Publications by authors named "C J Bowmer"

70 Publications

Health literacy and the provision of information to women with breast cancer.

Authors:
N Cox C Bowmer A Ring

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2011 Apr 24;23(3):223-7. Epub 2010 Dec 24.

Brighton and Sussex Medical School, and Sussex Cancer Centre, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Eastern Road, Brighton, UK.

Aims: Health literacy and functional health literacy are important for patients with cancer, as key information regarding treatment complications and clinical trials is often imparted using written educational material. This study measured the health literacy and functional health literacy levels in a population of women with breast cancer and compared these with the level of written information provided.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional survey of women with stage I-III breast cancer attending an outpatient clinic was conducted. Health literacy levels were assessed using the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) score and functional health literacy was assessed using three validated screening questions. Patient education materials were assessed using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) systems.

Results: One hundred and twenty-seven women were recruited. For patients, the mean REALM score was 64.3 (≥US 9th grade/reading age 14 years). The mean SMOG score of patient education materials was 80.5 (reading age 17 years). The mean FRE score of patient education materials was 55.7 (reading age 15-17 years). All patient information sheets assessed were written at ≥8th grade (reading age 13 years) and as a result up to 9% of patients would be unable to read them. Nineteen per cent of the population had inadequate functional health literacy.

Conclusions: Health literacy levels were high in the population studied. However, the reading level of written patient information was also high, meaning that up to 9% of patients would be unable to read the information provided. Functional health literacy levels were lower, with 19% of patients having inadequate ability. This means that although most patients are able to read the information sheets provided, there is a larger proportion that would be unable to understand and act upon this information. Patient education materials should be written at an appropriate level and different modalities of communication should be used to ensure adequate comprehension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2010.11.010DOI Listing
April 2011

Chronic hypoxia up-regulates expression of adenosine A1 receptors in DDT1-MF2 cells.

Biochem Pharmacol 2004 Feb;67(3):421-6

School of Biomedical Sciences, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

As the first step to understand how chronic hypoxia might regulate smooth muscle function in health and disease, we have employed an established immortalised cell model of smooth muscle, DDT1-MF2 cells, to address the hypothesis that adenosine A1 receptor density is modulated by O2 availability. Maximal specific binding (Bmax) of the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, [3H]-DPCPX, to cell membranes increased 3.5-fold from 0.48 +/- 0.02 pmol/mg to 1.7 +/- 0.5 pmol/mg protein after 16 hr of hypoxia and this effect was not accompanied by any statistically significant changes in either binding affinity (0.84 +/- 0.2 nM vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 nM) or Hill coefficient (1.1 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.03). Hypoxia-evoked increases in membrane receptor density were paralleled in intact DDT1-MF2 cells. In addition, the increase in [3H]-DPCPX binding to intact cells was inhibited by co-incubation during hypoxia with the translational inhibitor cycloheximide, the transcriptional blocker actinomycin D and the NFkappaB inhibitor sulphasalazine. Together, these data show that adenosine A1 receptor density is modulated, at least in part, by O2-dependent activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB and adds to the list of processes dynamically regulated by ambient oxygen availability. Since hypoxia is an initiating factor in acute renal failure, similar changes in transcription may account for up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptors noted previously in the renal vasculature of rats with acute renal failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2003.09.003DOI Listing
February 2004

Immunolocalisation of adenosine A(1) receptors in the rat kidney.

Biochem Pharmacol 2001 Jan;61(2):237-44

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, Leeds, UK.

The location of adenosine A(1) receptors in the rat kidney was investigated using immunolabelling with antibodies raised to a 15-amino-acid sequence near the C-terminus of the receptor (antibody I) and to a 14-amino-acid sequence in the second extracellular loop (antibody II). In the cortex, antibody I bound to adenosine A(1) receptors in mesangial cells and afferent arterioles, whilst antibody II bound to receptors in proximal convoluted tubules. In the medulla, both antibodies bound to receptors in collecting ducts and the papillary surface epithelium. These observations provide support for the diverse functional roles previously proposed for the adenosine A(1) receptor in the kidney. The labelling of distinct but different structures in the cortex by antibodies raised to different amino acid sequences on the A(1) receptor protein suggests that differing forms of the receptor are present in this region of the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-2952(00)00532-3DOI Listing
January 2001

Subcutaneous administration of recombinant glycosylated interleukin 6 in patients with cancer: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunomodulatory effects.

Cytokine 2000 Apr;12(4):388-96

Imperial Cancer Research Fund Cancer Medicine Research Unit, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.

This is the first report of the serum profile of a glycosylated recombinant form of human IL-6 (rhIL-6) administered subcutaneously (1-10 microg/kg/day) in a phase I/II trial as a thrombopoietic agent in patients with advanced cancer. The pharmacodynamic effects of IL-6 were also examined. Detailed pharmacokinetic measurements were made in four patients. Peak concentrations at 5-8 h and a median t0.5 of ca. 5 h were similar to those previously reported for non-glycosylated IL-6. However, higher peak concentrations and apparent differences in effective dose levels to those previously reported with the non-glycosylated form were seen. Indications of an apparent attenuation in circulating IL-6 concentrations with continuing injections were seen in eight of 10 patients examined but anti-IL-6 antibody generation was seen in only two patients. Soluble interleukin 6 receptor concentrations generally decreased. No major changes in T cell subsets were seen but expression of CD25 and CD54 by T lymphocytes significantly increased, accompanied by marked increases in soluble CD25 (sIL-2R) and CD54 (sICAM-1). No consistent change in B cells, monocytes or NK cells were seen. No evidence for induction of TNF-alpha was found. This study demonstrates similar biological effects of glycosylated rhIL-6 to those reported for the non-glycosylated form but illustrates several apparent differences which are discussed further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/cyto.1999.0556DOI Listing
April 2000

Differential expression of renal adenosine A(1) receptors induced by acute renal failure.

Biochem Pharmacol 2000 Mar;59(6):727-32

School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

The distribution of renal adenosine A(1) receptors was investigated in rats with glycerol- or mercuric chloride (HgCl(2))-induced acute renal failure. Receptors were localised by autoradiography using [(3)H]8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine ([(3)H]DPCPX), a selective A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist. In saline-injected control animals, significant labelling with [(3)H]DPCPX was detected in glomeruli, the inner stripe of outer medulla, and the inner medulla. Sixteen hours following induction of glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF), a 34% increase in labelling in glomeruli was noted compared to saline-injected controls, and by 48 hr, glomerular labelling had increased by 200%. In addition, 48 hr following glycerol injection, significant labelling was now detected in the cortical labyrinth and medullary rays whilst, in the inner medulla, labelling had decreased by 34%. By contrast to glycerol-induced ARF, the only significant change noted 48 hr following induction of HgCl(2)-induced ARF was a 39% decrease in labelling in the inner medulla. It is concluded that glycerol-induced ARF results in differential expression of renal adenosine A(1) receptors with increased expression in the cortex and reduced expression in the inner medulla. Increased density of A(1) receptors in glomeruli may account, at least in part, for the increased renal vasoconstrictor response to adenosine and depressed glomerular filtration rate noted previously in this type of acute renal failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-2952(99)00369-xDOI Listing
March 2000
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