Publications by authors named "C Bizzarri"

153 Publications

Hypogonadism in male and female: which is the best treatment?

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Public Health and Pediatric Sciences, Regina Margherita Children Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy -

Background: Subjects with hypo-or hypergonadotropic hypogonadism need hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to initiate puberty and maintain it with a normal hormonal status. While general recommendations for the management of HRT in adults have been published, no systematic suggestions focused on adolescents and young adults. The focus of this review is the HRT in males and females with hypogonadism, from puberty to late reproductive age, covering the different management options, encompassing sex steroid or gonadotropin therapy, with discussion of benefits, limitations and specific considerations of the different treatments.

Methods: We conducted an extensive search in the 3 major scientific databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar) using the keywords "hormonal replacement therapy", "hypogonadism", "bone mineral density", "estradiol/testosterone", "puberty induction", "delayed puberty". Case-control studies, case series, reviews and meta-analysis published in English from 1990 to date were included.

Results: By considering the available opportunities for fertility induction and preservation, we hereby present the proposals of practical schemes to induce puberty, and a decisional algorithm to approach HRT in post-pubertal adolescents.

Conclusions: A condition of hypogonadism can underlie different etiologies involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at different levels. Since the long-terms effects of hypogonadism may vary and include not only physical outcomes related to sex hormone deficiencies, but also psychological problems and implications on fertility, the initiation, maintenance and consolidation of puberty with different pharmaceutical options is of utmost importance and beside pubertal development, optimal uterine and testicular growth and adequate bone health should consider also the psychosocial wellbeing and the potential fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06534-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Biological clock and heredity in pubertal timing: what is new?

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Unit of Endocrinology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy -

Puberty represents a milestone during a person's life and is characterized by several physical and psychological changes which end with the achievement of sexual maturation and of fertility. Puberty onset depends on a series of sophisticated, not completely understood, mechanisms certainly involving Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and its effects on pituitary gonadotropins. As recent evidence has demonstrated that pubertal timing deeply affects future adult health life, much efforts have been performed in order to clarify the exact actors involved in the onset and progression of puberty. Genetic factors are undoubtedly essential players in the regulation of pubertal development, accounting for approximately 50-80% of its variability. Mutations in genes such as KISS1, MKRN3 and DLK1 have been associated with central precocious puberty. Interestingly, a possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms has been proposed as additional element able to affect pubertal phase. Environmental factors have recently attracted much attention. Indeed, an overall decrease in the age of puberty has been observed in the last decades. As genetic factors require long time to exert their effect, other players, such as environmental ones, may be involved. Special focus has been posed on nutritional status, endocrine-disrupting chemicals with non-conclusive results. Pubertal timing deeply affects future life, suggesting the need to clarify mechanisms driving pubertal onset and progression, in order to identify tailored therapeutic strategies and targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06511-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Differences of sex development in the newborn: from clinical scenario to molecular diagnosis.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Unit of Endocrinology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital (IRCCS), Rome, Italy.

Differences/disorders of sex development (DSD) are defined as a group of congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical. The incidence of DSD is 1:4500 births. The current classification divides DSDs into 3 categories according to chromosomal sex: 46,XX DSD, 46,XY DSD and sex chromosome DSD. DSD phenotypes can be concordant with the genotype (apparently normal external genitalia associated with gonadal dysgenesis), or can range from simply hypospadias to completely masculinised or feminised genitalia with a discordant karyotype. Numerous genes implicated in genital development have been reported. The search of genetic variants represents a central element of the extended investigation, as an improved knowledge of the genetic aetiology helps the immediate and long-term management of children with DSDs, in term of sex of rearing, hormone therapy, surgery, fertility and cancer risk. This review aims to assess the current role of molecular diagnosis in DSD management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5276.21.06512-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1: an Italian survey on 158 patients.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

FIRS Laboratories RSR Ltd, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare recessive inherited disease, caused by AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE) gene mutations and characterized by three major manifestations: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), chronic hypoparathyroidism (CH) and Addison's disease (AD).

Methods: Autoimmune conditions and associated autoantibodies (Abs) were analyzed in 158 Italian patients (103 females and 55 males; F/M 1.9/1) at the onset and during a follow-up of 23.7 ± 15.1 years. AIRE mutations were determined.

Results: The prevalence of APS-1 was 2.6 cases/million (range 0.5-17 in different regions). At the onset 93% of patients presented with one or more components of the classical triad and 7% with other components. At the end of follow-up, 86.1% had CH, 77.2% AD, 74.7% CMC, 49.5% premature menopause, 29.7% autoimmune intestinal dysfunction, 27.8% autoimmune thyroid diseases, 25.9% autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia, 25.3% ectodermal dystrophy, 24% alopecia, 21.5% autoimmune hepatitis, 17% vitiligo, 13.3% cholelithiasis, 5.7% connective diseases, 4.4% asplenia, 2.5% celiac disease and 13.9% cancer. Overall, 991 diseases (6.3 diseases/patient) were found. Interferon-ω Abs (IFNωAbs) were positive in 91.1% of patients. Overall mortality was 14.6%. The AIRE mutation R139X was found in 21.3% of tested alleles, R257X in 11.8%, W78R in 11.4%, C322fsX372 in 8.8%, T16M in 6.2%, R203X in 4%, and A21V in 2.9%. Less frequent mutations were present in 12.9%, very rare in 9.6% while no mutations in 11% of the cases.

Conclusions: In Italy, APS-1 is a rare disorder presenting with the three major manifestations and associated with different AIRE gene mutations. IFNωAbs are markers of APS-1 and other organ-specific autoantibodies are markers of clinical, subclinical or potential autoimmune conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-021-01585-6DOI Listing
May 2021
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