Publications by authors named "C G Gauci"

139 Publications

What is your diagnosis? Mandibular mass in a rabbit.

Vet Clin Pathol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Vic., Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12933DOI Listing
September 2021

Molecular detection of Strongyloides sp. in Australian Thoroughbred foals.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Sep 3;14(1):444. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Melbourne Veterinary School, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Australia.

Background: Strongyloides westeri is found in the small intestine of young horses, mainly in foals up to about 16 weeks of age. The main source of infection for foals is through transmammary transmission, and foals can develop acute diarrhoea, weakness, dermatitis and respiratory signs. The epidemiology of S. westeri in Australia is largely unknown. Further, molecular techniques have never been employed for detection of S. westeri in horses. This pilot study aimed to assess the utility of a molecular phylogenetic method for the detection of S. westeri in the faeces of foals.

Methods: Faecal samples were collected from a foal of less than 2 months of age, and eggs of Strongyloides sp. were detected using the modified McMaster technique. DNA was extracted from purified eggs, and a partial fragment of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S) was characterised using polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic methods.

Results: Microscopic examination of faeces revealed small ellipsoidal eggs typical of Strongyloides sp. The 18S sequence generated by PCR in this study revealed 98.4% identity with that of a reference sequence of S. westeri available from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a polyphyletic clustering of S. westeri sequences.

Conclusion: This is the first study reporting the detection of DNA of Strongyloides sp. in faeces of a foal using a molecular phylogenetic approach targeting the variable region of 18S rDNA. It is anticipated that this study will allow future molecular epidemiological studies on S. westeri in horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04966-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414860PMC
September 2021

Immunodiagnostic usefulness of monoclonal antibodies specific to conformational epitopes of Taenia solium oncosphere protein TSOL18.

J Immunol Methods 2021 Oct 2;497:113121. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute of tropical Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nationale Straat 155, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.

Taenia solium oncosphere protein TSOL18 is the host-protective antigen against porcine cysticercosis. Little attention has been given to use it as target molecule in immunodiagnostic tests. The objective of this paper is to describe the immunodiagnostic potential of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) raised against conformational epitopes of TSOL18. Three murine IgG1 MoAbs (25D12C1, 21C2D2, 10H1F2) against three different conformational epitopes of TSOL18 were produced and evaluated with an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) for the detection of anti-TSOL18 and anti-oncosphere antibodies. Serum samples from pigs immunized with TSOL18 inhibited the binding of the three MoAbs to TSOL18 antigen in i-ELISA. The highest inhibition of anti-TSOL18 antibodies in immunized pigs was observed with MoAb 25D12C1. Ten field sera (12.19%) from 82 non-vaccinated and non-infected pigs showed anti-oncosphere antibodies inhibiting the binding of MoAb 25D12C1. Anti-oncosphere antibodies in pigs experimentally infected with T. solium eggs inhibited the binding of MoAb 25D12C1 from 2 to 8 week-post infection. It is concluded that MoAb 25D12C1 has excellent immunodiagnostic potentials to detect anti-oncosphere antibodies in the intermediate hosts at early exposure to T. solium eggs. Further investigations on potential use of MoAb 25D12C1 in a capture antigen ELISA for the detection of post-oncospheral antigens in infected pigs cannot be overemphasized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2021.113121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440224PMC
October 2021

Combined use of two separate but protective vaccine antigens provides protection against Taenia ovis infection in lambs in the presence of protective maternal antibody.

Vaccine 2021 04 16;39(15):2035-2040. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

University of Melbourne, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, 250 Princes Highway, Werribee, Victoria 3030, Australia.

Three recombinant Taenia ovis antigens (To45, To16, To18) each induce protective immunity in lambs or ewes against infection with T. ovis metacestodes. The degree and duration of immunity were assessed in lambs born from vaccinated ewes. Treatment group sizes varied, typically not fewer than 5 animals per group. Ewes were immunised with one T. ovis recombinant protein prior to lambing and the degree and duration of passive immunity in their lambs was assessed by challenge infection up to 18 weeks. Lambs were fully protected up to 6 weeks of age but immunity waned from 6 to 12 weeks and there was no protection when lambs were challenged at 15 weeks. Immunisation of lambs with the homologous recombinant antigen was not effective when vaccinations were given when maternal antibody was high. Lambs were effectively immunised in the presence of passively protective antibody when vaccinated with an antigen that was different to that given to ewes. Vaccination of lambs with a combination of two proteins, To16 and To18, was more effective than giving these single antigens and gave a significant reduction of cyst numbers when lambs were challenged 12 months after immunisation. These results indicate that the use of combinations of T. ovis recombinant antigens could enable complete protection of lambs against infection, if a delivery system becomes available that will maintain antibody at protective levels for 12 months. Alternatively, a third injection given at 6 months may promote the anamnestic response to give long lasting protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.03.029DOI Listing
April 2021

Control of cystic echinococcosis in the Middle Atlas, Morocco: Field evaluation of the EG95 vaccine in sheep and cesticide treatment in dogs.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 03 8;15(3):e0009253. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Integrated Veterinary Research Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur, Belgium.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in Morocco and other North African countries.

Methodology/principal Findings: We investigated the potential of three strategies to reduce Echinococcus granulosus transmission: (1) 4-monthly treatment of dogs with praziquantel, (2) vaccination of sheep with the EG95 vaccine and (3) a combination of both measures. These measures were implemented during four consecutive years in different areas of the Middle Atlas Mountains in Morocco. The outcome of the interventions was assessed through hydatid cyst (viable and non-viable) counts in liver and lungs using necropsy or in vivo ultrasound examination of the liver. A total of 402 lambs were recruited for annual vaccination with the EG95 anti-E. granulosus vaccine and 395 similar lambs were selected as non-vaccinated controls. At approximately four years of age the relative risk (estimated as odds ratio) for vaccinated sheep to have viable hydatid cysts compared with non-vaccinated controls was 3% (9.37% of the vaccinated sheep were found infected while 72.82% of the controls were infected; p = 0.002). The number of viable cysts in vaccinated animals was reduced by approximately 97% (mean counts were 0.28 and 9.18 respectively; p<0.001). An average of 595 owned dogs received 4-monthly treatment during the 44 months trial, corresponding to 91% of the owned dog population. Approximately, 5% of them were examined for E. granulosus adult worms by arecoline purge or eggs in feces (confirmed by PCR). The proportion of infected dogs significantly decreased after treatment (12% versus 35%; p<0.001). Post-treatment incidence of re-infestation corresponded to a monthly risk of 4% (95% CI: 3-6%). Treatment of owned dogs on a 4-monthly basis did not reduce the level of transmission of E. granulosus to sheep, nor did it enhance the level of control generated by vaccination of sheep with EG95, possibly because of unowned dogs and wild canids were not treated.

Conclusions/significance: These data suggest that vaccination of sheep with EG95 has the potential to reduce the level of CE in Morocco and in other parts of the world with similar transmission dynamics. Under the epidemiological circumstances existing in the trial area, 4-monthly treatment of owned dogs with praziquantel was insufficient to have a major impact of E. granulosus transmission to sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971873PMC
March 2021
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