Publications by authors named "C Gilbert"

1,521 Publications

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Genome-wide patterns of bracovirus chromosomal integration into multiple host tissues during parasitism.

J Virol 2021 Jul 28:JVI0068421. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, IRD, UMR Évolution, Génomes, Comportement et Écologie, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Bracoviruses are domesticated viruses found in parasitic wasp genomes. They are composed of genes of nudiviral origin involved in particle production and proviral segments encoding virulence genes necessary for parasitism success. During particle production, proviral segments are amplified and individually packaged as DNA circles in nucleocapsids. These particles are injected by parasitic waspstogether with their eggs into host larvae. Bracovirus circles of two wasp species were reported toundergo chromosomal integration in parasitized host hemocytes, through a conserved sequence named Host Integration Motif (HIM). Here, we used bulk Illumina sequencing to survey integrations of bracovirus circles in the DNA of its host, the maize corn borer () seven days after parasitism. First, assembly and annotation of a high-quality genome for enabled us to characterize 27 proviral segments clustered in proviral loci. Using these data, we characterized large numbers of chromosomal integrations (from 12 to 85 events per host haploid genome) for all 16 bracovirus circles containing a HIM. Integrations were found in four tissues and in the body of a caterpillar in which parasitism had failed. The 12 remaining circles do not integrate but are maintained at high levels in host tissues. Surprisingly, we found that HIM-mediated chromosomal integration has occurred at least six times accidentally in thewasp germline during evolution. Overall, our study furthers our understanding of wasp-host genome interactions and supports HIM-mediated chromosomal integration as a possible mechanism ofhorizontal transfer from wasps to their hosts. Bracoviruses are endogenous domesticated viruses of parasitoid wasps that are injected together with wasp eggs into wasp host larvae during parasitism. Several studies have shown that some DNA circles packaged into bracovirus particles become integrated into host somatic genomes during parasitism, but the phenomenon has never been studied using non-targeted approaches. Here we use bulk Illumina sequencing to systematically characterize and quantify bracovirus circle integrations that occur in four tissues of the Mediterranean corn borer () during parasitism by the wasp. Our analysis reveals that all circles containing a host integration motif (HIM) integrate at substantial levels (from 12 to 85 integrations per host cell in total) in all tissues while other circles do not integrate. In addition to shedding new light on wasp-bracovirus-host interaction, our study supports HIM-mediated chromosomal integration of bracovirus as a possible source of wasp-to-host horizontal transfer with long term evolutionary consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00684-21DOI Listing
July 2021

Imaging Administrators: The Overlooked Barrier to Lung Cancer Screening Implementation.

Chest 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Division of Thoracic Surgery and Interventional Pulmonology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.07.005DOI Listing
July 2021

Malignant Pleural Effusion Management and Breathlessness: A Crystal Ball to Predict Survival Would Be Helpful.

Chest 2021 Jul;160(1):29-30

Thoracic Surgery and Interventional Pulmonology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.03.021DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of a new dietary supplement on behavioural responses of dogs exposed to mild stressors.

Vet Med Sci 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Service Ethologie, Maisons-Alfort, Paris, France.

Background & Objectives: The effectiveness of a new dietary supplement (derived from fish hydrolysate and melon juice concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase) in reducing fear and stress-related behaviours in pet dogs was examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

Methods: 39 dogs were recruited after the owners had filled out a fear susceptibility index questionnaire. Over a 30-day period, one group of dogs received the supplement, and another group a placebo. Twelve behavioural variables were recorded in a series of four subtests (ST1-ST4) on days 0, 15 and 30. Saliva cortisol levels were measured before and after each set of STs.

Results: The dogs rated as more fearful displayed significantly higher cortisol values before the day 0 test session, were less active, spent less time playing with the experimenter, and approached the unfamiliar object less frequently. The owners did not correctly guess whether their dog had received the supplement or not. Behaviours of dogs were significantly different across the three sessions, with significant increases of stress-related behaviours (time spent in the door zone, number of interactions with the door, of whining, and of lip-licking). Conversely time spent with the experimenter increased, interactions and curiosity for the novel object and play with the experimenter decreased, presumably due to a habituation process. This suggests that the design of the four subtests session was relevant to test for mild stressors situations. Moreover, supplemented and placebo dogs responded differently to the three test sessions, indicating a supplement effect on dogs' behaviours and their adaptation to mild stressors situations.

Conclusion: The trial results suggested that the supplement facilitates activity and curiosity in a familiar environment, promotes dog-human interactions with an increased human familiarity, and tends to reduce subtle stress behaviours. Our results suggest that the supplement was effective in the context of mild stressors and habituation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.560DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk of severe clinical events after sustained virological response following direct-acting antiviral therapy in HIV and hepatitis C virus coinfected participants.

HIV Med 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Paris University, Paris, France.

Objectives: Sustained virological response (SVR) decreases the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related events. Nevertheless, a substantial risk of events persists. We estimated incidences and identified factors associated with severe clinical events after SVR following treatment with a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.

Methods: Participants from the ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH were included if they reached SVR. Incidence rates of overall mortality, liver-related events, AIDS-defining events, ischaemic events and non-liver non-AIDS-defining cancers (NLNA) were estimated. Factors associated with the risk of those events were identified using Poisson models adjusted on age at SVR and sex.

Results: In all, 775 participants were included. Incidence rates (95% confidence interval) of liver-related events, overall mortality, AIDS-defining events, ischaemic events and NLNA cancers per 1000 person-years were 5.9 (3.3-10.3), 22.2 (16.8-29.5), 0.6 (0.1-4.5), 7.3 (4.4-12.2) and 13.7 (9.4-20.0), respectively. For all events, incidence rates were higher in cirrhotic than in non-cirrhotic participants. Cirrhosis, liver stiffness and CD4 count were associated with liver-related events. Factors associated with overall mortality were age, cirrhosis, liver stiffness and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). For ischaemic events and NLNA cancers, associated factors were total cholesterol and CD4 count, respectively.

Conclusions: After SVR following a DAA treatment, liver-related and AIDS-defining events were observed less frequently than NLNA cancers. Severity of liver disease was associated with the risk of liver-related events and of overall mortality but not with ischaemic events and NLNA cancers. Factors reflecting HIV infection were associated with NLNA cancers and liver-related events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.13127DOI Listing
July 2021
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