Publications by authors named "C E Pedersen"

1,592 Publications

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Efficacy and tolerability of baclofen in a U.S. community population with alcohol use disorder: a dose-response, randomized, controlled trial.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Mathematics, Applied Statistics Program, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, USA.

Identification of new medications for alcohol use disorder (AUD) is important for improving treatment options. Baclofen, a GABA agonist, has been identified as a potential pharmacotherapy for AUD. In a 16-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated 30 and 90 mg/day of baclofen compared to placebo and examined effects of dose, sex, and level of pretreatment drinking. One hundred and twenty participants with DSM-IV alcohol dependence (age 46.1 (sd = 10.1) years, 51.7% male) were randomized after exclusion for unstable medical/psychiatric illness and/or dependence on drugs other than nicotine. Seventy-three participants completed the trial. A main effect of baclofen was found [%HDD (F(2,112) = 4.16, p = 0.018, d = 0.51 95%CI (0.06-0.95), 13.6 fewer HDD) and %ABST (F(2,112) = 3.68, p = 0.028, d = 0.49 95%CI (0.04-0.93), 12.9 more abstinent days)] and was driven by the 90 mg/day dose. A sex × dose interaction effect was present for both %HDD (F(2,110) = 5.48, p = 0.005) and %ABST (F(2,110) = 3.19, p = 0.045). Men showed a marginally positive effect for 90 mg/day compared to PBO (%HDD t(110) = 1.88, p = 0.063, d = 0.36 95%CI (-0.09-0.80), 15.8 fewer HDD days; %ABST t(110) = 1.68 (p = 0.096, d = 0.32 95%CI (-0.12-0.76), 15.7 more ABST)) with no effect for 30 mg/day. Women showed a positive effect for 30 mg/day (%HDD, t(110) = 3.19, p = 0.002, d = 0.61 95%CI (0.16-1.05), 26.3 fewer HDD days; %ABST t(110) = 2.73, p = 0.007, d = 0.52 95%CI (0.07-0.96), 25.4 more ABST days) with marginal effects for 90 mg/day on %ABST (p = 0.06) with drop-outs/dose reduction from sedative side-effects of 59% in women at 90 mg/day compared to 5% for men. These findings support the hypothesis that baclofen has efficacy in AUD and suggest that dose and sex be further explored as potential moderators of baclofen response and tolerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-01055-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Lack of fit with the neighbourhood social environment as a risk factor for psychosis - a national cohort study.

Psychol Med 2021 Jun 18:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

National Centre for Register-Based Research (NCCR), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Many studies report an ethnic density effect whereby psychosis incidence among ethnic minority groups is higher in low co-ethnic density areas. It is unclear whether an equivalent density effect applies with other types of socioeconomic disadvantages.

Methods: We followed a population cohort of 2 million native Danes comprising all those born on 1st January 1965, or later, living in Denmark on their 15th birthday. Socioeconomic disadvantage, based on parents' circumstances at age 15 (low income, manual occupation, single parent and unemployed), was measured alongside neighbourhood prevalence of these indices.

Results: Each indicator was associated with a higher incidence of non-affective psychosis which remained the same, or was slightly reduced, if neighbourhood levels of disadvantage were lower. For example, for individuals from a low-income background there was no difference in incidence for those living in areas where a low-income was least common [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.10 v. those in the quintile where a low income was most common. Typically, differences associated with area-level disadvantage were the same whether or not cohort members had a disadvantaged background; for instance, for those from a manual occupation background, incidence was lower in the quintile where this was least v. most common (IRR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.97), as it was for those from a non-manual background (IRR 0.77; 95% CI 0.67-0.87).

Conclusion: We found little evidence for group density effects in contrast to previous ethnic density studies. Further research is needed with equivalent investigations in other countries to see if similar patterns are observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721002233DOI Listing
June 2021

Exploring different methods to evaluate the impact of basic income interventions: a systematic review.

