-defined in FXS and were found to be linked to neurodevelopmental delays. Whether non-linear dynamics of the brain signal are also altered remains to be studied. In this study, resting-state EEG power, including alpha peak frequency (APF) and theta/beta ratio (TBR), as well as signal complexity using multi-scale entropy (MSE) were compared between 26 FXS participants (ages 5-28 years), and 7 neurotypical (NT) controls with a similar age distribution. Subsequently a replication study was carried out, comparing our cohort to 19 FXS participants independently recorded at a different site. PSD results confirmed the increased gamma, decreased alpha power and APF in FXS participants compared to NT controls. No alterations in TBR were found. Importantly, results revealed reduced signal complexity in FXS participants, specifically in higher scales, suggesting that altered signal complexity is sensitive to brain alterations in this population. The replication study mostly confirmed these results and suggested critical points of stagnation in the neurodevelopmental curve of FXS. Signal complexity is a powerful feature that can be added to the electrophysiological biomarkers of brain maturation in FXS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.716707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8632368PMC
November 2021

Wandering beyond small molecules: peptides as allosteric protein modulators.

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Research Group of Organic Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Recent years have seen the rise of allosteric modulation as an innovative approach for drug design and discovery, efforts which culminated in the development of several clinical candidates. Allosteric modulation of many drug targets, including mainly membrane-embedded receptors, have been vastly explored through small molecule screening campaigns, but much less attention has been paid to peptide-based allosteric modulators. However, peptides have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry due to the typically higher potency and selectivity for their targets, as compared with small molecule therapeutics. Therefore, peptides represent one of the most promising classes of molecules that can modulate key biological pathways. Here, we report on the allosteric modulation of proteins (ranging from G protein-coupled receptors to specific protein-protein interactions) by peptides for applications in drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2021.10.011DOI Listing
November 2021

A model framework for projecting the prevalence and impact of Long-COVID in the UK.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(12):e0260843. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Lloyds Banking Group, London, United Kingdom.

The objective of this paper is to model lost Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) from symptoms arising from COVID-19 disease in the UK population, including symptoms of 'long-COVID'. The scope includes QALYs lost to symptoms, but not deaths, due to acute COVID-19 and long-COVID. The prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19, encompassing acute symptoms and long-COVID symptoms, was modelled using a decay function. Permanent injury as a result of COVID-19 infection, was modelled as a fixed prevalence. Both parts were combined to calculate QALY loss due to COVID-19 symptoms. Assuming a 60% final attack rate for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the population, we modelled 299,730 QALYs lost within 1 year of infection (90% due to symptomatic COVID-19 and 10% permanent injury) and 557,764 QALYs lost within 10 years of infection (49% due to symptomatic COVID-19 and 51% due to permanent injury). The UK Government willingness-to-pay to avoid these QALY losses would be £17.9 billion and £32.2 billion, respectively. Additionally, 90,143 people were subject to permanent injury from COVID-19 (0.14% of the population). Given the ongoing development in information in this area, we present a model framework for calculating the health economic impacts of symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection. This model framework can aid in quantifying the adverse health impact of COVID-19, long-COVID and permanent injury following COVID-19 in society and assist the proactive management of risk posed to health. Further research is needed using standardised measures of patient reported outcomes relevant to long-COVID and applied at a population level.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0260843PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8639065PMC
December 2021
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