Publications by authors named "C B Ganesh"

42 Publications

Neuroanatomical organization of methionine-enkephalinergic system in the brain of the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Sep 3;115:101963. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580 003, India.

Enkephalins are a class of opioid peptides implicated in several physiological and neuroendocrine responses in vertebrates. In this study, using immunocytochemical or immunofluorescence technique, we examined the neuroanatomical distribution of methionine enkephalin (M-ENK) immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. In the telencephalon, no M-ENK-like-immunoreactive (M-ENK-L-ir) perikarya, but sparsely distributed fibres were detected in the glomerular layer and the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb. Although intensely labeled M-ENK-L-ir cells and fibres were found in the pallium, no M-ENK immunoreactivity was observed in the subpallium. The preoptic area showed a few M-ENK-L-ir somata and dense innervations of fibres. In the hypothalamic area, M-ENK-L-ir cells and fibres were located in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of the nucleus preopticus, and medial and lateral subdivisions of the nucleus lateralis tuberis. Surrounding the recessus lateralis of the third ventricle, several intensely stained and packed M-ENK-L-ir cells and fibres were seen in dorsal, lateral and ventral subdivisions of the nucleus recessus lateralis. In the diencephalon, M-ENK immunoreactivity was restricted to the habenula, the thalamus, the pretectal area and the nucleus posterior tuberis. Dense aggregations of M-ENK-L-ir fibres were seen in the mesencephalic subdivisions, the optic tectum and the torus semicircularis, whereas a few fusiform M-ENK-L-ir cells and fibres were scattered in the midbrain tegmentum. In the rhombencephalon, different populations of ovoid or spindle shaped M-ENK-L-ir cells were observed in the secondary gustatory nucleus, the sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus, the nucleus reticularis medialis and the vagal motor nucleus, whereas bands of fibres were seen in the rostral spinal cord. Collectively, the widespread distribution of M-ENK immunoreactivity in the CNS suggests a role for this opioid peptide in regulation of neuroendocrine control of reproduction and modulation of sensorimotor functions in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.101963DOI Listing
September 2021

Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone immunoreactivity in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

Neuropeptides 2021 Jun 18;87:102128. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India. Electronic address:

This study reports the distribution of a pro-opiomelanocortin-derived neuropeptide α-MSH in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. α-MSH-ir fibres were found in the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb, the medial olfactory tract, the pallium and the subpallium, whereas in the preoptic area of the telencephalon, few large α-MSH-ir perikarya along with extensively labeled fibres were observed close to the ventricular border. Dense network of α-MSH-ir fibres were seen in the hypothalamic areas such as the nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis, the nucleus preopticus pars parvocellularis, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the nucleus anterior tuberis, the paraventricular organ, the subdivisions of the nucleus recessus lateralis and the nucleus recessus posterioris. In the nucleus lateralis pars medialis, some α-MSH-ir perikarya and fibres were found along the ventricular margin. In the diencephalon, numerous α-MSH-ir fibres were detected in the nucleus posterior tuberis, the nucleus of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis and the nucleus preglomerulosus medialis, whereas in the mesencephalon, α-MSH-ir fibres were located in the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis and the tegmentum. In the rhombencephalon, α-MSH-ir fibres were confined to the medial octavolateralis nucleus and the descending octaval nucleus. In the pituitary gland, densely packed α-MSH-ir cells were observed in the pars intermedia region. The widespread distribution of α-MSH-immunoreactivity throughout the brain and the pituitary gland suggests a role for α-MSH peptide in regulation of several neuroendocrine and sensorimotor functions as well as darkening of pigmentation in the tilapia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2021.102128DOI Listing
June 2021

ARTSENS Pen-portable easy-to-use device for carotid stiffness measurement: technology validation and clinical-utility assessment.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 02 24;6(2):025013. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Healthcare Technology Innovation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Taramani, Chennai, Tamil Nadu-600 113, India.

Objective: The conventional medical imaging modalities used for arterial stiffness measurement are non-scalable and unviable for field-level vascular screening. The need for an affordable, easy-to-operate automated non-invasive technologies remains unmet. To address this need, we present a portable image-free ultrasound device-ARTSENS Pen, that uses a single-element ultrasound transducer for carotid stiffness evaluation.

Approach: The performance of the device was clinically validated on a cohort of 523 subjects. A clinical-grade B-mode ultrasound imaging system (ALOKA eTracking) was used as the reference. Carotid stiffness measurements were taken using the ARTSENS Pen in sitting posture emulating field scenarios.

Main Results: A statistically significant correlation (r > 0.80, p < 0.0001) with a non-significant bias was observed between the measurements obtained from the two devices. The ARTSENS Pen device could perform highly repeatable measurements (with variation smaller than 10%) on a relatively larger percentage of the population when compared to the ALOKA system. The study results also revealed the sensitivity of ARTSENS Pen to detect changes in arterial stiffness with age.

Significance: The easy-to-use technology and the automated algorithms of the ARTSENS Pen make it suitable for cardiovascular risk assessment in resource-constrained settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2057-1976/ab74ffDOI Listing
February 2020

Introduction Climate Change and the Legal, Ethical, and Health Issues Facing Healthcare and Public Health Systems.

J Law Med Ethics 2020 12;48(4):636-642

Chandra Ganesh, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Health Sciences at Cal State East Bay in Hayward, CA. Michael Schmeltz, M.S., Dr.P.H., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Sciences at Cal State East Bay. Jason Smith, J.D., is an Associate Professor of Health Sciences and Chair of the Department of Health Sciences at Cal State East Bay in Hayward, CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110520979370DOI Listing
December 2020

The stress - Reproductive axis in fish: The involvement of functional neuroanatomical systems in the brain.

Authors:
C B Ganesh

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Mar 3;112:101904. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580 003, India. Electronic address:

The neuroendocrine-stress axis of nonmammalian species is evolutionarily conserved, which makes them useful to serve as important model systems for elucidating the function of the vertebrate stress response. The involvement of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones in regulation of stress and reproduction is well described in different vertebrates. However, the stress response is a complex process, which appears to be controlled by a number of neurochemicals in association with hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis or independent of HPI axis in fish. In recent years, the participation of neurohormones other than HPI axis in regulation of stress and reproduction is gaining more attention. This review mainly focuses on the involvement of functional neuroanatomical systems such as the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and opioid peptides in regulation of the stress-reproductive axis in fish. Occurrences of DA and opioid peptides like β-endorphin, enkephalins, dynorphin, and endomorphins have been demonstrated in fish brain, and diverse roles such as pain modulation, social behaviour and reproduction are implicated for these hormones. Neuroanatomical studies using retrograde tracing, immunohistochemical staining and lesion methods have demonstrated that the neurons originating in the preoptic region and the nucleus lateralis tuberis directly innervate the pituitary gland and, therefore, the hypophysiotrophic role of these hormones. In addition, heightened synthetic and secretory activity of the opioidergic and the dopaminergic neurons in hypothalamic areas of the brain during stress exposure suggest potentially intricate relationship with the stress-reproductive axis in fish. Current evidence in early vertebrates like fish provides a novel insight into the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms as additional pathways along the stress-reproductive axis that seem to be conserved during the course of evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2020.101904DOI Listing
March 2021