Publications by authors named "C J Hammer"

695 Publications

The future of zoonotic risk prediction.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 11 20;376(1837):20200358. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Center for Global Health Science and Security, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven rubrics or machine learning models that learn from known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions. What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges? This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0358DOI Listing
November 2021

Human genomics of the humoral immune response against polyomaviruses.

Virus Evol 2021 11;7(2):veab058. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

Human polyomaviruses are widespread in humans and can cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. To identify human genetic determinants of the humoral immune response against polyomaviruses, we performed genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses of qualitative and quantitative immunoglobulin G responses against BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), Merkel cellpolyomavirus (MCPyV), WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), and human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6) in 15,660 individuals of European ancestry from three independent studies. We observed significant associations for all tested viruses: JCPyV, HPyV6, and MCPyV associated with human leukocyte antigen class II variation, BKPyV and JCPyV with variants in , responsible for secretor status, MCPyV with variants in , involved in interferon induction, and WUPyV with a functional variant in , previously associated with risk for gastric cancer. These results provide insights into the genetic control of a family of very prevalent human viruses, highlighting genes and pathways that play a modulating role in human humoral immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veab058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438875PMC
June 2021

Curvature-dependent shear bond strength of different attachment materials for orthodontic lingual indirect bonding.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 16;11(1):16611. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of different attachment materials used for lingual bonding, the influence of artificial aging and the radii of curvature of the enamel surface on SBS, 192 third molars were photographed to determine the radius of curvature of the oral surface. After phosphoric acid etching a cylindrical test piece was bonded to the oral enamel using a mold that was filled with a chemically curing (Maximum Cure, Transbond IDB Premix) or a dual-curing (Nexus NX3, RelyX Unicem2) attachment material. SBS was tested after 24 h, 500 thermal cycles or 90 days at 37 °C with a universal testing machine. Computed tomography scans were performed to determine the bonded surface and calculate SBS. Values ranged from 8.3 to 20.9 MPa. RelyX Unicem2 showed the highest SBS values at baseline, 500 thermal cycles and after 90 days (p < 0.001). Ninety days of wet storage significantly reduced SBS of Maximum Cure (p = 0.028). The radius of curvature correlated positively with SBS (r = 0.204, p = 0.005). The SBS of all attachment materials was sufficient for clinical use, even after artificial aging. RelyX Unicem2 showed almost twice as high SBS values as the other attachment materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96164-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368096PMC
August 2021

Update on: high but slightly declining COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and reasons for vaccine acceptance, Finland April to December 2020.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 08 3;149:e187. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland.

We update our previous insights into COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy in Finland. Vaccine acceptance increased from 64% (November/December 2020) to 74% (April 2021). However, there was a group of participants that were preferring to wait to get vaccinated ranging from 6% of over-64-years-olds to 29% of under-30-years-olds. The previously identified enablers convenience (below-50-years-olds), worry about severe disease and protection for oneself (above-50-years-olds) were no longer significantly associated with increased vaccine acceptance. Understanding barriers and enablers behind vaccine acceptance is decisive in ensuring a successful implementation of COVID-19 vaccination programs, which will be key to ending the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268821001680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367874PMC
August 2021

Effect of maternal overnutrition on predisposition to insulin resistance in the foal: Foal skeletal muscle development and insulin signaling.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Oct 2;77:106648. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle plays an integral role in the ability of a horse to perform at high levels. Shifts in skeletal muscle development in response to maternal plane of nutrition may have substantial and lasting impacts on athletic performance and whole-body metabolism. Therefore, sixteen Quarter Horse mares were used in a completely randomized design and maintained at a body condition score (BCS) 6 until start of third trimester. On d 235 of gestation, mares were randomly assigned to receive one of two dietary treatments with a diet formulated to meet requirements during late gestation (CON; n = 8), and an overfed diet (HIGH; n = 8) where mares received an additional 40% above CON. Five h after parturition, foals were euthanized, and gluteus medius, triceps brachii, and semitendinosus were harvested for analyses. Gene expression was determined by qPCR and western immunoblotting was used to quantify total and phosphorylated forms of proteins involved in skeletal muscle metabolism with tubulin as the loading control. All data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Foals from HIGH mares exhibited larger skeletal muscle fibers by area (P <0.05), and a shift in muscle fiber development towards type I slow twitch muscle fibers (P <0.05). Relative expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was lower in HIGH foals compared to CON in gluteus medius (P = 0.05). Insulin receptor isoform B (INSR-B) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) were greater in triceps brachii of HIGH foals compared to CON (P ≤ 0.03). Insulin receptor isoform A (INSR-A), however, tended to be lower in triceps brachii of HIGH compared to CON (P = 0.10). Ratios of phosphorylated to total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-June N-terminal kinase (JNK) were higher in HIGH foals compared to CON (P ≤0.04) in gluteus medius. There were no differences observed for phosphorylated to total protein ratios in semitendinosus and triceps brachii muscles; however, total ERK1/2 tended to be elevated (P <0.10) in semitendinosus from CON foals compared to HIGH. There was no difference in phosphorylated or total protein kinase B (AKT) (P >0.14). These data indicate hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers and a shift towards type I slow twitch fibers in HIGH foals. Furthermore, this study identifies muscle specific changes in gene expression and downstream insulin receptor signaling, which may contribute to future metabolic abnormalities in response to maternal overnutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2021.106648DOI Listing
October 2021
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