Int J Equity Health 2021 06 16;20(1):142. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

MAP Centre for Urban Health Solutions, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, Unity Health Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Persistent income inequality, the increase in precarious employment, the inadequacy of many welfare systems, and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have increased interest in Basic Income (BI) interventions. Ensuring that social interventions, such as BI, are evaluated appropriately is key to ensuring their overall effectiveness. This systematic review therefore aims to report on available methods and domains of assessment, which have been used to evaluate BI interventions. These findings will assist in informing future program and research development and implementation.

Methods: Studies were identified through systematic searches of the indexed and grey literature (Databases included: Scopus, Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, ProQuest databases, EBSCOhost Research Databases, and PsycINFO), hand-searching reference lists of included studies, and recommendations from experts. Citations were independently reviewed by two study team members. We included studies that reported on methods used to evaluate the impact of BI, incorporated primary data from an observational or experimental study, or were a protocol for a future BI study. We extracted information on the BI intervention, context and evaluation method.

Results: 86 eligible articles reported on 10 distinct BI interventions from the last six decades. Workforce participation was the most common outcome of interest among BI evaluations in the 1960-1980 era. During the 2000s, studies of BI expanded to include outcomes related to health, educational attainment, housing and other key facets of life impacted by individuals' income. Many BI interventions were tested in randomized controlled trials with data collected through surveys at multiple time points.

Conclusions: Over the last two decades, the assessment of the impact of BI interventions has evolved to include a wide array of outcomes. This shift in evaluation outcomes reflects the current hypothesis that investing in BI can result in lower spending on health and social care. Methods of evaluation ranged but emphasized the use of randomization, surveys, and existing data sources (i.e., administrative data). Our findings can inform future BI intervention studies and interventions by providing an overview of how previous BI interventions have been evaluated and commenting on the effectiveness of these methods.

Registration: This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD 42016051218).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-021-01479-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Going to extremes - a metagenomic journey into the dark matter of life.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Matis ohf, Vinlandsleid 12, Reykjavik 113, Iceland.

The Virus-X-Viral Metagenomics for Innovation Value-project was a scientific expedition to explore and exploit uncharted territory of genetic diversity in extreme natural environments such as geothermal hot springs and deep-sea ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the project was set to analyse and exploit viral metagenomes with the ultimate goal of developing new gene products with high innovation value for applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical, and the life science sectors. Viral gene pool analysis is also essential to obtain fundamental insight into ecosystem dynamics and to investigate how viruses influence the evolution of microbes and multicellular organisms. The Virus-X Consortium, established in 2016, included experts from eight European countries. The unique approach based on high throughput bioinformatics technologies combined with structural and functional studies resulted in the development of a biodiscovery pipeline of significant capacity and scale. The activities within the Virus-X consortium cover the entire range from bioprospecting and methods development in bioinformatics to protein production and characterisation, with the final goal of translating our results into new products for the bioeconomy. The significant impact the consortium made in all of these areas was possible due to the successful cooperation between expert teams that worked together to solve a complex scientific problem using state-of-the-art technologies as well as developing novel tools to explore the virosphere, widely considered as the last great frontier of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnab067DOI Listing
June 2021

Understanding the Lymphatics: An Updated Review of the N Category of the AJCC 8th Edition for Urogenital Cancers.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 May 26:1-10. Epub 2021 May 26.

Radiology Department, Mercy Catholic Medical Center, 1500 Lansdowne Ave, Darby, PA 19023.

Organ-specific nonregional and regional lymph nodes vary considerably among tumors. Nonregional lymph node involvement equals metastasis, which is critical to detect to ensure correct tumor staging, management, and prognosis. Knowledge of nodal nomenclature and anatomy is therefore essential in every cross-sectional imaging study. This article reviews the most important changes and highlights of the N category of the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition of the TNM classification for urogenital cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.22997DOI Listing
May 2021